i) Men, masculinity, war, and militarism

Note: Also see this section on “Guns, men, masculinities, and gender”. 

Adams, Michael. (1990). The Great Adventure - Male Desire and the Coming of World War I. Indiana University Press.

Adelman, R. A. (2009). Sold(i)ering Masculinity: Photographing the Coalition’s Male Soldiers. Men and Masculinities, 11(3): 259-285.

Agostino, Katerina. (1997). Masculinity, sexuality and life on board Her Majesty’s Royal Australian ships. Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 2(1), March.

Agostino, Katerina. (1998). The making of warriors: Men, identity and military culture. Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 3(2), December.

Agostino, Katerina. (2003). Men, identity and military culture. In Stephen Tomsen and Mike Donaldson. (eds.) Male Trouble: Looking at Australian Masculinities. North Melbourne, VIC: Pluto Press.

Ahlbäck, Anders. (2014). Manhood and the Making of the Military. Conscription, Military Service and Masculinity in Finland, 1917–39. Farnham: Ashgate.

Allatt, Patricia. (1983). Men and war: Status, class and the social production of masculinity. In Gamarnikow, Eva, Morgan, David, Purvis, June and Taylorson, Daphne. (eds.). The Public and the Private. London: Heinemann.

Arkin, W., and L.R. Dobrofsky. (1978). Military socialization and masculinity. Journal of Social Issues, 34(1).

Bæk, S., & Skjelsbæk, I. (2023). The Women, Peace, and Security Norms as seen by Norwegian Male Officers. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies. https://doi.org/10.18291/njwls.135624

Barrett, F. (1996). The Organizational Construction of Hegemonic Masculinity: The Case of the US Navy. Gender, Work and Organization, 3(3), pp.129-42.

Barry, Kathleen. (2010). Unmaking War Remaking Men: How Empathy Can Reshape Our Politics, Our Soldiers and Ourselves. Melbourne: Spinifex Press.

Bibbings, L. (2003). Images of Manliness: The Portrayal of Soldiers and Conscientious Objectors in the Great War. Social & Legal Studies, 12(3): 335-358.

BjarnegÅRd, E., Engvall, A., Jitpiromsri, S., & Melander, E. (2023). Armed Violence and Patriarchal Values: A Survey of Young Men in Thailand and Their Military Experiences. American Political Science Review, 117(2), 439-453. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055422000594

Bjarnegård, Elin, and Erik Melander. (2011). Disentangling Gender, Peace and Democratization: the negative effects of militarized masculinity. Journal of Gender Studies, 10(2).

Bjerre, T. Æ. (2022). Unmanned? Military Masculinities in Filmic Representations of U.S. Drone Operators. Men and Masculinities, 1097184X221139820. doi:10.1177/1097184X221139820

Blair, Dale James. (1994). The glorification of Australian masculinity and the reshaping of Australia’s great war experience. Sabretache, June, 35(2), pp. 29-34.

Borchert, Susan Danziger. (1983). Masculinity and the Vietnam War. Michigan Academician, 15(2), Winter (Also in Men’s Studies Review, 6(3)).

Bourke, Joanna. (1995). Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War. London: Reaktion Books.

Bracewell, W. (2000). Rape in Kosovo: Masculinity and Serbian Nationalism. Nations and Nationalism, Volume 6, Number 4, October, pp. 563-590.

Braudy, Leo. (2003). From Chivalry to Terrorism: War and the changing nature of masculinity. Knopf.

Brown, Melissa T. (2012). Enlisting Masculinity: The Construction of Gender in U.S. Military Recruiting Advertising during the All-Volunteer Force. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carlton, Eric. (2001). Militarism as a ‘test of manhood’. pp. 166-179; IN; Militarism: Rule Without Law. Aldershot, England & Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate.

Chisholm, A., & Tidy, J. (2017). Beyond the hegemonic in the study of militaries, masculinities, and war. Critical Military Studies, 3(2), 99-102.

Christensen, A.-D., & Rasmussen, P. (2015). NORMA: International Journal for Masculinity Studies, Special issue: War, violence and masculinities: Introduction and perspectives, 10(3-4).

Clark, J. N. (2017). Masculinity and male survivors of wartime sexual violence: a Bosnian case study. Conflict, Security & Development, 17(4), 287-311. doi:10.1080/14678802.2017.1338422

Cockburn, C., and D. Zarkov. (eds.). (2002). The Postwar Moment: Militaries, Masculinities and International Peacekeeping. Lawrence and Wishart.

Cogan, A. M., Haines, C. E., & Devore, M. D. (2021). Intersections of US Military Culture, Hegemonic Masculinity, and Health Care among Injured Male Service Members. Men and Masculinities, 24(3), 468-482. doi:10.1177/1097184x19872793

Cohn, Carol. (2000). ‘How can she claim equal rights when she doesn’t have to do as many push-ups as I do?’ The framing of men’s opposition to women’s equality in the military. Men and Masculinities, 3(2), October.

Connell, R.W. (1985). Masculinity, violence and war. In Patton, Paul and Poole, Ross. (eds.). War/Masculinity. Sydney: Intervention Publications.

Connell, R.W. (2000). Arms and the man: The question of peace. Chapter 12 in The Men and the Boys. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

Conway, D. (2008). The Masculine State in Crisis: State Response to War Resistance in Apartheid South Africa. Men and Masculinities, 10(4): 422-439.

Conway, Daniel. (2012). Masculinities, Militarisation and the End Conscription Campaign: War Resistance in Apartheid South Africa. Manchester University Press.

Critical Military Studies, Special issue: Masculinities at the Margins, 3(2), 2017;
Beyond the hegemonic in the study of militaries, masculinities, and war / Amanda Chisholm & Joanna Tidy
Re-thinking hegemonic masculinities in conflict-affected contexts / Henri Myrttinen, Lana Khattab & Jana Naujoks
Clients, contractors, and the everyday masculinities in global private security / Amanda Chisholm
Combat as a moving target: masculinities, the heroic soldier myth, and normative martial violence / Katharine M. Millar & Joanna Tidy
Unmaking militarized masculinity: veterans and the project of military-to-civilian transition / Sarah Bulmer & Maya Eichler
Problematizing military masculinity, intersectionality and male vulnerability in feminist critical military studies / Marsha Henry
What’s the problem with the concept of military masculinities? / Marysia Zalewski
Living archives and Cyprus: militarized masculinities and decolonial emerging world horizons / Anna M. Agathangelou
Book Review: Holly Furneaux, Military men of feeling: emotion, touch and masculinity in the Crimean War / Catherine Baker

Cuordileone, K. A. (2005). Manhood and American Political Culture in the Cold War. New York: Routledge.

Cuordileone, Kyle. (2002). Politics in an Age of Anxiety: Masculinity, the Vital Center, and American Political Culture in the Cold War, 1949-1963. Routledge.

Dawson, Graham. (1994). Soldier Heroes: British Adventure, Empire and the Imagining of Masculinities. London & New York: Routledge.

de Albuquerque, C. and Paes‐Machado, E. (2004). The hazing machine: the shaping of Brazilian military police recruits. Policing and Society, 14(2): 175-192.

De Oca, J. M. (2005). “As our muscles get softer, our missile race becomes harder”: Cultural citizenship and the “muscle gap”. Journal of Historical Sociology, 18(3): 145-172.

Deng, M. E., Nicol, A. A., & Ralph, C. S. (2023). Masculine Conformity and Social Dominance’s Relation With Organizational Culture Change. Armed Forces & Society, 0095327X231178522.

Diedrich, Lisa L. (1998). Hysterical men: Shell-shock and the destabilisation of masculinity. In Shildrick, Margrit and Janet Price. (eds.). Vital Signs: Feminist Reconfigurations of the Bio/logical Body. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Donald, Ralph R. (1992). Masculinity and machismo in Hollywood’s war films. In Craig, Steve. (ed.). Men, Masculinity and the Media. Newbury Park: Sage.

Ducat, Stephen. (2004). The Wimp Factor: Gender gaps, holy wars, and the politics of anxious masculinity. Beacon Press.

Dudink, Stefan, Karen Hagenamm, and John Tosh. (eds.). (2004). Masculinities in Politics and War: Gendering modern history. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Duncanson, C. (2006). Forces for Good: Changing Military Masculinities in the UK Armed Forces. New Voices, New Perspectives, United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), March.

Duncanson, C. (2009). Forces for Good? Narratives of Military Masculinity in Peacekeeping Operations. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 11(1): 63-80.

Duncanson, C. (2010). Do Forces for Good Contain Real Men? Military Masculinities in the British Army on Operations Other Than War. In War, Ethics and Justice: New Perspectives on a Post-9/11 World by Annika Bergman-Rosamond & Mark Phythian (eds) (Routledge).

Duncanson, C. (2013). Forces for Good? Military Masculinities and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan and Iraq. Palgrave Macmillan.

Duriesmith, D. (2014). Is Manhood a Causal Factor in the Shifting Nature of War? The case of Sierra Leone’s Revolutionary United Front. Internatio­nal Feminist Journal of Politics, 16 (2), 236-254.

Duriesmith, D. (2017). Masculinity and New War: The gendered dynamics of contemporary armed conflict. London and New York: Routledge.

Duriesmith, D. (2020). Engaging or changing men? Understandings of masculinity and change in the new ‘men, peace and security’ agenda. Peacebuilding, 8(4), 418-431. doi:10.1080/21647259.2019.1687076

Duriesmith, D., & Holmes, G. (2019). The Masculine Logic of DDR and SSR in the Rwanda Defence Force. Security Dialogue, 0967010619850346. 10.1177/0967010619850346

Duriesmith, David. (2018). Hybrid warriors and the formation of new war masculinities: a case study of Indonesian foreign fighters. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 7 1: 1-16. doi:10.5334/sta.633

Easlea, B. (1987). Patriarchy, scientists, and nuclear warriors. In Kaufman, Michael. (ed.). Beyond Patriarchy: Essays by Men on Pleasure, Power and Change. New York: Oxford University Press.

Eberwein, Robert. (2007). Armed Forces: Masculinity and Sexuality in the American War Film. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Efthymiou, Stratis. (2019). Nationalism, Militarism and Masculinity in Post-conflict Cyprus. Palgrave.

Enloe, Cynthia. (2000). Masculinity as foreign policy issue. 5(36), October. URL: http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n36masculinitybody.html.

Faludi, Susan. (1999). Gone to soldiers, every one. Chapter Six in Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man, William Morrow & Company.

Ferguson, R. B. (2021). Masculinity and War. Current Anthropology, 0(0), S000-S000. doi:10.1086/711622

Finkel, M. A. (2002). Traumatic Injuries Caused by Hazing Practices. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 20(3): 228–33.

Fox, John, and Pease, Bob (2012). Military deployment, masculinity and trauma: reviewing the connections. Journal of Men’s Studies, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 16-31.

Frueh, B. C., S. M. Turner, D. C. Beidel, and S. P. Cahill. (2001). Assessment of social functioning in combat veterans with PSTD. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 6(1): 79-90.

Garton, Stephen. (1998). War and masculinity in twentieth century Australia. Journal of Australian Studies, No. 56.

Gibson, James W. (1994). Warrior Dreams: Paramilitary Culture in Post-Vietnam America. New York: Hill & Wang.

Gill, L. (1997). Creating citizens, making men: The military and masculinity in Bolivia. Cultural Anthropology, 12(4), pp. 527-550.

Goldstein, Joshua S. (2001). War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
A puzzle: the cross-cultural consistency of gender roles in war.
Women warriors: the historical record of female combatants.
Bodies: the biology of individual gender.
Groups: bonding, hierarchy, and social identity.
Heroes: the making of militarized masculinity.
Conquests: sex, rape, and exploitation in wartime.
Reflections: the mutuality of gender and war.

Gottlieb, Roger S. (year?). Masculine identity and the desire for war. In Wartenberg, T. (ed.). Rethinking Power, SUNY Press.

Graham, Herman. (2001). Black, and Navy too: How Vietnam era African-American sailors asserted manhood through Black Power militancy. Journal of Men’s Studies, Volume 9 Number 2, Winter.

Grandstaff, Mark R. (2004). Visions of New Men: The Heroic Soldier Narrative in American Advertisements During World War II. Advertising & Society Review, Volume 5, Issue 2, 2004.

Gray, J. Glenn. (1992). The enduring appeals of battle. In May, Larry and Strikwerda, Robert. (eds.). Rethinking Masculinity: Philosophical Explorations in Light of Feminism, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

Gray, J. Glenn. The Warriors: Reflections on Men in Battle.

Gustavsen, E. (2013). Equal treatment or equal opportunity? Male attitudes towards women in the Norwegian and US armed forces. Acta Sociologica, 56(4), 361-374.

Hale, H. C. (2008). The Development of British Military Masculinities through Symbolic Resources. Culture Psychology, 14(3): 305-332.

Hamber, B. (2015). There Is a Crack in Everything: Problematising Masculinities, Peacebuilding and Transitional Justice. Human Rights Review, 1-26.

Hearn, Jeff, Kopano Ratele, Tamara Shefer, and Anisur Rahman Khan. (2021). Men, masculinities and peace, justice, conflict and violence: A multi-level overview. In Routledge Handbook of Feminist Peace Research. Edited by Tanja Väyrynen, Élise Féron, Peace Medie, Swati Parashar and Catia C. Confortini. London: Routledge, pp. 313–23.

Hearn, Jeff. (2011). Men/Masculinities: War/Militarism - Searching (for) the Obvious Connections? In: Making Gender, Making War: Violence, Military and Peacekeeping Practices, New York, USA: Routledge, pp. 35-48.

Hearn, Jeff. (2012). Men/masculinities, violence/war/militarism: Searching (for) the obvious connections? In Making Gender, Making War: Violence, Military and Peacekeeping Practices. Edited by Annika Kronsell and Erica Svedberg. New York: Routledge, pp. 35–48.

Higate, P. (2003). Military Masculinities: Identity and the State. New York: Greenwood

Higate, P. (2012). Drinking Vodka From The ‘Butt-Crack’: Men, Masculinities And Fratriarchy In The Private Militarized Security Company. International Feminist Journal Of Politics, 14(4), 450-469.

Higate, Paul R. (2006). Military Institutions. In Flood, M, Gardiner, JK, Pease, B and Pringle, K (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Men and Masculinities, (pp. 442-442), Routledge.

Higate, Paul R. (2007) Peacekeepers, Masculinities, and Sexual Exploitation. Men and Masculinities, July, 10(1): 99-119.

Higate, Paul R. (2007). Revealing the Soldier: Peacekeeping and Prostitution. In Herdt, G and Howe, C (Eds.), 21st Century Sexualities: Contemporary Issues in Health, Education and Rights, (pp. 198-202), Routledge.

Higate, Paul R. (2018). Men, Masculinity and Global Insecurity. In C. E. Gentry, L. J. Shepherd & L. Sjoberg (Eds.). Routledge Handbook of Gender and Security (pp. 70-82). Routledge.

Higate, Paul R. (ed.). (2003). Military Masculinities. New York: Praeger.

Higate, Paul R., and J. Hopton. (2004). War, militarism and masculinities. In Connell, RW, Hearn, J and Kimmel, M (Eds.), The Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities, (pp. 432-447), New York: Sage.

Honig, Bonnie. (2001). Foreign bridges, family ties, and new world masculinity. pp. 86-91; IN: Honig, Bonnie; Democracy and the Foreigner; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Hooper, Charlotte. (1998). Masculinist Practices and Gender Politics: The Operation of Multiples Masculinities in International Relations. In M. Zalewski & J. L. Parpart (Eds.), The ‘Man’ Question in International Relations (pp. 28-53). Westview Press.

Hooper, Charlotte. (2001). Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Pt. 1. Theorizing Masculinities.
Ch. 1. The Construction of Gender Identity.
Ch. 2. Masculinities and Masculinism.
Pt. 2. Masculinities, IR, and Gender Politics.
Ch. 3. Masculinities in International Relations.
Ch. 4. The Economist’s Masculine Credentials.
Ch. 5. The Economist, Globalization, and Masculinities.
Ch. 6. The Economist/IR Intertext.
Conclusion: IR and the (Re)Making of Hegemonic Masculinity.

Hopton, John. (1999). Militarism, masculinism and managerialisation in the British Public Sector. Journal of Gender Studies, 8(1), March.

Hurley, M. (2018). The ‘genderman’: (Re) negotiating militarized masculinities when ‘doing gender’at NATO. Critical Military Studies, 4(1), 72-91.

Hutchings, K. (2008). Making Sense of Masculinity and War. Men and Masculinities, 10(4): 389-404.

International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 2012;
Rethinking Masculinity and Practices of Violence in Conflict Settings / Paul Kirby & Marsha Henry.
Drinking Vodka from the ‘Butt-Crack’ / Paul Higate.
Fashioning the Gentlemanly State / Ruth Streicher.
Looking Beyond Violent Militarized Masculinities / Luisa Maria Dietrich Ortega.
‘Cowboy’ Policing versus ‘the Softer Stuff’ / Marianne Bevan & Megan H. MacKenzie.
Muscular Interventionism / Maria O’Reilly.
Militarism, Patriarchy and Peace Movements / Cynthia Cockburn & Cynthia Enloe.
Militarized Masculinities and the Erasure of Violence / Aaron Belkin & Terrell Carver.
Annica Kronsell. Gender, Sex, and the Postnational Defense: Militarism and Peacekeeping / Catherine Baker.
Aaron Belkin. Bring Me Men: Military Masculinity and the Benign Façade of American Empire, 1898–2001 / Stephanie Szitanyi.
Elisabetta Ruspini, Jeff Hearn, Bob Pease and Keith Pringle (eds). Men and Masculinities Around the World. Transforming Men’s Practices / Penny Griffin.
Melissa T. Brown. Enlisting Masculinity: The Construction of Gender in U.S. Military Recruiting Advertising during the All-Volunteer Force / Amanda Conroy.
Janie L. Leatherman. Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict / Harriet Gray.
Raewyn Connell. Confronting Equality: Gender, Knowledge and Global Change / Angelique Bletsas.

Jansen, Sue C., and Don Sabo. (1994). The sport/war metaphor: Hegemonic masculinity, the Persian Gulf War, and the new world order. Sociology of Sport Journal, 11(1), March.

Jarvis, C. (2009). If He Comes Home Nervous: U.S. World War II Neuropsychiatric Casualties and Postwar Masculinities. The Journal of Men’s Studies 17(2): 97-115.

Jeffords, Susan, and Claudia Springer. (1988). Masculinity as excess in Vietnam films: The father/son dynamic of American culture. Genre, 21(4), Winter.

Jeffords, Susan. (1987-88). ‘Things worth dying for’: Gender and the ideology of collectivity in Vietnam representation. Cultural Critique, 8, Winter.

Jeffords, Susan. (1989). The Remasculinization of America: Gender and the Vietnam War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Jeffords, Susan. (1990). Reproducing fathers: Gender and the Vietnam War in U.S. culture. In Dittmar, Linda and Gene, Michaud. (eds.). From Hanoi to Hollywood: The Vietnam War in American film. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Karner, Tracy X. (1995). Medicalizing masculinity: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Vietnam veterans. Masculinities, 3(4), Winter.

Karpinski, E. C. (2008). En-trenched Manhood: War and Constructions of Masculinity in George Orwell’s Homage to Catalonia. Men and Masculinities, 10(5): 523-537.

Keen, Sam. (year?). Faces of the Enemy.

Kibby, Marj. (year?). Narrative and Culture: Re-writing Vietnam; Reasserting Masculinity, (University syllabus), http://www.newcastle.edu.au/department/so/syllabus.htm.

Kimmel, M.S. (2003). Globalization and its Mal(e)Contents: The Gendered Moral and Political Economy of Terrorism. International Sociology, 18(3): 603-620.

Kimmel, Michael, Jeff Hearn, and R.W. Connell. (eds.). (2005). The Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
23. Nation / Joane Nagel, University of Kansas
24. Globalization and Its Mal(e)contents: The Gendered Moral and Political Economy of Terrorism / Michael Kimmel, SUNY Stony Brook
25. War, Militarism, and Masculinities / Paul Higate, University of Bristol and John Hopton, University of Manchester.

Kraska, Peter B. (2001). Playing war: Masculinity, militarism, and their real-world consequences. pp. 141-157; IN: Kraska, Peter B. (ed.). Militarizing the American Criminal Justice System: The Changing Roles of the Armed Forces and the Police; Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Kronsell, Annica. (2005). Gendered practices in institutions of hegemonic masculinity: Reflections from feminist standpoint theory. International Feminist Journal of Politics, Volume 7, Number 2, June, pp. 280-298.

Kuhl, S., Kosloski, A. E., Ryon, S. B., & Monar, A. (2018). Masculinity, organizational culture, media framing and sexual violence in the military. Social Sciences, 7(5), 80.

Kunz, R., Myrttinen, H., & Udasmoro, W. (2018). Preachers, pirates and peace-building: Examining non-violent hegemonic masculinities in Aceh. Asian Journal of Women's Studies, 24(3), 299-320. https://doi.org/10.1080/12259276.2018.1495348

Lahelma, Elina. (2005). Finding communalities, making differences, performing masculinities: Reflections of young men on military service. Gender and Education, Volume 17, Number 3, August, pp. 305-317.

Linehagen, F., & Wester, M. (2022). To stand in line and fit in—About military men’s (un) reflected navigation in the armed forces. Sociology Compass, e13056.

Lomsky-Feder, E., and T. Rapoport. (2003). Juggling models of masculinity: Russian-Jewish immigrants in the Israeli Army. Sociological Inquiry, February, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 114-137.

Lowe, J. (2019). Masculinizing National Service: The Cultural Reproduction of Masculinities and Militarization of Male Citizenship in Singapore. Journal of Gender Studies, 28(6), 687-698. 10.1080/09589236.2019.1604329

MacKenzie, M., & Foster, A. (2017). Masculinity nostalgia: How war and occupation inspire a yearning for gender order. Security Dialogue, 48(3), 206-223. doi:doi:10.1177/0967010617696238

Mankayi, N. (2006). Male constructions and resistance to women in the military. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies, 34(2).

Maringira, G. (2021). Soldiers, Masculinities, and Violence. Current Anthropology, 0(0), S000-S000. doi:10.1086/711687

Maruska, J. H. (2009). When are states hypermasculine? In L. Sjoberg (Ed.), Gender and International Security: Feminist Perspectives (pp. 235-255): Routledge.

Mazrui, Ali A. (1977). The warrior tradition and the masculinity of war. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 12(1-4), January and October.

McBride, James. (1995). War, Battering and Other Sports: The Gulf Between American Men and Women. NJ: Humanities Press.

McCoy, A. W. (1995). “Same Banana”: Hazing and Honor at the Philippine Military Academy. The Journal of Asian Studies, 54(03), 689-726.

McCoy, Alfred W. (year?). Closer Than Brothers: Manhood at the Philippine Military Academy. Yale University Press.

McGregor, Robert. (1999). Military masculinity and the macaroni challenge: The British experience 1760-1780. In Biber, Katherine, Sear, Tom and Trudinger, Dave. (eds.). Playing The Man: New Approaches to Masculinity. Sydney: Pluto Press.

Mehta, A. (2018). Masculinity and Militancy: Narratives of “Surrendered Militants” in Kashmir. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 20(4), 657-659. 10.1080/14616742.2018.1532177

Messerschmidt, J.W. (2006). The Forgotten Victims of World War II: Masculinities and Rape in Berlin, 1945. Violence Against Women, 12(7): 706.

Messerschmidt, J.W. (2010). Hegemonic Masculinities and Camouflaged Politics: On the Bush Dynasty and its War against Iraq. Herndon,VA: Paradigm.

Messerschmidt, M., & Quest, H. (2023). Change in practice: a framework for analysing the transformation of post-conflict masculinities. Critical Military Studies, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/23337486.2023.2188757

Meyer, J. (2009). Separating the Men from the Boys: Masculinity and Maturity in Understandings of Shell Shock in Britain. Twentieth Century Brit Hist 20(1): 1-22.

Moon, Seungsook. (2005). Trouble with Conscription, Entertaining Soldiers: Popular Culture and the Politics of Militarized Masculinity in South Korea. Men and Masculinities, 8(1), July, pp. 64-92.

Morgan, David. (1987). ‘It will make a man of you’: Notes on national service, masculinity and autobiography. Studies in Sexual Politics, No. 17, Manchester: University of Manchester, Department of Sociology.

Morgan, David. (1994). Combat, the military, and masculinities. In Brod, Harry and Kaufman, Michael. (eds.). Theorizing Masculinities. London: Sage.

Morinaga, Y., Sakamoto, Y., & Nakashima, K. i. (2017). Gender, attitudes toward war, and masculinities in Japan. Psychological Reports, 120(3), 374-382.

Moss, Mark Howard. (2001). Manliness and Militarism: Educating Young Boys in Ontario for War. Don Mills, Ont.; New York: Oxford University Press.

Munn, J. (2008). The Hegemonic Male and Kosovar Nationalism, 2000--2005. Men and Masculinities, 10(4): 440-456.

Nagel, Joane. (1998). Masculinity and Nationalism: Gender and Sexuality in the Making of Nations. Ethnic & Racial Studies, 21(2), March, pp. 242-269.

O’Neill, Kevin Lewis. (2007). Armed Citizens and the Stories They Tell: The National Rifle Association’s Achievement of Terror and Masculinity. Men and Masculinities, April, 9(4): 457-475.

Oca, Jeffrey Montez De. (2005). “As Our Muscles Get Softer, Our Missile Race Becomes Harder”: Cultural Citizenship and the “Muscle Gap”. Journal of Historical Sociology, Volume 18, Number 3, September, pp. 145-172.

Ocaya-Lakidi, Dent (1977). Manhood, warriorhood and sex in Eastern Africa: Perspectives from the 19th and 20th centuries. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 12(1-4), January and October.

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Peteet, Julie. (1994) Male Gender and Rituals of Resistance in the Palestinian Intifada: A Cultural Politics of Violence. American Ethnologist, vol. 21 no. 1.

Pettman, Jan J. (1996). Worlding Women: A Feminist International Politics. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. Includes;
Men, masculinities and war.
Women making peace.
Women in the wars.

Quest, H. (2022). Moving Beyond Antagonisms: Changing Masculinities in Post-Conflict Militaries. International Peacekeeping, 1-25. doi:10.1080/13533312.2022.2080060

Ratele, Kopano. (2012). Violence, Militarised Masculinity and Positive Peace. Cape Town: Pambazuka, Available online: http://www.fahamu.org/resources/Ratele-Violence-Militarised-Masculinity… (accessed on 1 July 2020).

Reiss, M. (2005). Bronzed bodies behind barbed wire: Masculinity and the treatment of German prisoners of war in the United States during World War II. Journal Of Military History, 69(2), April: 475-504.

Richard, K., & Molloy, S. (2020). An examination of emerging adult military men: Masculinity and US military climate. Psychology of Men & Masculinities, 21(4), 686.

Riley, Heidi. (2019). Male Collective Identity in the People’s Liberation Army of Nepal. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 21(4), 544-565. 10.1080/14616742.2019.1577153

Riley, Heidi. (2020) Masculinity and Conflict. In: Richmond O., Visoka G. (eds) The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Roper, M. (2007). Between the Psyche and the Social: Masculinity, Subjectivity and the First World War Veteran. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15(3).

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