11. Groups, gangs, fraternities, and violence against women

Note: Also see the section on Male peer support.


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Bleecker, E. T., & Murnen, S. K. (2005). Fraternity membership, the display of degrading sexual images of women, and rape myth acceptance. Sex Roles, 53(7-8), 487-493.

Boeringer, Scot. (1999). Associations of rape-supportive attitudes with fraternal and athletic participation. Violence against Women, January, 5(1), pp. 81-90.

Boswell, A. Ayres, and Joan Z. Spade. (1996). Fraternities and collegiate rape culture: Why are some fraternities more dangerous places for women?. Gender & Society, 10, April: 133-147.

Boyle, K. M. (2015). Social Psychological Processes that Facilitate Sexual Assault within the Fraternity Party Subculture. Sociology Compass, 9(5), 386-399.

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Corprew III, C. S., & Mitchell, A. D. (2014). Keeping it frat: exploring the interaction among fraternity membership, disinhibition, and hypermasculinity on sexually aggressive attitudes in college-aged males. Journal of college student development, 55(6), 548-562.

Curry, Timothy John. (1991). Fraternal bonding in the locker room: A Pro-feminist analysis of talk about competition and women. Sociology of Sport Journal, 8(2), June.

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Frintner, M.P., and L. Rubinson. (1993). Acquaintance rape: The influence of alcohol, fraternity membership, and sports team membership. Journal of Sex Education & Therapy, 19, 272-284.

Hong, L. (1998). Redefining babes, booze and brawls: Men against violence: towards a new masculinity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Louisiana State University.

Kalof, Linda. (1991) Fraternity and Sorority Membership and Gender Dominance Attitudes. Sex Roles, 25: 7/8, October.

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O’Sullivan, C. (1993). Fraternities and the rape culture. In Buchwald, Emilie, Fletcher, Pamela and Roth, Martha. (eds.), Transforming a Rape Culture. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions.

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Seabrook, R. C., Ward, L. M., & Giaccardi, S. (2018). Why Is Fraternity Membership Associated with Sexual Assault? Exploring the Roles of Conformity to Masculine Norms, Pressure to Uphold Masculinity, and Objectification of Women. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 19(1), 3-13.

Straus, S. (1996, Winter). Escape from Animal House - Frat boy tells all. On the Issues, V(1), 26-28.

Totten, Mark. (2000). Guys, Gangs, and Girlfriend Abuse. Ontario: Broadview Press.