(x) Community-level strategies, including collective mobilisations

Note: For general guides to activism and social change work, see here. For materials on feminist activism and advocacy, see here.


DeGue, S, Holt M.K, Massetti G.M, Matjasko J.L, Tharp A.T, Valle L.A. (2012). Looking Ahead Toward Community-Level Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence. Journal of Women’s Health, 21(1): 1-3.

DeGue, Sarah, Tracy N. Hipp, and Jeffrey H. Herbst. (2016). Community-level approaches to prevent sexual violence. In Sexual Violence, Eds. Jeglic, E. L., & Calkins, C. (Eds.), pp. 161-179. Springer, Cham.

Flood, Michael. (2018). Mobilising Men. Chapter 8 in Engaging Men and Boys in Violence Prevention. Palgrave Macmillan.URL: https://xyonline.net/content/new-book-engaging-men-and-boys-violence-prevention.

Fulu, E., A. Kerr-Wilson, and J. Lang (2014). What works to prevent violence against women and girls? Evidence Review of interventions to prevent violence against women and girls. Pretoria, South Africa: Medical Research Council. (See pp. 7-9)

Kerr-Wilson, A.; Gibbs, A.; McAslan Fraser E.; Ramsoomar, L.; Parke, A.; Khuwaja, HMA.; and Rachel Jewkes. (2020). A rigorous global evidence review of interventions to prevent violence against women and girls. Pretoria, South Africa: What Works to prevent violence among women and girls global Programme. (See pp. 28-30)

Lowe, H., Brown, L., Ahmad, A., Daruwalla, N., Gram, L., Osrin, D., . . . Mannell, J. (2022). Mechanisms for community prevention of violence against women in low- and middle-income countries: A realist approach to a comparative analysis of qualitative data. Social Science & Medicine, 305, 115064. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.115064

Mannell, J., & Dadswell, A. (2017). Preventing intimate partner violence: Towards a framework for supporting effective community mobilisation. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27(3), 196-211.

Michau, Lori. (2007). Approaching old problems in new ways: Community mobilization as a primary prevention strategy to combat violence against women. Gender and Development, 15(1), 95-109.


Guides and handbooks

Alexander-Scott, M., Bell, E., & Holden, J. (2016). Shifting social norms to tackle violence against women and girls (VAWG). London: VAWG Helpdesk, DFID.

Greig, Alan, with Jerker Edström. (2012). Mobilising Men in Practice: Challenging sexual and gender-based violence in institutional settings. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton: IDS.

HealthWest Partnership Victoria. (2020). Working Together with Men: How to create male allies for gender equity in your community. Melbourne: HealthWest Partnership Victoria.

Kim, M. (2005). The community engagement continuum: Outreach, mobilization, organizing and accountability to address violence against women in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities. Asian and Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence.

Michau, Lori, and Dipak Naker. (2003). Mobilising Communities to Prevent Domestic Violence: A Resource Guide for Organisations in East and Southern Africa. Kampala, Uganda: Raising Voices.

Seedat, M., Suffla, S., & Ward, C. (2016). Community-engaged violence prevention: Approaches and principles. Oxford Textbook of Violence Prevention: Epidemiology, Evidence, and Policy, 245-252.

Stern. E. (2021). Learning from practice: Community mobilization to prevent violence against women and girls. New York: UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women.

Suubi, T. (2022). Community activism toolkit to prevent violence against children: Implementing, inspiring, and strengthening community activism to prevent violence against children. Raising Voices. https://raisingvoices.org/resources/community-activism-toolkit-to-prevent-violence-against-children/

Townsend, S. M. (2017). Innovations in community-level prevention. Harrisburg, PA: National Sexual Violence Resource Center.


Further works

Abramsky, T., Devries, K. M., Michau, L., Nakuti, J., Musuya, T., Kyegombe, N., & Watts, C. (2016). The impact of SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention, on women’s experiences of intimate partner violence: secondary findings from a cluster randomised trial in Kampala, Uganda. J Epidemiol Community Health, 70(8), 818-825.

Abramsky, T., Devries, K., Kiss, L., Nakuti, J., Kyegombe, N., Starmann, E., Cundill, B., Francisco, L., Kaye, D., Musuya, T., Michau, M., & Watts, C. (2014). Findings from the SASA! Study: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda. BMC Medicine, 12(1), 122.

Addo-Lartey, A. A., Ogum Alangea, D., Sikweyiya, Y., Chirwa, E. D., Coker-Appiah, D., Jewkes, R., & Adanu, R. M. (2019). Rural response system to prevent violence against women: methodology for a community randomised controlled trial in the central region of Ghana. Global health action, 12(1), 1612604.

Alaggia, R., & Wang, S. (2020). “I never told anyone until the# metoo movement”: What can we learn from sexual abuse and sexual assault disclosures made through social media? Child Abuse & Neglect, 103, 104312.

Alvinius, A., & Holmberg, A. (2019). Silence‐breaking butterfly effect: Resistance towards the military within# MeToo. Gender, Work & Organization, 26(9), 1255-1270.

Askanius, T., & Hartley, J. M. (2019). Framing Gender Justice: A comparative analysis of the media coverage of# metoo in Denmark and Sweden. Nordicom Review, 40(2), 19-36.

Backer, T. E., & Guerra, N. G. (2011). Mobilizing communities to implement evidence-based practices in youth violence prevention: The state of the art. American Journal of Community Psychology, 48(1-2), 31-42.

Banyard, V. L., Edwards, K. M., Rizzo, A. J., Segura-Montagut, A., Greenberg, P., & Kearns, M. C. (2022). Mixed Methods Community-Engaged Evaluation: Integrating Interventionist and Action Research Frameworks to Understand a Community-Building Violence Prevention Program. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 0(0), 15586898221108013. doi:10.1177/15586898221108013

Banyard, V., Greenberg, P., Edwards, K., Mitchell, K. J., & Jones, L. (2021). Describing youth as actionists for peer sexual violence prevention: correlates of opportunity to act. Journal of Gender-Based Violence.

Bush, D.M. (1992). Women’s movements and state policy reform aimed at domestic violence against women: A comparison of the consequences of movement mobilization in the U.S. and India. Gender & Society, 6(4): 587-608.

Caputi, T. L., Nobles, A. L., & Ayers, J. W. (2019). Internet searches for sexual harassment and assault, reporting, and training since the# MeToo movement. JAMA Internal Medicine, 179(2), 258-259.

Chatterji, S., Stern, E., Dunkle, K., & Heise, L. (2020). Community activism as a strategy to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural Rwanda: Results of a community randomised trial. Journal of Global Health, 10(1).

Clair, R. P., Brown, N. E., Dougherty, D. S., Delemeester, H. K., Geist-Martin, P., Gorden, W. I., Sorg, T., & Turner, P. K. (2019). #MeToo, sexual harassment: an article, a forum, and a dream for the future. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 47(2), 111-129. https://doi.org/10.1080/00909882.2019.1567142

Clarke, J. A. (2019). The Rules of# MeToo. U. Chi. Legal F., 37.

Coram, V., Louth, J. and Goodwin-Smith, I. (2021) NO MORE: Developing a community mobilisation framework for family violence prevention. University of South Australia, Adelaide.

Corcione, D. (2018). The Shitty Media Men List is the# MeToo of toxic newsrooms: a failure to protect non-male freelance workers. Feminist Media Studies, 18(3), 500-502.

Das, A., and S.K. Singh. (2014) Changing Men: Challenging Stereotypes, Reflections on Working with Men on Gender Issues in India. IDS Bulletin, 45.1: 69–79.

De Benedictis, S., Orgad, S., & Rottenberg, C. (2019). # MeToo, popular feminism and the news: A content analysis of UK newspaper coverage. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 22(5-6), 718-738.

Edström, J., T. Shahrokh, and S.K. Singh. (2015) The New ‘MASVAW Men’: Strategies, Dynamics and Deepening Engagements. A Case Study of a Networked Approach to Challenging Patriarchy Across Institutions in Uttar Pradesh. Evidence Report 143, Brighton: IDS.

Edström, Jerker, Chimaraoke Izugbara, Zahrah Nesbitt-Ahmed and Phil E. Otieno, with Mia Granvik and Sarah Matindi. (2014). Men in Collective Action on SGBV in Kenya: A Case Study. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton: IDS.

Flood, M. (2014). Men’s Anti-violence Activism and the Construction of Gender-equitable Masculinities. In Alternative Masculinities for a Changing World, Eds. Àngels Carabí and Jose Armengol, Palgrave (pp. 35-50).

Flood, M. (2019). Men and# Metoo: Mapping Men’s responses to anti-violence advocacy. In # MeToo and the Politics of Social Change (pp. 285-300), Eds. B. Fileborn and R. Loney-Howes. Springer.

Ghadery, F. (2019). # Metoo—has the ‘sisterhood’finally become global or just another product of neoliberal feminism? Transnational Legal Theory, 10(2), 252-274.

Gieseler, C. (2019). The Voices of# MeToo: From grassroots activism to a viral roar. Rowman & Littlefield.

Glenn, L., Fidler, L., O’Connor, M., Haviland, M., Fry, D., Pollak, T., & Frye, V. (2018). Retrospective Evaluation of Project Envision: A Community Mobilization Pilot Program to Prevent Sexual Violence in New York City. Evaluation and Program Planning, 66, 165-173.

Gram, L., Paradkar, S., Osrin, D., Daruwalla, N., & Cislaghi, B. (2023). ‘Our courage has grown’: a grounded theory study of enablers and barriers to community action to address violence against women in urban India. BMJ Global Health, 8(1), e011304.

Greene, L. S., Inniss, L. B., Crawford, B. J., Baradaran, M., Ben-Asher, N., Capers, I. B., . . . Lindsay, K. (2019). Talking About Black Lives Matter and# MeToo. Wis. JL Gender, & Soc’y, 34, 109.

Gronert, N. M. (2019). Law, campus policy, social movements, and sexual violence: Where do we stand in the# MeToo movement? Sociology Compass, 13(6), e12694.

Hatcher, A. M., McBride, R.-S., Rebombo, D., Munshi, S., Khumalo, M., & Christofides, N. (2020). Process evaluation of a community mobilization intervention for preventing men’s partner violence use in peri-urban South Africa. Evaluation and Program Planning, 78, 101727.

Hebert, L. C. (2018). Is MeToo Only a Social Movement Or a Legal Movement Too. Emp. Rts. & Emp. Pol’y J., 22, 321.

Honda, T., Homan, S., Leung, L., Bennett, A., Fulu, E., & Fisher, J. (2022). Community mobilisation in the framework of supportive social environment to prevent family violence in Solomon Islands. World Development, 152, 105799. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2021.105799

Hsu, V. J. (2019). (Trans) forming# MeToo: Toward a Networked Response to Gender Violence. Women’s studies in communication, 42(3), 269-286.

Huseth-Zosel, A. L., Larson, M., & Nelson, K. (2021). Health effects of the #metoo movement by gender: Public health implications of a social movement. Women’s Studies International Forum, 88, 102523. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2021.102523

Jackson, S., Bailey, M., & Foucault Welles, B. (2019). Women tweet on violence: from# YesAllWomen to# MeToo. Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology(15).

Jewkes, Rachel, Erin Stern, and Leane Ramsoomar. (2019). Community activism approaches to shift harmful gender attitudes, roles and social norms: Evidence Review. September 2019.

Kim-Ju, G., Mark, G. Y., Cohen, R., Garcia-Santiago, O., & Nguyen, P. (2008). Community mobilization and its application to youth violence prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(3), S5-S12.

Kim, M. E. (2021). Shifting the Lens: An Implementation Study of a Community-Based and Social Network Intervention to Gender-Based Violence. Violence Against Women, 27(2), 222-254. doi:10.1177/1077801219889176

Klasen, S. (2020). From ‘MeToo’ to Boko Haram: A survey of levels and trends of gender inequality in the world. World Development, 128, 104862.

Kyegombe, N., Starmann, E., Devries, K. M., Michau, L., Nakuti, J., Musuya, T., . . . Heise, L. (2014). ‘SASA! is the medicine that treats violence’. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda. Global Health Action, 7(1), 25082.

Kyegombe, N., Starmann, E., Devries, K. M., Michau, L., Nakuti, J., Musuya, T., ... & Heise, L. (2014). ‘SASA! is the medicine that treats violence’. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda. Global Health Action, 7.

LeBlanc, Miguel. (2009). Men’s Participation in Violence Prevention Efforts: A Qualitative Study of Men’s Involvement in Violence Against Women Initiatives in New Brunswick. Ottawa, Ontario: Master of Social Work Thesis, School of Social Work, Carleton University, April.

Lees, S., Marchant, M., Selestine, V., Mshana, G., Kapiga, S., & Harvey, S. (2020). The transformative effects of a participatory social empowerment intervention in the MAISHA intimate partner violence trial in Tanzania. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 1-16. doi:10.1080/13691058.2020.1779347

Leopold, J., Lambert, J. R., Ogunyomi, I. O., & Bell, M. P. (2019). The hashtag heard round the world: how# MeToo did what laws did not. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal.

Leung, R., & Williams, R. (2019). # MeToo and Intersectionality: An Examination of the# MeToo Movement Through the R. Kelly Scandal. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 43(4), 349-371.

Lin, Z., & Yang, L. (2019). Individual and collective empowerment: Women’s voices in the #MeToo movement in China. Asian Journal of Women’s Studies, 25(1), 117-131. https://doi.org/10.1080/12259276.2019.1573002

Lourenço, R. G., Fornari, L. F., Santos, D. L. A. d., & Fonseca, R. M. G. S. d. (2019). Community interventions related to intimate partner violence among adolescents: scope review. Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 72(1), 277-286.

Mack, A. N., & McCann, B. J. (2018). Critiquing state and gendered violence in the age of #MeToo. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 104(3), 329-344. https://doi.org/10.1080/00335630.2018.1479144

Macomber, Kristine Claire. (2012). Men as Allies: Mobilizing Men to End Violence Against Women. A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Sociology, Raleigh, North Carolina.

MacPhail, C., Khoza, N., Treves-Kagan, S., Selin, A., Gómez-Olivé, X., Peacock, D., Rebombo, D., Twine, R., Maman, S., & Kahn, K. (2019). Process elements contributing to community mobilization for HIV risk reduction and gender equality in rural South Africa. PLoS ONE, 14(12), e0225694.

Mendes, K., Ringrose, J., & Keller, J. (2018). # MeToo and the promise and pitfalls of challenging rape culture through digital feminist activism. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 25(2), 236-246.

Miao, T.-A., Umemoto, K., Gonda, D., & Hishinuma, E. S. (2011). Essential elements for community engagement in evidence-based youth violence prevention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 48(1-2), 120-132.

Minckas, N., Shannon, G., & Mannell, J. (2020). The role of participation and community mobilisation in preventing violence against women and girls: a programme review and critique. Global Health Action, 13(1), 1775061. doi:10.1080/16549716.2020.1775061

Modrek, S., & Chakalov, B. (2019). The #MeToo movement in the United States: text analysis of early twitter conversations. Journal of medical Internet research, 21(9), e13837.

Moitra, A., Hassan, N., Mandal, M. K., Bhuiyan, M., & Ahmed, S. I. (2020). Understanding the Challenges for Bangladeshi Women to Participate in #MeToo Movement. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 4(GROUP), 1-25.

Murphy, M. (2019). Introduction to “#MeToo Movement”. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 31(2-3), 63-65. https://doi.org/10.1080/08952833.2019.1637088

Nigro, G., Ross, E., Binns, T., & Kurtz, C. (2019). Apologies in the# MeToo moment. Psychology of Popular Media Culture.

Nodeland, B., & Craig, J. (2019). Perceptions of Legal and Extralegal Punishments for Sexual Harassment in the ‘MeToo’Era. Deviant Behavior, 1-12.

Ogum Alangea, D., Addo-Lartey, A. A., Chirwa, E. D., Sikweyiya, Y., Coker-Appiah, D., Jewkes, R., & Adanu, R. M. (2020). Evaluation of the rural response system intervention to prevent violence against women: findings from a community-randomised controlled trial in the Central Region of Ghana. Global health action, 13(1).

Onwuachi-Willig, A. (2018). What about# UsToo: The invisibility of race in the# MeToo movement. Yale LJF, 128, 105.

Ozkazanc‐Pan, B. (2019). On agency and empowerment in a# MeToo world. Gender, Work & Organization, 26(8), 1212-1220.

Peleg-Koriat, I., & Klar-Chalamish, C. (2020). The# MeToo movement and restorative justice: exploring the views of the public. Contemporary Justice Review, 1-22.

Pellegrini, A. (2018). # metoo: Before and After. Studies in Gender and Sexuality, 19(4), 262-264.

Pettifor, A., Lippman, S. A., Selin, A. M., Peacock, D., Gottert, A., Maman, S., ... & MacPhail, C. (2015). A cluster randomized-controlled trial of a community mobilization intervention to change gender norms and reduce HIV risk in rural South Africa: study design and intervention. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 752.

Proweller, A., Catlett, B. S., & Crabtree-Nelson, S. (2021). Feminist activism and YPAR: privileged girls interrupt rape culture. Violence Against Women, 1077801220978811.

Rentschler, C. A. (2018). # MeToo and student activism against sexual violence. Communication Culture & Critique, 11(3), 503-507.

Rhode, D. L. (2019). # MeToo: Why Now: What Next. Duke LJ, 69, 377.

Rotenberg, C., & Cotter, A. (2018). Police-reported sexual assaults in Canada before and after# MeToo, 2016 and 2017. Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 1-27.

Rottenberg, C. (2019). # MeToo and the prospects of political change. Soundings, 71(71), 40-49.

Save The Children Sweden and MASVAW. (2008). MASVAW: Men’s Action for Stopping Violence Against Women – Documentation of a Campaign
to end Violence against Women and Girls and to Promote Gender Equality in India. Stockholm: Save The Children Sweden.

Seedat, M., Suffla, S., & Ward, C. (2016). Community-engaged violence prevention: Approaches and principles. Oxford Textbook of Violence Prevention: Epidemiology, Evidence, and Policy, 245-252.

Shahrokh, T. with Edström, J.; Kumar, M. and Singh, S.K. (2015) MASVAW Movement Mapping Report: Movement Mapping and Critical Reflection with Activists of the Men’s Action to Stop Violence Against Women (MASVAW) Campaign, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Evidence Report 107, Brighton: IDS.

Starkey, J. C., Koerber, A., Sternadori, M., & Pitchford, B. (2019). # MeToo Goes Global: Media Framing of Silence Breakers in Four National Settings. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 43(4), 437-461.

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