iv) Violence against women in conflict and war, and conflict-related sexual violence (including against men and boys)

Recent overviews

Boesten, J. (2017). Of exceptions and continuities: theory and methodology in research on conflict-related sexual violence. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 19(4), 506-519.

Campbell, K. (2018). Producing knowledge in the field of sexual violence in armed conflict research: Objects, methods, politics, and gender justice methodology. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, 25(4), 469-495.

Davies, S. E., & True, J. (2015). Reframing conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence: Bringing gender analysis back in. Security Dialogue, 46(6), 495-512.

du Toit, L., & le Roux, E. (2020). A feminist reflection on male victims of conflict-related sexual violence. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 1350506820904982.

Skjelsbæk, I. (2018). Silence breakers in war and peace: research on gender and violence with an ethics of engagement. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, 25(4), 496-520.

Conflict-related sexual violence against men and boys

Affleck, W., Selvadurai, A., & Sikora, L. (2018). Underrepresentation of Men in Gender Based Humanitarian and Refugee Trauma Research: A Scoping Review. Intervention, 16(1), 22.

Banwell, S. (2020). Glocalisation Masculinities and Violence(s) Against Men and Boys in Darfur. In Gender and the Violence (s) of War and Armed Conflict: More Dangerous to Be a Woman?. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Card, Claudia. (1997). Addendum to “Rape as a Weapon of War.” Hypatia, 12(2).

Carlson, Eric Stener. (1997). Sexual assault of men in war. The Lancet, January 11, No. 349, p. 129.

Carpenter, R. C. (2017). Recognizing gender-based violence against civilian men and boys in conflict situations. In The Criminology of War (pp. 377-397): Routledge.

du Toit, L., & le Roux, E. (2020). A feminist reflection on male victims of conflict-related sexual violence. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 1350506820904982.

Carpenter, R. Charli. (2002). Beyond ‘Gendercide’: Incorporating gender into comparative genocide studies. International Journal of Human Rights, 6(4), Winter, pp. 77-101.

Higate, P. (2012). Drinking Vodka From The ‘Butt-Crack’: Men, Masculinities And Fratriarchy In The Private Militarized Security Company. International Feminist Journal Of Politics, 14(4), 450-469. 

Hillman, E. L. (2009). Front and center: Sexual violence in US military law. Politics & Society, 37(1), 101-129 

Jones, Adam. (2000). Gendercide and genocide. Journal of Genocide Research, 2(2): 185-211. 

Jones, Adam. (2009). Gender Inclusive: Essays on violence, men, and feminist international relations. London and New York: Routledge.
Part I: The Home Front
1. The Globe and Males: The Other Side of Gender Bias in Canada’s National Newspaper
2. Of Rights and Men: Toward a Minoritarian Framing of Male Experience
Part II: Absent Subjects
3. Gender and Ethnic Conflict in Ex-Yugoslavia
4. Toward an International Politics of Gender
5. Effacing the Male: Gender, Misrepresentation, and Exclusion in the Kosovo War
6. Feminisms, Gender Analysis and Mass Violence: A Historiography
7. Worlding Men
Part III: Gendering Genocide
8. Pity the Innocent Men
9. The Murdered Men of Ciudad Juárez
10. Humiliation and masculine Crisis in Iraq
11. Gendercide and Genocide
12. Gender and Genocide in Rwanda
13. Problems of Gendercide
14. Why Gendercide? Why Root-and-Branch?
15. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention: Incorporating the Gender Variable
16. Gendercidal Institutions Against Women and Girls
17. Straight as a Rule: Heteronormativity, Gendercide, and the Non-Combatant Male

Martínez, M. M. M. (2022). Sexual Violence against Men as a Method of Warfare in Contemporary Conflicts: Some Lessons Learned. In The Limitations of the Law of Armed Conflicts: New Means and Methods of Warfare (pp. 356-377). Brill Nijhoff.

Misra, Amalendu. (2015). The Landscape of Silence: Sexual violence against men in war. London: Hurts & Company.

Myrttinen, H., & Schulz, P. (2022). Broadening the scope but reasserting male privilege? Potential patriarchal pitfalls of inclusive approaches to gender-based violence. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 1-21. doi:10.1080/14616742.2022.2107555 

Olaluwoye, T., Hoban, E., & Williams, J. (2023). Forms of sexual violence perpetrated in conflict and post-conflict settings against South Sudanese men resettled in two communities in Uganda: an exploratory qualitative study. Conflict and health, 17(1), 49.

Olaluwoye, T., Hoban, E., Connors, P., & Williams, J. (2022). Sexual violence against men in conflict and post-conflict settings: a qualitative research methodology. American journal of men's health, 16(2), 15579883221084496.

Red de Mujeres Víctimas y Profesionales, the Focal Groups of Male Victims of Sexual Violence and All Survivors Project. (2022). Deponer Las Armas, Retomar Las Almas (Laying Down Arms, Reclaiming Souls): Sexual violence against men and boys in the context of the armed conflict in Colombia

Touquet, H., Chynoweth, S., Martin, S., Reis, C., Myrttinen, H., Schulz, P., ... & Duriesmith, D. (2020). From ‘It rarely happens’ to ‘it’s worse for men’: Dispelling misconceptions about sexual violence against men and boys in conflict and displacement. Journal of Humanitarian Affairs, 2(3), 25-34.

Women’s Refugee Commission. (2021). Addressing sexual violence against men, boys, and LGBTIQ+ persons in humanitarian settings: A field-friendly guidance note by sector. WRC.

Yagi, I., Malette, J., Mwindo, T., & Maisha, B. (2022). Characteristics and impacts of conflict-related sexual violence against men in the DRC: A phenomenological research design. Social Sciences, 11(2), 34.


Further works

Alexandre, A. B., & Moke Mutondo, K. (2022). Behind the weapon of war: sexual violence in wartime as a reflection of social attitudes towards women in peacetime. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 28(2), 149-163. doi:10.1080/13552600.2021.1949500

Asgary, R., Emery, E., & Wong, M. (2013). Systematic review of prevention and management strategies for the consequences of gender-based violence in refugee settings. International health, 5(2), 85-91.

Kreft, A.-K. (2022). “This Patriarchal, Machista and Unequal Culture of Ours”: Obstacles to Confronting Conflict-Related Sexual Violence. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society. doi:10.1093/sp/jxac018

Baaz, M. E., & Stern, M. (2018). Curious erasures: the sexual in wartime sexual violence. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 20(3), 295-314.

Buss, D. E. (2009). Rethinking ‘Rape as a weapon of war’. Feminist Legal Studies, Vol. 17 No. 2, August: 145-164.

Clark, C. J., Everson-Rose, S. A., Suglia, S. F., Btoush, R., Alonso, A., & Haj-Yahia, M. M. (2010). Association between exposure to political violence and intimate-partner violence in the occupied Palestinian territory: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet, 375(9711), 310-316.

Gupta, J., Falb, K. L., Carliner, H., Hossain, M., Kpebo, D., & Annan, J. (2014). Associations between Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Armed Conflict, and Probable PTSD among Women in Rural Côte d’Ivoire. PloS one, 9(5), e96300.

Henry, N. (2014). The fixation on wartime rape: Feminist critique and international criminal law. Social & Legal Studies, 23(1): 93-111.

Henry, Nicola, Tony Ward, and Matt Hirshberg. (2004). A multifactorial model of wartime rape. Aggression and Violent Behavior, v. 9 no. 5 Aug: 535-562.

Horn, R., Puffer, E. S., Roesch, E., & Lehmann, H. (2014). Women’s perceptions of effects of war on intimate partner violence and gender roles in two post-conflict West African Countries: consequences and unexpected opportunities. Conflict and Health, 8(1), 12.

Hynes, M., Ward, J., Robertson, K., & Crouse, C. (2004). A Determination of the Prevalence of Gender‐based Violence among Conflict‐affected Populations in East Timor. Disasters, 28(3), 294-321.

Meger, S. (2016). The fetishization of sexual violence in international security. International Studies Quarterly, 60(1), 149-159.

Milillo, D. (2006). Rape as a Tactic of War: Social and Psychological Perspectives. Affilia, 21(2): 196-205.

Morris, M. (1996). By Force of Arms: Rape, war, and military culture. Duke Law Journal, 45, pp. 651-781.

Palermo, T., & Peterman, A. (2011). Undercounting, overcounting and the longevity of flawed estimates: statistics on sexual violence in conflict. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89(12), 924-925.

Price, Lisa S. (2001). Finding the man in the soldier rapist: Some reflections on comprehension and accountability. Women’s Studies International Forum, 24(2), March-April.

Saile, R., Ertl, V., Neuner, F., & Catani, C. (2014). Does war contribute to family violence against children? Findings from a two-generational multi-informant study in Northern Uganda. Child abuse & neglect, 38(1), 135-146.

Saile, R., Neuner, F., Ertl, V., & Catani, C. (2013). Prevalence and predictors of partner violence against women in the aftermath of war: a survey among couples in Northern Uganda. Social Science & Medicine, 86, 17-25.

Schott, Robin May. (1999). Philosophical reflections on war rape. In Card, Claudia. (ed.). On Feminist ethics and Politics, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Seifert, Ruth. (1996). The second front: The logic of sexual violence in wars. Women’s Studies International Forum, 19(1/2).

Skjelsbaek, I. (2001). Sexual violence and war: Mapping out a complex relationship. European Journal of International Relations. 7(2):211-237, June.

Snyder, C.S., W.J. Gabbard, J.D. May, and N. Zulcic. (2006). On the Battleground of Women’s Bodies: Mass Rape in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Affilia, 21(2): 184-195.

St. Germain, T. (2012). Special Issue: Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict: Gender, Society, and the State. Wagadu: A Journal of Transnational Women’s and Gender Studies, Vol. 10.

Stark, L., & Ager, A. (2011). A systematic review of prevalence studies of gender-based violence in complex emergencies. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 12(3), 127-134.

Tol, W. A., Stavrou, V., Greene, M. C., Mergenthaler, C., Van Ommeren, M., & Garc’a, M. C. (2013). Sexual and gender-based violence in areas of armed conflict: a systematic review of mental health and psychosocial support interventions. Conflict and Health, 7(1), 16.

Vu, A., Adam, A., Wirtz, A., Pham, K., Rubenstein, L., Glass, N., ... & Singh, S. (2014). The prevalence of sexual violence among female refugees in complex humanitarian emergencies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS currents, 6.

Wood, E. J. (2015). Conflict-related sexual violence and the policy implications of recent research. International Review of the Red Cross, 1-22.

Zurbriggen, E. L. (2010). Rape, war, and the socialization of masculinity: Why our refusal to give up war ensures that rape cannot be eradicated. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(4), 538-549.