15. Employment and unemployment

Note: This list includes works on the relationships between employment, unemployment, and welfare status on violence perpetration and victimisation. For items on class, socioeconomic inequalities, deprivation, and neighbourhood context, see here. For items on economic empowerment as a violence prevention strategy, see here.


Key and recent works

MacGregor, J. C., Naeemzadah, N., Oliver, C. L., Javan, T., MacQuarrie, B. J., & Wathen, C. N. (2022). Women’s experiences of the intersections of work and intimate partner violence: A review of qualitative research. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 23(1), 224-240.

MacGregor, J. C., Oliver, C. L., MacQuarrie, B. J., & Wathen, C. N. (2021). Intimate partner violence and work: A scoping review of published research. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 22(4), 717-727.

Showalter, K. (2016). Women’s employment and domestic violence: A review of the literature. Aggression and violent behavior, 31, 37-47.

Vyas, S., & Watts, C. (2009). How does economic empowerment affect women’s risk of intimate partner violence in low and middle income countries? A systematic review of published evidence. Journal of International Development: The Journal of the Development Studies Association, 21(5), 577-602.


Further works

Alonso-Borrego, C., & Carrasco, R. (2017). Employment and the risk of domestic violence: does the breadwinner’s gender matter?. Applied Economics, 49(50), 5074-5091.

Beecham, D. (2014). An exploration of the role of employment as a coping resource for women experiencing intimate partner abuse. Violence and Victims, 29(4), 594-606.

Bhattacharyya, M., Bedi, A. S., & Chhachhi, A. (2011). Marital violence and women’s employment and property status: Evidence from north Indian villages. World Development, 39(9), 1676-1689.

Buzawa, E. S., & Buzawa, C. G. (2013). What does research suggest are the primary risk and protective factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) and what is the role of economic factors?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 128-137.

Costa, B. M., Kaestle, C. E., Walker, A., Curtis, A., Day, A., Toumbourou, J. W., & Miller, P. (2015). Longitudinal predictors of domestic violence perpetration and victimization: A systematic review. Aggression and violent behavior, 24, 261-272.

Franklin, C. A., & Menaker, T. A. (2014). Feminism, status inconsistency, and women’s intimate partner victimization in heterosexual relationships. Violence against women, 20(7), 825-845.

Gage, A. J., & Thomas, N. J. (2017). Women’s work, gender roles, and intimate partner violence in Nigeria. Archives of sexual behavior, 46(7), 1923-1938.

Golden, S. D., Perreira, K. M., & Durrance, C. P. (2013). Troubled times, troubled relationships: How economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence. Journal of interpersonal violence, 28(10), 2134-2155.

Kinyondo, A., & Joseph, M. (2020). Women’s employment status and domestic violence in Tanzania: How do they link?. International Journal of Social Welfare.

Kumar, S., & Casey, A. (2020). Work and intimate partner violence: Powerful role of work in the empowerment process for middle-class women in abusive relationships. Community, Work & Family, 23(1), 1-18.

Lenze, J., & Klasen, S. (2017). Does women’s labor force participation reduce domestic violence? Evidence from Jordan. Feminist Economics, 23(1), 1-29.

Matjasko, J. L., Niolon, P. H., & Valle, L. A. (2013). The role of economic factors and economic support in preventing and escaping from intimate partner violence. Journal of policy analysis and management:[the journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management], 32(1), 122.

Peled, E., & Krigel, K. (2016). The path to economic independence among survivors of intimate partner violence: A critical review of the literature and courses for action. Aggression and violent behavior, 31, 127-135.

Peterson, R. R. (2011). Employment, unemployment, and rates of intimate partner violence: Evidence from the National Crime Victim Surveys. In Economic Crisis and Crime. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Purvin, D. M. (2007). At the crossroads and in the crosshairs: Social welfare policy and low-income women’s vulnerability to domestic violence. Social Problems, 54(2), 188-210.

Riger, S., & Staggs, S. L. (2004). Welfare reform, domestic violence, and employment: What do we know and what do we need to know?. Violence against women, 10(9), 961-990.

Showalter, K., & McCloskey, R. J. (2021). A qualitative study of intimate partner violence and employment instability. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(23-24), NP12730-NP12755.

Tarshis, S. (2022). Intimate partner violence and employment-seeking: a multilevel examination of barriers and facilitators. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37(7-8), NP5774-NP5804.

Terrazas-Carrillo, E. C., & McWhirter, P. T. (2015). Employment status and intimate partner violence among Mexican women. Journal of interpersonal violence, 30(7), 1128-1152.

van der Velden, P. G., Das, M., Contino, C., & van der Knaap, L. M. (2021). From health to financial problems: multiproblems among victims of partner and non-partner physical violence, and matched nonvictims. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(21-22), 10527-10545.

Walters, J. L. H., Pollack, K. M., Clinton-Sherrod, M., Lindquist, C. H., McKay, T., & Lasater, B. M. (2012). Approaches used by employee assistance programs to address perpetration of intimate partner violence. Violence and victims, 27(2), 135-147.

Weitzman, A. (2014). Women’s and men’s relative status and intimate partner violence in India. Population and Development Review, 40(1): 55-75.

Zito, R. C. (2017). Relative employment, gender beliefs, and intimate partner coercion and violence against new mothers across marital and residential contexts. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260517715603.