10. Men’s Relations with Men, Friendship

Note: Works on homophobia and relations among heterosexual and gay men in particular are listed in “Gay Male Sexualities”. Works on homoeroticism in textual representations of relations between men are listed under “Masculinities in Culture and Representation”.


-. (1994). XY: Men, Sex, Politics, Special Issue: Mates: Men and Friendship. Volume 4 Number 2, Winter.

Altman, Dennis. (1987). The Myth of Mateship. Meanjin, No. 46, pp. 163-172.

Ambrose, Stephen E., and Jon Friedman. (1999). Comrades: Brothers, Fathers, Heroes, Sons, Pals. Simon & Schuster.

Arxer, S. L. (2011). Hybrid masculine power: Reconceptualizing the relationship between homosociality and hegemonic masculinity. Humanity & Society, 35(4), 390-422.

Bank, Barbara J., and Suzanne L. Hansford. (2000). Gender and Friendship: Why are men’s best same-sex friendships less intimate and supportive? Personal Relationships, 7, pp. 63-78.

Benemann, William. (2006). Male--Male Intimacy in Early America: Beyond Romantic Friendships. San Francisco: Harrington Park Press.

Benenson, J. F., H. Markovits, et al. (2009). Males’ Greater Tolerance of Same-Sex Peers. Psychological Science 20(2): 184-190.

Biddulph, Steve. (1994). Real Male Friends. Chapter 9 in Manhood: A Book About Setting Men Free. Sydney: Finch Publishing

Bird, Sharon R. (1996). Welcome to the Men’s Club: Homosociality and the Maintenance of Hegemonic Masculinity. Gender & Society, 10(2), April, pp. 120-132.

Bowman, J. M. (2008). Gender role orientation and relational closeness: self-disclosive behavior in same-sex male friendships. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 16(3): 316(15).

Braden, Warren R. (1999). Homies: Peer Mentoring Among African-American Males. L E P S Press.

Buchbinder, David. (1994). Mateship, Gallipoli and the Eternal Masculine. In Fuery, Patrick. (ed.). Representation, Discourse & Desire: Contemporary Australian Culture and Critical Theory. Melbourne: Longman Chesire, pp. 115-137.

Buchbinder, David. (1998). Performance Anxieties: Re-producing Masculinity. Sydney: Allen & Unwin

Butera, K. J. (2008). ‘Neo-mateship’ in the 21st century: Changes in the performance of Australian masculinity. Journal of Sociology, 44(3): 265-281.

Calzo, J. P. (2010). Determinants of Variability in College Men’s Sociosexuality: A Focus on Avoidance, Bros, and Masculinity Ideologies. PhD thesis, University of Michigan.

Campos-Castillo, C., Groh, S. M., & Anthony, D. L. (2020). Warning: Hegemonic Masculinity May Not Matter as Much as You Think for Confidant Patterns among Older Men. Sex Roles, 1-13.

Cheng, Cliff. (ed.). (1996). Masculinities in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Part Two: Sex Segregation, Homosociality, and Hegemonic Masculinity.
The Occupational Masculinity of Computing / Rosemary Wright.
Stand by Your Man: Homosociality, Work Groups, and Men’s Perceptions of Difference / Amy Wharton and Sharon Bird.
Hegemonic Masculinity among the Elite: Power, Identity, and Homophily in Social Networks / Martin Kilduff and Ajay Mehra.

Chu, Judy. (2005). Adolescent Boys’ Friendships and Peer Group Culture. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, no. 107.

Clawson, M.A. (1989). Constructing Brotherhood: Class, Gender, and Fraternalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Coe, Kathryn, Mary P. Harmon, Blair Verner, and Andrew Tonn. (1993). Tattoos and Male Alliances. Human Nature, 4(2), pp. 199-204.

Cohan, M. (2009). Adolescent heterosexual males talk about the role of male peer groups in the sexual decision making. Sexuality & Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly 13 (3): 152-177.

Crain, Caleb. (2001). American Sympathy: Men, Friendship, and Literature in the New Nation. Yale Univ Press.

Culbertson, Philip. (1996). Men and Christian Friendship. in Krondorfer, Bjorn. (ed.). Men’s Bodies, Men’s Gods: Male Identities in a (Post-) Christian Culture. New York: New York University Press, pp. 14-80.

Curry, Timothy J. (1991). Fraternal Bonding in the Locker Room: A Pro-Feminist Analysis of Talk About Competition and Women. Sociology of Sport Journal, 8(2), June.

Curry, Timothy J. (2001). Reply to “A Conversation (Re)analysis of Fraternal Bonding in the Locker Room”. Sociology of Sport Journal, 18(3): pp. 339-344.

De Jonk, Travis. (2005). Gals with Gay Pals: A celebration of friendship. Bend of Islands, Vic.: Tanjable Press.

Decapua, Andrea, and Diana Boxer. (1999). Bragging, Boasting and Bravado: Male banter in a brokerage house. Women and Language, Spring, 22(1).

Donaldson, Mike. (1993). What is Hegemonic Masculinity? Theory and Society, 22(5), October, pp. 643-657.

Doty, William G. (1993). ‘Companionship Thick as Trees’: Our Myths of Friendship. Journal of Men’s Studies, 1(4), May, pp. 359-382.

Dowsett, Gary. (1993). I’ll Show You Mine, If You’ll Show Me Yours: Gay Men, Masculinity Research, Men’s Studies, and Sex. Theory and Society, 22 (Also Reprinted in On The Level, 3(4), October 1995)

Drummond, M.J., Filiault, S., Anderson, E. and Jeffries, D. (2014). Homosocial intimacy among Australian Undergraduate Men. Journal of Sociology, 50(2) pp. 1-14.

Edgar, Don. (1997). Men, Mateship, Marriage: The Myth of the Male in Love, Sex and Friendship. HarperCollins.

Fanning, Patrick and Matthew McKay. (1993). Being a Friend: Making and Keeping Male Friends. Chapter 6 in Being a Man: A Guide to the New Masculinity. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Farr, K.A. (1988). Dominance Bonding Through the Good Old Boys Sociability Group. Sex Roles, 18, pp. 59-77.

Fee, Dwight. (2000). ‘One of the Guys’: Instrumentality and Intimacy in Gay Men’s Friendships With Straight Men. In Nardi, Peter M. (ed.). Gay Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications (Research on Men and Masculinities Series).

Felmee, Diane H. (1999). Social Norms in Same- and Cross-Gender Friendships. Social Psychology Quarterly, 62(1), pp. 53-67.

Fiebert, Martin S. (1989). Midlife Friendships in an American Faculty Sample. Psychological Reports, 64, pp. 1127-1130.

Flood, Michael. (2007). Men’s relations with men. In The International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities. Ed. M. Flood, J.K. Gardiner, B. Pease, and K. Pringle. Taylor & Francis (pp. 423-427).

Flood, Michael. (2008) Men, Sex, and Homosociality: How bonds between men shape their sexual relations with women. Men and Masculinities, 10(3), April: 339-359. (Available at: http://www.xyonline.net/content/men-sex-and-homosociality-how-bonds-between-men-shape-their-sexual-relations-women-journal-a)

Floyd, K. (1995). Gender and closeness among friends and siblings. Journal of Psychology, 129, 193-202.

Floyd, K. (1996). Brotherly love I: The experience of closeness in the fraternal dyad. Personal Relationships, 3, 369-385.

Floyd, K. (1997). Brotherly love II: A developmental perspective on liking, love, and closeness in the fraternal dyad. Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 196-209.

Garfinkel, Perry. (1992). In a Man’s World: Father, Son, Brother, Friend, and Other Roles Men Play. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press

Greif, Geoffrey L. (2008). Buddy System: Understanding Male Friendships. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hammond, Dorothy, and Alta Jablow. (1987). Gilgamesh and the Sundance Kid: The Myth of Male Friendship. In Brod, Harry. (ed.). The Making of Masculinities: The New Men’s Studies. Boston: Allen & Unwin

Harris III, F., & Harper, S. R. (2014). Beyond bad behaving brothers: productive performances of masculinities among college fraternity men. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 27(6), 703-723.

Harris, Shanette M. (1992). Black Male Masculinity and Same-Sex Friendships. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 16(2), Summer.

Hart, Fiona. (1990). The Construction of Masculinity in Men’s Friendships: Misogyny, Heterosexism and Homophobia. Resources for Feminist Research, 19(3/4).

Harvey, Steve. (1999). Hegemonic Masculinity, Friendship, and Group Formation in an Athletic Subculture. Journal of Men’s Studies, 8(1), Fall.

Hawkes, Ponch. (1990). Best Mates: A Study. Melbourne: McPhee Gribble.

Hickson, Alisdare. (1995). The Poisoned Bowl: Sex, Repression and the Public School System. London: Constable.

Holgersson, C. (2013). Recruiting managing directors: Doing homosociality. Gender, Work & Organization20(4), 454-466.

Holmes, M. (2015). Men’s Emotions: Heteromasculinity, Emotional Reflexivity, and Intimate Relationships. Men and Masculinities, 18(2), 176-192.

Hood, Jane C. (1998). “Let’s Get a Girl”: Male Bonding Rituals in America. In Kimmel, Michael S. and Messner, Michael. (eds). Men’s Lives. New York/Toronto: Macmillan/Maxwell (4th edition).

Ibson, John. (2002). Picturing Men: A Century of Male Relationships in Everyday Life. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books.

Jeffreys, S. (2008). Keeping women down and out: The strip club boom and the reinforcement of male dominance. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society34(1), 151-173.

Jennings, Jerry L., and Christopher M. Murphy. (2000). Male-Male Dimensions of Male-Female Battering: A New Look at Domestic Violence. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 1(1), January.

Jimerson, Jason B. (2001). A Conversation (Re)analysis of Fraternal Bonding in the Locker Room. Sociology of Sport Journal, 18(3): pp. 317-338.

Kaladelfos, Amanda. (2013). ‘Until Death Does Part Us’: Male Friendship, Intimacy, and Violence in Late Colonial Australia. In Graham Willett and Yorick Smaal (Eds.), Intimacy, Violence and Activism: Gay and Lesbian Perspectives VII, Clayton, Vic, Monash University Press: 39-55.

Kaplan, Danny, and Niza Yanay. (2006). Fraternal friendship and commemorative desire. Social Analysis, v.50 no.1, Spring: (127)-146.

Kaplan, Danny. (2006). The Men We Loved: Male Friendship and Nationalism in Israeli Culture. New York: Berghahn Books.

Karioris, F.G., and Allan J. (2019). #NoHomo: Men’s Friendships, or ‘something else.’ Friendship as Ascesis: Michel Foucault, Queer Theory, and Education. Eds. D. L. Carlson and N. Rodriguez. New York: Palgave MacMillan.

Karioris, Frank G. (2019). On Kavanaugh & Dominance Bonding. Practicing Anthropology: A Journal of the Society of Applied Anthropology, Vol 41(1).

Kaufman, Michael. (1993). Buddies in Power and Pain: Men Relating to Men. Chapter 8 in Cracking the Armour: Power, Pain and the Lives of Men. Toronto, Ontario: Penguin

Kavaloski, V. (1981). Men and the Dream of Brotherhood. In Lewis, Robert A. (ed.). Men in Difficult Times. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kennedy, T. (1987). Homophobia in the Left. In Snodgrass, Jon. (ed.). For Men Against Sexism, Albion CA, Times Change Press

Kiesling, Scott Fabius. (2005). Homosocial desire in men’s talk: Balancing and re-creating cultural discourses of masculinity. Language in Society, Volume 34, Issue 05, Nov., pp 695-726.

Kimmel, M. S. (2006). Ritualized Homosexuality in a Nacirema Subculture. Sexualities, 9(1): 95-105.

Kimmel, Michael S. (2000). Gendered Intimacies: Friendship and Love. Chapter 9 in The Gendered Society. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kimmel, Michael S., and Michael Messner. (eds). (1998). Men’s Lives. New York/Toronto: Macmillan/Maxwell (4th edition).
15. The Fraternal Bond as a Joking Relationship: A Case Study of the Role of Sexist Jokes in Male Group Bonding / Lyman, Peter.
19. “I’m Not Friends the Way She’s Friends”: Ideological and Behavioral Constructions of Masculinity in Men’s Friendships / Walker, Karen.
20. Homophobia Among Men: Supporting and Defining the Male Role / Lehne, Gregory K.
21. The Politics of Gay Men’s Friendships / Nardi, Peter M.
23. The Truth About Male Friendships / Simmons, Martin.

Kupers, Terry A. (1993). Friends. Chapter 8 in Revisioning Men’s Lives: Gender, Intimacy, and Power. New York & London: Guilford Press

Lampert, M. D., and S.M. Ervin-Tripp. (2005). Risky laughter: Teasing and self-directed joking among male and female friends. Journal of Pragmatics, 38: 51-72.

Leib, Frank B. (1998). Friendly Competitors, Fierce Companions: Men’s Ways of Relating. Pilgrim Press.

Levy, Donald P. (2005). Hegemonic Complicity, Friendship, and Comradeship: Validation and Causal Processes among White, Middle-Class, Middle-Aged Men. Journal of Men’s Studies, Winter, Vol. 13, Iss. 2.

Lewis, R. (1980). Emotional Intimacy Among Men. In Skovholt, T. et. al. (eds). Counselling Men, Brooks/Cole. (First published 1978 in Journal of Social Issues, Vol 34, no. 1, pp 108-21.)

Lusher, Dean, and Garry Robins. (2010). A social network analysis of hegemonic and other masculinities. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 18(1).

Lyman, Peter. (1987). The Fraternal Bond as a Joking Relationship: A case study of sexist jokes in male group bonding. In Kimmel, Michael. (ed.). Changing Men: New Directions in Research on Men and Masculinity. New York: Sage, pp. 148-163.

Maas, James. (1985). Speaking of Friends: The Variety of Man-to-Man Friendships. Berkeley: Shameless Hussy Press.

Magrath, R., & Scoats, R. (2019). Young Men’s Friendships: Inclusive Masculinities in a Post-University Setting. Journal of Gender Studies, 28(1), 45-56. 10.1080/09589236.2017.1388220

Marks, S. (2018). ‘Bros Before Hoes’: Violence against women in the name of ‘bromosociality’. In Bonds of Brotherhood in Sons of Anarchy: Essays on Masculinity in the FX Series, eds. Susan Fanetti, 9-23. Jefferson: McFarland.

Martin, Patricia, and Robert Hummer. (1989). Fraternities and Rape on Campus. Gender and Society, 3(4), December, pp. 457-473. (Also in Daly, Kathleen and Maher, Lisa. (eds). (1998). Criminology at the Crossroads: Feminist Readings in Crime and Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.).

Martino, Wayne, and Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli. (2003). So What’s a Boy? Addressing Issues of Masculinity and Schooling. Open University Press.
4: ‘Getting into the cool group is like passing an exam’: boys talk about friendships at school

Matthew, B. (2006). Man-to-Man: A Body Talk Between Male Friends. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(1): 185.

McCoy, Alfred W. (1999). Closer Than Brothers: Manhood at the Philippine Military Academy. Yale University Press.

McPherson, Miller, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and James M. Cook. (2001). Birds of a Feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, pp. 415-444.

Messner, Michael A. (1992). Friendship, Intimacy, and Sexuality. Chapter 5 in Power at Play: Sports and the Problem of Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press.

Miller, Stuart. (1983). Men and Friendship. CA: Gateway Books.

Morman, Mark T., and Kory Floyd. (1998). “I love you, man”: Overt expressions of affection in male-male interaction. Sex Roles, May, Vol. 38, Iss. 9/10, pp. 871-881.

Nardi, Peter M. (1999). Gay Men’s Friendships: Invincible Communities. University of Chicago Press.

Nardi, Peter M. (ed.). (1992). Men’s Friendships. London: Sage.

Nelson, Dana. (year?). National Manhood: Capitalist Citizenship and the Imagined Fraternity of White Men.

Nye, R.A. (2000). Kinship, Male Bonds, and Masculinity in Comparative Perspective. American Historical Review. 105(5):1656-1666, Dec.

O’Donnell, Katherine et. al. (eds). (2002). Love, Sex, Intimacy, and Friendship Between Men, 1550-1800. Palgrave Macmillan.

Oransky, M. and J. Marecek. (2009). I’m Not Going to Be a Girl: Masculinity and Emotions in Boys’ Friendships and Peer Groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24(2): 218-241.

Osherson, Samuel. (1992). Wrestling With Love: How Men Struggle With Intimacy With Women, Children, Parents, and Each Other. New York & Toronto: Fawcett Columbine

Osterhaus, James and Oliver, Gary J. (1997). Bonds of Iron: Forging Lasting Male Relationships. Moody Press (Men of Integrity Series).

Oware, M. (2011). Brotherly love: Homosociality and Black masculinity in gangsta rap music. Journal of African American Studies, 15(1), 22-39.

Page, Jim. (2002). Is Mateship a Virtue? Australian Journal of Social Issues, 37(2), May, pp. 193-200.

Patton, T. O. (2008). Jim Crow on fraternity row: A study of the phenomenon of Blackface in the southern White fraternal order. Visual Communication Quarterly, 15.

Penney, J. (2012). “We Don’t Wear Tight Clothes”: Gay Panic and Queer Style in Contemporary Hip Hop. Popular Music and Society, 35(3), 321-332.

Pittman, Frank S. (1993). Man Enough: Fathers, Sons, and the Search for Masculinity. New York: Putnam Publishing Group

Price, Jammie. (1999). Navigating Differences: Friendships between Gay and Straight Men. Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.

Redman, P., D. Epstein, M.J. Kehily, and M. Mac An Ghaill. (2002). Boys Bonding: Same-sex friendship, the unconscious and heterosexual discourse. Discourse, 1 August, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 179-191.

Reeder, H.M. (2003). The Effect of Gender Role Orientation on Same- and Cross-Sex Friendship Formation. Sex Roles, 49(3/4), pp. 143-152.

Reisman, John M. (1990) Intimacy in Same-Sex Friendships. Sex Roles, 23: 1/2, July.

Robinett, J. (2015). Men's friendships as social justice: negotiating masculinities and certainty. PhD thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Roy, Rosanne, Joyce F. Benenson, and Frank Lilly. (2000). Beyond Intimacy: Conceptualizing sex differences in same-sex friendships. Journal of Psychology, 134(1), January.

Rubin, Lillian B. (1985). Just Friends: The Role of Friendship in Our Lives. New York: Harper & Row.

Rumens, N. (2010). Workplace friendships between men: Gay men’s perspectives and experiences. Human Relations: 0018726710361987.

Sanday, Peggy Reeves. (1990). Fraternity Gang Rape: Sex, Brotherhood. and Privilege on Campus. New York & London: New York University Press.

Saville Young, L. and S. Frosh (2010). ‘And where were your brothers in all this?’: A psychosocial approach to texts on ‘brothering’. Qualitative Research 10(5): 511-531.

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. (1985). Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. New York: Columbia University Press.

Segal, Lynne. (1990). Competing Masculinities. Ch’s 5-7 in Slow Motion: Changing Masculinities, Changing Men. London: Virago

Sherrod, Drury. (1987). The Bonds of Men: Problems and Possibilities in Close Male Friendships. In Brod, Harry. (ed.). The Making of Masculinities: The New Men’s Studies. Boston: Allen & Unwin

Silvestre, T. (1981). Becoming Brothers and Unbecoming Barriers. In Lewis, Robert A. (ed.). Men in Difficult Times. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Stoltenberg, John. (1987). Other Men. In Abbott, Franklin. (ed.). New Men, New Minds: Breaking Male Tradition. California: Crossing Press

Stoltenberg, John. (1990). Other Men. In Refusing to Be a Man: Essays on Sex and Justice. CA & Suffolk: Fontana/Collins, pp. 183-194..

Stoltenberg, John. (1993). The End of Manhood: A Book for Men of Conscience. New York: Dutton (especially Chapters 15 and 16) (Also available from Baker & Taylor Replica Books, 1998)

Strikwerda, Robert, and Larry May. (1992). Male Friendship and Intimacy. In May, Larry and Strikwerda, Robert. (eds). Rethinking Masculinity: Philosophical Explorations in Light of Feminism. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield (First published in Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, Summer 1992, 7(3)).

Sutherland, Alistair, and Patrick Anderson. (eds). (1961). Eros: An Anthology of Male Friendship. London: Anthony Blount.

Swain, Scott. (1991). Covert Intimacy: Closeness in men’s friendships. In Risman, Barbara J. and Schwartz, Pepper. (eds). Gender in Intimate Relationships. Belmont, California: Wadsworth, pp. 71-86.

Syrett, Nicholas L. (2009). The Company He Keeps: A History of White College Fraternities. University of North Carolina Press.

Tallberg, Teemu. (2003). Networks, Organisations and Men: Concepts and interrelations. Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration Working Papers, No. 495.

Tillmann-Healy, Lisa M. (2001). Between Gay and Straight: Understanding friendship across sexual orientation. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Totten, Mark. (2000). Guys, Gangs, and Girlfriend Abuse. Ontario: Broadview Press.

Van Leer, David. (1989). The Beast of the Closet: Homosociality and the Pathology of Manhood. Critical Inquiry, 15(3), Spring.

VanLandingham, M., Knodel, J., Saengtienchai, C., & Pramualratana, A. (1998). In the Company of Friends: Peer Influence on Thai Male Extramarital Sex. Social Science & Medicine, 1993-2011.

Wade, J. C., & Coughlin, P. (2012). Male reference group identity dependence, masculinity ideology, and relationship satisfaction in men’s heterosexual romantic relationships. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 13(4), 325.

Wagner-Raphael, Lynne I., David Wyatt Seal, and Anke A. Ehrhardt. (2001). Close Emotional Relationships With Women Versus Men: A Qualitative Study Of 56 Heterosexual Men Living in an Inner-City Neighborhood. Journal of Men’s Studies, Volume 9 Number 2, Winter.

Walker, Karen. (1994). ‘I’m Not Friends the Way She’s Friends’: Ideological and Behavioral Constructions of Masculinity in Men’s Friendships. Masculinities, 2(2), Summer.

Walker, Karen. (1994). Men, Women, and Friendship: What They Say, What They Do. Gender & Society, 8(2), June.

Walle, T. M. (2007). Making Places of Intimacy – Ethnicity, Friendship, and Masculinities in Oslo. Nora, Nordic Journal of Women’s Studies, 15(2): 144 - 157.

Walters, B. J. (2015). More than Words: An Examination of Intimate Expression in Men’s Homosocial Friendships.

Waskow, Howard, and Arthur Waskow. (1993). Becoming Brothers. New York: Free Press.

Way, N. (2013). Boys' Friendships During Adolescence: Intimacy, Desire, and Loss. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(2), 201-213.

Way, Niobe. (1997). Using Feminist Research Methods to Understand the Friendships of Adolescent Boys. Journal of Social Issues, 53(4), Winter.

Way, Niobe. (2011). Deep Secrets: Boys’ Friendships and the Crisis of Connection. Harvard University Press.

Webb, John. (1998). Other Men. In Junk Male. Sydney: HarperCollins

Weibel-Orlando, J. (2008). A room of (his) own: Italian and Italian-American male-bonding spaces and homosociality. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 16(2): 159(18).

Wharton, Amy, and Sharon R. Bird (1996) Stand By Your Man: Homosociality, Work Groups and Men’s Perceptions of Difference. In Cliff Cheng (ed.), Masculinities in Organizations, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Whitehead, Stephen M. (2002). Private Men. Chapter 5 in Men and Masculinities: Key Themes and New Directions. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Yeung, King-To, and Mindy Stombler. (2000). Gay and Greek: The identity paradox of gay fraternities. Social Problems, Feb., Vol. 47, Iss. 1.

Young, B. (1990) Looking for Lonely Men. In Nemiroff, Greta Hofmann (ed.). Women and Men. Fitzherry & Whiteside.