iii) Violence against women in the military or in military contexts

Note: This focuses on violence against women serving in military forces. For references on violence against women in the contexts of war and conflict, and on conflict-related sexual violence, see here.


Abrams, J. R. (2009). The collateral consequences of masculinizing violence. Wm. & Mary J. Women & L., 16, 703.

Amelia Gibbons, M., & Rossi, M. A. (2022). Military Conscription, Sexist Attitudes and Intimate Partner Violence. Economica, 89(355), 540-563. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/ecca.12422

Australian Defence Force. (1998). Report of the review into policies and practices to deal with sexual harassment and sexual offences at the Australian Defence Force Academy. Canberra, Director of Publishing and Visual Communications, Department of Defence (the Grey Report).

Australian Human Rights Commission. (2011). Report on the Review into the Treatment of Women in the Australian Defence Force Academy. Phase 1 of the Review into the Treatment of Women in the Australian Defence Force. Canberra.

Bell, N. S., Harford, T. C., Fuchs, C. H., McCarroll, J. E., & Schwartz, C. E. (2006). Spouse abuse and alcohol problems among White, African American, and Hispanic US Army soldiers. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 30(10), 1721-1733.

Bonnes, S. (2021). An intersectional approach to military sexual violence. Sociology Compass, n/a(n/a), e12939. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12939

Bonnes, S., & Palmer, J. H. (2022). The US Marine Corps’ Response to Intimate Partner Sexual Violence: An Analysis of the Family Advocacy Program and the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program. Armed Forces & Society, 48(3), 609-633.

Bowen, G. L., Jensen, T. M., & Williams, B. (2017). Prevention of family maltreatment in the US Air Force: A systematic review of research on active-duty military personnel. Journal of Family Social Work, 20(1), 52-80.

Callahan, J. L. (2009). Manifestations of Power and Control: Training as the Catalyst for Scandal at the United States Air Force Academy. Violence Against Women, 15(10): 1149-1168.

Campbell, J.C., M.A. Garza, A.C. Gielen, P. O’Campo, J. Kub, J. Dienemann, A.S. Jones, and E. Jafar. (2003). Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse among Active Duty Military Women. Violence Against Women, 9(9): 1072-1092.

Cancio, R. (2017). Structural pathways between race/ethnicity, substance use, military service, and male-perpetrated intimate partner violence in pre-9/11 military families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0886260517723142.

Cancio, R. (2020). Military Cohorts, Substance Use, and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 1077801219893475. doi:10.1177/1077801219893475

Cancio, R. (2020). Post-9/11 service era veterans: intimate partner violence and substance use. Substance use & misuse, 55(2), 241-251.

Carpenter, E. R. (2022). Differential Treatment of Sexual Assault Cases by US Army Law Enforcement Personnel. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012221101915. doi:10.1177/10778012221101915

Carpenter, E. R. (2023). Differential Treatment of Sexual Assault Cases by US Army Law Enforcement Personnel. Violence Against Women, 29(5), 882-900. doi:10.1177/10778012221101915

Carroll, M.H., and M.D. Clark. (2006). Men’s Acquaintance Rape Scripts: A Comparison Between a Regional University and a Military Academy. Sex Roles, 55(7-8): 469.

Cyr, H. D. (2016). Sexual Violence and the Military. In The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies (pp. 1-3).

Dean, Donna M. (1997). Warriors Without Weapons: The Victimization Of Military Women. Pasadena, MD: Minerva Center.

Deschamps, M. (2015) External Review Into Sexual Misconduct and Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces. Commonwealth of Canada, Toronto.

Durham, N., Gierisch, J. M., Shapiro, A., Grant, N. N., King, H. A., McDuffie, J. R., . . . Wing, L. (2013). Intimate partner violence: Prevalence among US Military veterans and active duty servicemembers and a review of intervention approaches.

Ellner, A. (2015). The ethics of inclusion: Gender equality, equal opportunity and sexual assault in the Australian, British, Canadian and U.S. armed forces. In G. Lucas (Ed.). Routledge Handbook of Military Ethics. New York: Routledge. 

Erez, E., and S. Bach. (2003). Immigration, Domestic Violence, and the Military: The Case of “Military Brides”. Violence Against Women, 9(9): 1093-1117.

Gedney, C. R., Wood, D. S., Lundahl, B., & Butters, R. P. (2015). Sexual Assault Prevention Efforts in the U.S. Air Force: A Systematic Review and Content Analysis. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(3), 421-441.

Goodmark, L. (2015). Hands up at home: Militarized masculinity and police officers who commit intimate partner abuse. BYU L. Rev., 1183.

Hajizadeh, M., Aiken, A., & Cox, C. (2019). Risk Factors Associated with Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces: Does It Vary by Sex and Environmental Command? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(8), 2581-2594. doi:10.1007/s10508-019-01507-x

Harrison, Deborah. (2002). The First Casualty: Violence Against Women in the Canadian Military. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company.

Hillman, E. L. (2009). Front and center: Sexual violence in US military law. Politics & Society, 37(1), 101-129

Jensen, T. M., & Bowen, G. L. (2018). Informing efforts to prevent family maltreatment among airmen: A focus on personal resilience. Journal of Family Social Work, 21(2), 129-151.

Johnson, N. L., Gutekunst, M. H. C., Robinett, S., & Lipp, N. S. (2023). ‘We need a culture change’: military sexual trauma through the lens of rape culture. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 1-18. doi:10.1080/13691058.2023.2202715

Jones, A. D. (2012). Intimate partner violence in military couples: A review of the literature. Aggression and violent behavior, 17(2), 147-157.

Kasinsky, Renee Goldsmith. (1998). Tailhook and the construction of sexual harassment in the media: ‘Rowdy Navy Boys’ and women who made a difference. Violence Against Women, 4(1), pp. 81-99.

Kimmel, Michael S. (2000). Saving the males: The sociological implications of the Virginia Military Institute and the Citadel. Gender & Society. 14(4), August.

Kwan, J., Sparrow, K., Facer-Irwin, E., Thandi, G., Fear, N. T., & MacManus, D. (2020). Prevalence of intimate partner violence perpetration among military populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Aggression and violent behavior, 53, 101419. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2020.101419

Lane, R., Alves-Costa, F., Gribble, R., Taylor, A., Howard, L. M., Fear, N. T., & MacManus, D. (2023). Help-seeking for Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse: Experiences of Serving and Ex-serving UK Military Personnel. Journal of Family Violence. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-023-00534-6

Layton, J. S. (2019). Informing Military Sexual Violence Prevention: An Exploration of Individual, Relational, and Cultural Factors. PhD.

LeardMann, C. A., Haile, Y. G., McAnany, J., Stander, V. A., Williams, D., Millegan, J., . . . Program, R. A. (2022). Pre-service factors associated with sexual misconduct among male US Marines. PLoS ONE, 17(12), e0278640.

Leatherman, J. L. (2012). Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict. Polity Press.

Lohman, A. (2015). Silence of the lambs: Giving voice to the problem of rape and sexual assault in the United States armed forces. Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy, 10(1): 230-279.

MacKenzie, M. (2023). Good Soldiers Don't Rape: The Stories We Tell About Military Sexual Violence. Cambridge University Press.

MacKenzie, M., Gunaydin, E., & Chaudhuri, U. (2020). Illicit Military Behavior as Exceptional and Inevitable: Media Coverage of Military Sexual Violence and the “Bad Apples” Paradox. International Studies Quarterly. doi:10.1093/isq/sqz093

Magley, V.J., Waldo, C.R., Drasgow, F., and Fitzgerald, L.F. (1999). The impact of sexual harassment on military personnel: Is it the same for men and women? Military Psychology, 11(3), 283-302.

Marineanu, V., Ariton, L., & Verzes, C. (2023). Cultural and Gender Biases regarding Inappropriate Sexual Behavior in the Romanian Military Organization. Military Behavioral Health, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/21635781.2023.2221462

Marshall, A.D., J. Panuzio, and C.T. Taft. (2005). Intimate partner violence among military veterans and active duty servicemen. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(7): 862-876.

Matthews, M., Farris, C., Tankard, M., & Dunbar, M. S. (2018). Needs of male sexual assault victims in the US Armed Forces. Rand Health Quarterly, 8(2).

McGann, P., and P. Schewe. (2008). The Department of Defense Sexual Assault Prevention Strategy. Creating a National Benchmark Program. September 30. Interdisciplinary Center for Research on Violence, University of Illinois at Chicago. Produced under contract by Amer Technology, Inc.

McWhorter, S. K., Stander, V. A., Merrill, L. L., Thomsen, C. J., & Milner, J. S. (2009). Reports of rape reperpetration by newly enlisted male Navy personnel. Violence and Victims, 24(2), 204-218.

Merrill, Lex L., Julie L. Crouch, Cynthia J. Thomsen, Jennifer Guimond, and Joel S. Milner. (2005). Perpetration of Severe Intimate Partner Violence: Premilitary and Second Year of Service Rates. Military Medicine, August, Vol. 170, Iss. 8.

Moore, Brian, and Monty Baker. (eds.) (2022). Aggression and Violent Behavior, Special section: Violence in the Military Community. Volume 66, September-October.
Incidence rates of emotional, sexual, and physical abuse in active-duty military service members, 1997–2015 / T.L. Collette, S.A. von Esenwein, J. Sprague-Jones, K.E. Moore, E. Sterling
Concerns of relationship mistreatment, emotional abuse, and physical abuse in deployed military medical personnel: Prevalence and risk factors / Chelsea J. McMahon, Sarah Zwetzig, Bailee Schumann, Casey L. Straud
Aggression and violent behavior in the military: Self-reported conflict tactics in a sample of service members and veterans seeking treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder / Casey L. Straud, Patricia A. Resick, Edna B. Foa, Sudie E. Back, ... Alan L. Peterson
Military veteran involvement with the criminal justice system: A systematic review / Kweilin T. Lucas, Catherine D. Marcum, Paul A. Lucas, Jessica Blalock
Conflict resolution workshops for service members and families: The potentials of Alternatives to Violence Project (AVP) to address military domestic violence / Thomas J. Hodges, Shubam Sharma, Déja S. Nicolas, Brian A. Moore

National Task Force to End Sexual and Domestic Violence. (2013). Statement of Priorities for Response to Sexual Violence in the Military. June 5, 2013.http://4vawa.org/4vawa/2013/6/5/statement-of-priorities-for-response-to…. Accessed, January 5, 2016.

Nelson, Terry Spahr. (2002). For Love Of Country: Confronting Rape And Sexual Harassment In The U.S. Military. New York: Haworth.

O’Neill, W.L. (1998). Sex scandals in the gender-integrated military. Gender Issues, 16(1/2): 64.

Orchowski, L. M., Oesterle, D. W., Berry-Cabán, C. S., Borsari, B., Kahler, C. W., Kazemi, D. M., & Berkowitz, A. D. (2023). An Application of the Confluence Model of Sexual Aggression Among Young Adult Male Soldiers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0(0), 08862605231153895. doi:10.1177/08862605231153895

Pankhurst, D. (2008). Post-War Backlash Violence against Women: What Can ‘Masculinity’ Explain. In D. Pankhurst (Ed.), Gendered Peace. Women’s Struggles for Post-War Justice and Reconciliation (pp. 293-320), Routledge.

Pankhurst, D. (2010). Sexual Violence in War. In L. J. Shepherd (Ed.), Gender Matters in Global Politics. A Feminist Introduction to International Relations (pp. 148-160), Routledge.

Pollard, R., & Ferguson, C. (2020). Intimate partner violence within Australian Defence Force families: an exploratory study. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, Advance online publication.

Powers, R. A., Moule, R. K., Dodge, C. E., & Boggess, L. N. (2020). Structuring the Invisible War: Base and Community Influences on Military Sexual Assault Occurrence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.03.003

Quinn, Kathryn. (1996). Sexual Harassment in the Australian Defence Force. Canberra, Department of Defence.

Reinhardt, K. M., McCaughey, V. K., Vento, S. A., & Street, A. E. (2023). In Their Own Words: Women Veterans Identify the Personal Consequences of Military Sexual Trauma Victimization. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012221147909. doi:10.1177/10778012221147909

Rodrigues, A. E., Funderburk, J. S., Keating, N. L., & Maisto, S. A. (2015). A methodological review of intimate partner violence in the military: where do we go from here? Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 16(3), 231-240.

Rosen, L. N., and L. Martin. (1998). Predictors of tolerance of sexual harassment among male U.S. Army soldiers. Violence Against Women, 4(4), 491-504.

Rosen, L.N., R.J. Kaminski, A.M. Parmley, K.H. Knudson, and P. Fancher. (2003). The Effects of Peer Group Climate on Intimate Partner Violence Among Married Male U.S. Army Soldiers. Violence Against Women, 9(9), September: 1045-1071.

Rosenthal, L., and S. McDonald. (2003). Seeking Justice: A Review of the Second Report of the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women, 9(9): 1153-1161.

Rumble, G. A., McKean, M. M., & Pearce, D. (2011). Report of the Review of allegations of sexual and other abuse in Defence. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia,

Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade. (1994). Sexual Harassment in the Australian Defence Force (Facing the future together). Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Sety, M., James, K., & Breckenridge, J. (2014). Understanding the Risk of Domestic Violence During and Post Natural Disasters: Literature Review. In Issues of Gender and Sexual Orientation in Humanitarian Emergencies (pp. 99-111). Springer International Publishing.

Seymour, M., Crockett, C. (2020, September 9). Confronting digital misogyny: Why the military’s #METOO moment must tackle cyberharassment. Center for a New American Security (CNAS).

Siminski, P., Ville, S., & Paull, A. (2016). Does the military turn men into criminals? New evidence from Australia’s conscription lotteries. Journal of Population Economics, 29(1), 197-218.

Skomorovsky, A., Hujaleh, F., & Wolejszo, S. (2015). Intimate partner violence in the Canadian armed forces: the role of family stress and its impact on well-being. Military Medicine, 180(7), 809-816.

Stacer, M. J., & Solinas-Saunders, M. (2018). Criminal Thinking Among Men Beginning a Batterer Intervention Program: The Relevance of Military Background. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 27(2), 199-219.

Stander, V. A., & Thomsen, C. J. (2016). Sexual harassment and assault in the US military: A review of policy and research trends. Military Medicine, 181(suppl_1), 20-27.

Stander, V. A., Thomsen, C. J., Merrill, L. L., Rabenhorst, M. M., Crouch, J. L., & Milner, J. S. (2011). Gender and Military Contextual Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Aggression. Military Psychology, 23(6), 639-658. doi:10.1080/08995605.2011.616808

Sturdevant, Saundra and Brenda Stoltzfus. (1993). Let the Good Times Roll: Prostitution and the US Military in Asia. New York: The New Press.

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