n) Male-male violence

Note: This section is focused on forms of male/male violence other than sexual assault. Also see the section above, “When Men are Subject to Violence” and the section “Men, Prisons, Criminology, the Law”.


Anderson, Kjerstin. (2008). Talking Violence, Constructing Identity: Young men in institutional care. Linkoping University, Sweden (PhD thesis).

Anderson, T., Daly, K., & Rapp, L. (2009). Clubbing masculinities and crime: A qualitative study of Philadelphia nightclub scenes. Feminist Criminology, 4(4), 302-332.

Archer, John. (1994). Violence Between Men. Chapter 7 in John Archer, (ed.). Male Violence. London & New York: Routledge.

Bairner, A. (1999). Soccer, Masculinity, and Violence in Northern Ireland: Between Hooliganism and Terrorism. Men and Masculinities, 1(3): 284-301.

Baron, Stephen W., Leslie W. Kennedy, and David R. Forde. (2001). Male street youths’ conflict: the role of background, subcultural, and situational factors. Justice Quarterly, December, Vol. 18, Iss. 4.

Benson, David, and John Archer. (2002). An ethnographic study of sources of conflict between young men in the context of the night out. Psychology, Evolution & Gender, Volume 4, Number 1, April, pp. 3-30.

Bernburg, J. G., & Thorlindsson, T. (2005). Violent values, conduct norms, and youth aggression: A multilevel study in Iceland. The Sociological Quarterly, 46(3), 457-478.

British Journal of Criminology. (1996). Special Issue: Masculinities, Social Relations and Crime. 36(3).

Brownlow, A. (2005). A geography of men’s fear. Geoforum, 36(5): 581-592.

Canaan, Joyce E. (1991). Is ‘doing nothing’ just boys’ play?: Integrating feminist and cultural studies perspectives on working-class young men’s masculinity. In Sarah Franklin, Celia Lury, and Jackie Stacey, (eds.). Off-Centre: Feminism and Cultural Studies. London: HarperCollins.

Canaan, Joyce E. (1996). ‘One thing leads to another’: Drinking, fighting and working-class masculinities. In Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin. (ed.). Understanding Masculinities: Social Relations and Cultural Arenas. Buckingham & Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Carrington, K., A. McIntosh, and J. Scott. (2010). Globalization, Frontier Masculinities and Violence: Booze, Blokes and Brawls. Br J Criminol 50(3): 393-413.

Cobbina, J. E., Like-Haislip, T. Z., & Miller, J. (2010). Gang Fights versus Cat Fights: Urban Young Men’s Gendered Narratives of Violence. Deviant Behavior, 31(7), 596-624.

Copes, H., Hochstetler, A., & Forsyth, C. (2013). Peaceful warriors: codes for violence among adult male bar fighters. Criminology, 51, 761–794.

Cruz, J. Michael. (2006). Conferring Meaning Onto Alcohol Related Violence: An Analysis of Alcohol Use and Gender in a Sample of College Youth. Journal of Men’s Studies. with Robert L. Peralta. 14:109-125.

Dumas, T. M., Graham, K., Maxwell-Smith, M. A., & Wells, S. (2014). Being cool is risky business: Young men’s within-peer-group status, heavy alcohol consumption and aggression in bars. Addiction Research & Theory, (0), 1-10.

Dundes, Alan, with Lauren Dundes. (2002). The elephant walk and other amazing hazing: Male fraternity initiation through infantilization and feminization. In Bloody Mary in the mirror: Essays in psychoanalytic folkloristics, by Alan Dundes. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.

Dyck, Noel. (1980). Booze, Barrooms and Scrapping: Masculinity and Violence in a Western Canadian Town. Canadian Journal of Anthropology 1(2), Winter: 191-198.

Einarsen, S., and B.I. Raknes. (1997). Harassment in the workplace and the victimization of men. Violence and Victims, Volume 12 Issue 3, Fall, pp. 247-263.

Fleming, P.J., Gruskin, S., Rojo, F., & Dworkin, S.L. (2015). Men’s violence against women and men are inter-related: Recommendations for simultaneous intervention. Social Sciences & Medicine, 146: 249-256.

Flowers, Lamont A. (2005). Black Haze: Violence, Sacrifice, and Manhood in Black Greek-Letter Fraternities. Journal of College Student Development, May/June, Vol. 46, Iss. 3.

Flood, M. (2007). Violence, Men As Victims Of. The International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities, Ed. M. Flood, J.K. Gardiner, B. Pease, and K. Pringle. London & New York: Taylor & Francis (pp. 616-17). (Available here: http://www.xyonline.net/content/when-men-are-victims-violence.)

Flynn, A., Halsey, M., & Lee, M. (2016). Emblematic Violence and Aetiological Cul-De-Sacs: On the Discourse of ‘One-punch’(Non) Fatalities. British Journal of Criminology, 56(1), 179-195.

Forsyth, A. J., & Lennox, J. C. (2010). Gender differences in the choreography of alcohol-related violence: An observational study of aggression within licensed premises. Journal of Substance Use, 15(2), 75-88.

Gallant, T.W. (2000). Honor, masculinity, and ritual knife fighting in nineteenth-century Greece. American Historical Review. 105(2):359-382, Apr.

Graham, K., & Wells, S. (2003). Somebody’s gonna get their head kicked in tonight: aggression among young males in bars—a question of values? British Journal of Criminology, 43, 546–566.

Graham, K., S. Bernards, et al. (2011). Behavioural indicators of motives for barroom aggression: Implications for preventing bar violence. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5): 554-563.

Graham, Kathryn, and Ross Homel. (2008). Raising the Bar: Preventing aggression in and around bars, pubs and clubs. Cullompton: Willan.

Graham, Kathryn, and Samantha Wells. (2001). The Two Worlds of Aggression for Men and Women. Sex Roles, 45(9/10), November.

Hagedorn, J. M. (2008). A World of Gangs: Armed Young Men and Gangsta Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Hemphill, Dennis (ed). (1998). All Part of the Game: Violence and Australian Sport.
Martin Crotty: ‘There’s a Tumult in the Distance and a War-Song in the Air: Violence and Sport in the Australian Public School of the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century.’
Brett Hutchins: ‘Sporting Violence: History, Theory, Context and Figurations.’
Roy Hay: ‘A New Look at Soccer Violence.’
Roy Hay and Ian Warren: ‘Order and Disorder at Sporting Venues.’
Ian Warren: ‘Violence, Sport and the Law: A Critical Discussion.’
Michael Burke: ‘Is Boxing Violent? Let’s Ask Some Boxers.’
Baydon Beddoe: ‘In the Fight: Phenomenology of a Pugilist.’
Margaret Lindley: ‘Her Beauty and Her Terror: Australian Football and the Community.’
Dennis Hemphill: ‘It’s All Part of Whose Game? A Violence and Sport Commentary.’
Rob Hess: ‘Violence and Sport: Selected Bibliography’.

Hennessy, D. A., and D. L. Wiesenthal. (2001). Gender, driver aggression, and driver violence: An applied evaluation. Sex Roles, 44(11/12): 661.

Hobbs, D., Lister, S., Hadfield, P., Winslow, S., & Hall, S. (2000). Receiving shadows: governance and liminality in the nighttime economy. British Journal of Sociology, 51, 701–717.

Hochstetler, A., Copes, H., & Williams, P. (2010). That’s not who I am: how offenders commit violent acts and reject authentically violent selves. Justice Quarterly, 27, 492–516.

Homel, R., S. Tomsen, and J. Thommeny. (1991) The problem of violence on licensed premises: The Sydney study. In Stockwell, T., Lang, E. & Rydon, P. (eds.) The Licensed Drinking Environment: Current Research in Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne, National Centre for Research into the Prevention of Drug Abuse, pp 33-40.

Horton, P. (2019). The bullied boy: masculinity, embodiment, and the gendered social-ecology of Vietnamese school bullying. Gender and Education, 31(3), 394-407. doi:10.1080/09540253.2018.1458076

Jackson-Jacobs, C. (2013). Constructing physical fights: an interactionist analysis of violence among affluent, suburban youth. Qualitative Sociology, 36, 23–52.

Johnson, Jay, and Margery Holman, (eds.). (2004). Making the Team: Inside the sordid world of sports initiations and hazing. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press.
Introduction: A Brief History of Hazing.
1. Hazing - A Story.
2. Hazing - What the Law Says.
3. “No Mercy Shown Nor Asked” - Toughness Test or Torture? Hazing in Military Combat Units and its “Collateral Damage”.
4. A Search for a Theoretical Understanding of Hazing Practices in Athletics.
5. Hazing, Masculinity, and Collision Sports: (Un)Becoming Heroes.
6. What’s Sex Got to Do With It?
7. Gender Differences in Coaches’ Perceptions of Hazing in Intercollegiate Athletics.
8. How Sportswriters Contribute to a Hazing Culture in Athletics.
9. In Their Own Words: Athletic Administrators, Coaches, and Athletes at Two Universities Discuss Hazing Policy Initiatives
10. Changing the Initiation Ceremony.

Jones, Adam. (2009). Gender Inclusive: Essays on violence, men, and feminist international relations. London and New York: Routledge.
Part I: The Home Front
1. The Globe and Males: The Other Side of Gender Bias in Canada’s National Newspaper
2. Of Rights and Men: Toward a Minoritarian Framing of Male Experience
Part II: Absent Subjects
3. Gender and Ethnic Conflict in Ex-Yugoslavia
4. Toward an International Politics of Gender
5. Effacing the Male: Gender, Misrepresentation, and Exclusion in the Kosovo War
6. Feminisms, Gender Analysis and Mass Violence: A Historiography
7. Worlding Men
Part III: Gendering Genocide
8. Pity the Innocent Men
9. The Murdered Men of Ciudad Juárez
10. Humiliation and masculine Crisis in Iraq
11. Gendercide and Genocide
12. Gender and Genocide in Rwanda
13. Problems of Gendercide
14. Why Gendercide? Why Root-and-Branch?
15. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention: Incorporating the Gender Variable
16. Gendercidal Institutions Against Women and Girls
17. Straight as a Rule: Heteronormativity, Gendercide, and the Non-Combatant Male

Jones, Ricky L. (2000). The historical significance of sacrificial ritual: Understanding violence in the modern Black fraternity pledge process. Western Journal of Black Studies, 24(2), pp. 112-124.

Jones, Ricky L. (2004). Black Haze: Violence, sacrifice, and manhood in black Greek-letter fraternities. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Kavanaugh, P. R. (2015). The social organization of masculine violence in nighttime leisure scenes. Criminal Justice Studies, 28(3), 239-256.

Kennedy-Kollar, D., & Charles, C. (2013). Hegemonic masculinity and mass murderers in the United States. Southwest Journal of Criminal Justice, 8(2).

Kenway, Jane, Lindsay Fitzclarence, and Lindsay Hasluck. (2000). Toxic shock: Understanding violence against young males in the workplace. Journal of Men’s Studies, 8(2), Winter.

Klasios, J. (2019). Aggression among men: An integrated evolutionary explanation. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 47, 29-45. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2019.02.015

Lindsay, J. (2012). The gendered trouble with alcohol: Young people managing alcohol related violence. International Journal of Drug Policy, 23(3), 236-241.

Linos, N. (2009). Rethinking gender-based violence during war: Is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing?. Social Science & Medicine, 68(8), 1548-1551.

MacLean, S., Demant, J., & Room, R. (2019). Who or what do young adults hold responsible for men’s drunken violence? International Journal of Drug Policy. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.07.015

Maghan, J. (1999). Dangerous inmates: Maximum security incarceration in the state prison systems of the United States. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 4(1): 1-12.

McMurran, M., Hoyte, H., & Jinks, M. (2012). Triggers for alcoholrelated violence in young male offenders. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 17(2), 307-321.

McMurran, M., Jinks, M., Howells, K., & Howard, R. C. (2010). Alcoholrelated violence defined by ultimate goals: a qualitative analysis of the features of three different types of violence by intoxicated young male offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 36(1), 67-79.

Miedema, Stephanie S., Kathryn M. Yount, Esnat Chirwa, Kristin Dunkle, & Emma Fulu. (2017). Integrating male sexual diversity into violence prevention efforts with men and boys: evidence from the Asia-Pacific Region, Culture, Health & Sexuality, 19(2): 208-224.

Miller, K. E., M. J. Melnick, M. P. Farrell, D. F. Sabo, and G. M. Barnes. (2006). Jocks, Gender, Binge Drinking, and Adolescent Violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(1): 105-120.

Miller, P, Pennay, A, Droste, N, Jenkinson, R, Quinn, B, Chikritzhs, T et al. (2014). Patron offending and intoxication in night-time entertainment districts (POINTED). In E Manton, R Room, C Giorgi & M Thorn (eds), Stemming the Tide of Alcohol: Liquor licensing and the public interest, FARE, Melbourne, pp. 211-223.

Moore, D., Fraser, S., Keane, H., Seear, K., & Valentine, K. (2017). Missing Masculinities: Gendering Practices in Australian Alcohol Research and Policy. Australian Feminist Studies, 32(93), 309-324.

Morgan, A. & McAtamney, M. (2009) Key issues in alcohol-related violence, Research in Practice, Summary Paper, No. 4, Australian Institute of Criminology, ACT.

Mullins, Christopher W., Richard Wright, and Bruce A. Jacobs. (2004). Gender, Streetlife and Criminal Retaliation. Criminology, Nov., Vol. 42, Iss. 4.

Newburn, Tim, and Elizabeth A. Stanko. (1994). When men are victims: The failure of victimology. In Just Boys Doing Business? Men, Masculinities and Crime. London: Routledge.

Nuwer, Frank. (1990). Broken Pledges: The deadly rite of hazing. Atlanta, GA: Longstreet Press.

Nuwer, Frank. (1999). Wrongs of Passage: Fraternities, sororities, hazing, and binge drinking. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Nuwer, Frank. (2000). High School Hazing: When rites become wrongs. New York: Franklin Watts.

Nuwer, Hank. (ed.) (2004). The Hazing Reader: Examining Rites Gone Wrong in Fraternities, Professional & Amateur Athletics, High Schools and the Military. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Introduction / Hank Nuwer: Exterminating the Frat Rats.
A Chronology of Hazing Events.
One: Understanding Fraternity Hazing / Stephen Sweet.
Two: Males Courting Males / Lionel Tiger.
Three: Groupthink / Irving L. Janis.
Four: Cult-Like Hazing, Part One and Part Two / Hank Nuwer.
Five: An excerpt from: Alcohol and the chosen few: Organizational reproduction in an addictive system (exact title under discussion now / editor and author) / James C. Arnold.
Six: Pledging and Hazing in African-American Fraternities and Sororities / D. Jason DeSousa, Michael V.W. Gordon, & Walter Kimbrough.
Seven: Examining Violence in Black Fraternity Pledging / Ricky L. Jones.
Eight: Troubled Times in a Fraternity System / Jonathan R. Farr.
Nine: A Sorority Executive’s Perspective on Hazing.
Ten: Military Hazing / Hank Nuwer.
Eleven: Rites of Passage and Group Bonding in the Canadian Airborne / Donna Winslow.
Twelve: Traumatic Injuries Caused / Hazing / Michelle A. Finkel, M.D.
Thirteen: A Carolina Soccer Initiation “Party” / Gregory Danielson [with an introduction / the editor].
Fourteen: Hazing and Sports and the Law / R. Brian Crow and Scott R. Rosner.
Fifteen: Institutional Liability and Hazing—Mainly Athletics-Related / R. Brian Crow and Scott R. Rosner.
Sixteen: Transforming a Hazing Culture / Elizabeth J. Allan and Susan V. Iverson.
Seventeen: Hazing and Gender / Elizabeth J. Allan.

Palasinski, M. and Riggs, D.W. (2012). Young white British men and knife-carrying in public: Discourses of masculinity, protection and vulnerability. Critical Criminology, 20(4) pp. 463-476.

Pilgrim, J. L., Gerostamoulos, D., & Drummer, O. H. (2014). “King hit” fatalities in Australia, 2000–2012: The role of alcohol and other drugs. Drug and alcohol dependence, 135, 119-132.

Pinhey, T.K., M.P. Perez, and R.L. Workman. (2002). The Fighting Behavior of Asian-Pacific Males in Guam: do high School Extracurricular Activities Matter? Social Science Quarterly, 83(4): 1086-1096.

Plummer, D., and S. Geofroy. (2010). When bad is cool: violence and crime as rites of passage to manhood. Caribbean Review of Gender Studies, 4 (http: //www2.sta.uwi.edu/crgs/february2010/journals/PlummerGeofory.pdf).

Polk, Kenneth. (1994). When Men Kill: Scenarios of Masculine Violence. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.

Polk, Kenneth. (1995). Masculine scenarios of violence: The case of homicide. Journal of Australian Studies, v.43: 144-153.

Polk, Kenneth. (1996). Masculinity, honour, and confrontational homicide. Chapter 11 in Daly, Kathleen and Maher, Lisa. (eds.). Criminology at the Crossroads: Feminist Readings in Crime and Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Polk, Kenneth. (1999). Males and Honor Contest Violence. Homicide Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, February, pp. 6-29.

Ratele, K., Suffla, S., Lazarus, S. and Van Niekerk, A. (2010). Towards the Development of a Responsive, Social Science-informed, Critical Public Health Framework on Male Interpersonal Violence. Social Change 40, no. 4: 415–438.

Ravn, S. (2017) “I would never start a fight but …”: Young masculinities, perceptions of violence, and symbolic boundary work in focus groups. Men and Masculinities. Epub ahead of print 15 March 2017. DOI: 10.1177/1097184X17696194.

Reilly, Jacqueline, Orla T. Muldoon, and Clare Byrne. (2004). Young Men as Victims and Perpetrators of Violence in Northern Ireland: A Qualitative Analysis. Journal of Social Issues, 60(3): 469-484.

Roberts, Lynne, and David Indermaur. (2005). Boys and Road Rage: Driving-Related Violence and Aggression in Western Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, Volume 38, Number 3, December, pp. 361-380.

Schissel, Bernard. (2000). Boys Against Girls: The Structural and Interpersonal Dimensions of Violent Patriarchal Culture in the Lives of Young Men. Violence Against Women, September, v 6 n 9.

Seymour, K. (2009). Real Violence? Gender and (male) violence – an Australian perspective. Probation Journal, Vol 56, No 1, pp 29-44.

Soares, Andrei S. D. (2018). The valley of forsaken youths: vulnerability, human rights and overreaction in Brazil’s anti-violence policy. International Public Policy Association; IWPP1. 41 p. [Copy available from: http://www.ippapublicpolicy.org//file/paper/5b311dd2afbd1.pdf]

Spaaij, R. (2008). Men Like Us, Boys Like Them: Violence, Masculinity, and Collective Identity in Football Hooliganism. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 32(4): 369-392.

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Stoudt, Brett G. (2006). “You’re Either In or You’re Out”: School Violence, Peer Discipline, and the (Re)Production of Hegemonic Masculinity. Men and Masculinities, Vol. 8 No. 3, January, pp. 273-287.

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Tomsen, Stephen, R. Homel, and J. Thommeny. (1990) The Causes of Public Violence: Situational and other factors in drinking-related assaults. In Chappell, D. et. al. (eds.) Australian Violence: Contemporary Perspectives. Canberra, Australian Institute of Criminology pp: 177-194.

Tomsen, Stephen. (1997). A Top Night: Social protest, masculinity and the culture of drinking violence. British Journal of Criminology, 37(1), Winter, pp. 90-102.

Tomsen, Stephen. (2005). ‘Boozers and Bouncers’: Masculine Conflict, Disengagement and the Contemporary Governance of Drinking-Related Violence and Disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, Volume 38, Number 3, December, pp. 283-297.

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Wells, S., Graham, K., & Tremblay, P. (2007). Beliefs, attitudes, and male-to-male barroom aggression: Development of a theoretical predictive model. Addiction Research & Theory, 15(6), 575-586.

Wells, S., Graham, K., & Tremblay, P. F. (2009). “Every male in there is your competition”: Young men’s perceptions regarding the role of the drinking setting in male-to-male barroom aggression. Substance Use & Misuse, 44(9-10), 1434-1462.

Wells, S., Graham, K., Tremblay, P. F., & Magyarody, N. (2011). Not just the booze talking: Trait aggression and hypermasculinity distinguish perpetrators from victims of male barroom aggression. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35(4), 613-620.

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Winlow, Simon, and Steve Hall. (2006). Violent Night: Urban Leisure and Contemporary Culture. Oxford: Berg.1: Introduction - Contemporary Youth Identities in Context.
2: Working to Live: Contemporary Youth Identities and Labour Markets.
3: Instrumentalism in Relationships, Culture and Education.
4: Young People, the Culture Industry and the Night-time Economy.
5: Alcohol, Violence and the Drudgery of Seeking Pleasure.
6: Victims’ Stories.
7: Perpetrators’ Stories.
8: Policemen’s Stories.
9: Conclusion.

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