11. Gay Men, Homophobia and Masculinity

Note: This section lists only works which comment on gay men’s or homophobia’s relation to masculinity. Also see works above on men’s relations with men, and on men’s sexuality. Many general works on men and masculinities above include sections on men and homophobia. Works on homophobia and heterosexism and on gay men’s sexuality, politics and culture are listed below in “Gay Male Sexualities”.


Adams, A., & Kavanagh, E. (2018). Inclusive Ideologies and Passive Performances: Exploring Masculinities and Attitudes toward Gay Peers among Boys in an Elite Youth Football Academy. Journal of Gender Studies, 27(3), 313-322.

Allan, J. (2019). Queer Theory and Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities. Routledge International Handbook of Masculinity Studies. Eds. L. Gottzén, U. Mellström, T. Shefer. London: Routledge.

Alt, M., Lewis, A. M., Liu, W. M., Vilain, E., & Sánchez, F. J. (2014). On the validity of popular masculinity rating scales with gay men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43(8), 1547-1557.

Anderson, E. (2002). Openly Gay Athletes: Contesting Hegemonic Masculinity in a Homophobic Environment. Gender & Society, 16(6), 860-877. doi:10.1177/089124302237892

Anderson, E. (2005). Orthodox and inclusive masculinity: Competing masculinities among heterosexual men in a feminized terrain. Sociological Perspectives, 48(3), 337-355. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://000235751600003

Anderson, E. (2005a). In the game: Gay athletes and the cult of masculinity. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Anderson, E. (2008). Inclusive Masculinity in a Fraternal Setting. Men and Masculinities, 10(5), 604-620. doi:10.1177/1097184x06291907

Anderson, E. (2011). Updating the Outcome: Gay Athletes, Straight Teams, and Coming Out in Educationally Based Sport Teams. Gender & Society, 25(2), 250-268. doi:10.1177/0891243210396872

Anderson, E., & McCormack, M. (2010b). Intersectionality, Critical Race Theory, and American Sporting Oppression: Examining Black and Gay Male Athletes. Journal of homosexuality, 57(8), 949 - 967. Retrieved from http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/00918369.2010.503502

Anderson, E., & McCormack, M. (2015). Cuddling and Spooning: Heteromasculinity and Homosocial Tactility among Student-athletes. Men and Masculinities, 18(2), 214-230. doi:10.1177/1097184x14523433

Anderson, E., & McCormack, M. (2018). Inclusive Masculinity Theory: overview, reflection and refinement. Journal of Gender Studies, 27(5), 547-561. doi:10.1080/09589236.2016.1245605

Anderson, E., & McGuire, R. (2010). Inclusive masculinity theory and the gendered politics of men's rugby. Journal of Gender Studies, 19(3), 249 - 261. Retrieved from http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/09589236.2010.494341

Anderson, E., Ripley, M., & McCormack, M. (2018). A Mixed-Method Study of Same-Sex Kissing Among College-Attending Heterosexual Men in the U.S. Sexuality & Culture. doi:10.1007/s12119-018-9560-0

Bell, D. (2000). Farm Boys and Wild Men: Rurality, Masculinity, and Homosexuality. Rural Sociology. 65(4):547-561, Dec.

Berggren, K. (2012). ‘No homo’: Straight inoculations and the queering of masculinity in Swedish hip hop. NORMA, 7(01), 51-66.

Bergling, Tim. (2001). Sissyphobia: Gay Men and Effeminate Behavior. New York: Southern Tier Editions.

Bersani, Leo. (1995). Loving Men. In Maurice Berger, Brian Wallis, and Simon Watson. (eds). Constructing Masculinity. New York and London: Routledge.

Bishop, C. (2015). Emotional Reactions of Heterosexual Men to Gay Imagery. Journal of Homosexuality, 62(1), 51-66.

Boellstorff, T. (2004). The emergence of political homophobia in Indonesia: Masculinity and national belonging. Ethnos, 69(4): 465-486.

Brady, S. (2005). Masculinity and Male Homosexuality in Britain, 1861--1913. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Brake, Mike. (1976). ‘I May Be Queer, But At Least I Am a Man’: Male Hegemony and Ascribed Versus Achieved Gender. In Barker, Diana L. and Allen, Sheila. (eds). Sexual Divisions and Society: Process and Change. London: Tavistock

Brewis, J. and G. Jack (2010). Consuming Chavs: The Ambiguous Politics of Gay Chavinism. Sociology 44(2): 251-268.

Bristow, Joseph. (1989). Homophobia/Misogyny: Sexual Fears, Sexual Definitions. In Sheperd, Simon and Wallis, Mick. (eds). Coming on Strong: Gay Politics and Culture. London: Unwin Hyman .

Brodyn, A., & Ghaziani, A. (2018). Performative Progressiveness: Accounting for New Forms of Inequality in the Gayborhood. City & Community, 17(2), 307-329.

Brown, J. R. (2011). No homo. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(3), 299-314.

Bruce, R. J. (2015). Straight Benevolence: Preserving Heterosexual Authority and White Privilege. PhD thesis.

Buchbinder, David. (1994). ‘Well, Nobody’s Perfect’: Marginal Masculinities. In Masculinities and Identities. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press .

Buchbinder, David. (1998). Performance Anxieties: Re-producing Masculinity. Sydney: Allen & Unwin

Burn, Shawn M. (2000). Heterosexuals’ Use of “Fag” and “Queer” to Deride One Another: A Contributor to Heterosexism and Stigma. Journal of Homosexuality, 40: 1-11.

Bush, A., Anderson, E., & Carr. S. (2012). The declining existence of men’s homophobia in British sport. Journal of the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 6 (1), 107-120.

Cassar, J., & Sultana, M. G. (2017). Parents of gay sons redefining masculinity. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5(08), 170.

Clarke, H. M., & Arnold, K. A. (2017). Diversity in gender stereotypes? A comparison of heterosexual, gay and lesbian perspectives. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration, 34(2), 149-158.

Clarkson, J. (2005). Contesting Masculinity’s Makeover: Queer Eye, Consumer Masculinity, and “Straight-Acting” Gays. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 29(3): 235-255.

Clarkson, J. (2006). “Everyday Joe” versus “Pissy, Bitchy, Queens”: Gay Masculinity on StraightActing. com. Journal of Men’s Studies, 14(2): 191-207.

Clatterbaugh, Kenneth. (1990). A View From Outside: Gay and Black Men Respond. In Contemporary Perspectives on Masculinity: Men, Women, and Politics in Modern Society, Colarado & Oxford: Westview Press .

Collins, J. C. (2015). Characteristics of “Masculinized” Industries: Gay Men as a Provocative Exception to Male Privilege and Gendered Rules. Human Resource Development Review, 14(4), 415-441.

Comstock, Gary David. (1996). Gay Men and Straight Men: Getting Unstuck and Crossing Over. Journal of Men’s Studies, 4(3), February, pp. 281-290.

Connell, R.W. (1992). A Very Straight Gay: Masculinity, Homosexual Experience, and the Dynamics of Gender. American Sociological Review, 57(6), December (Also in Connell, R.W. (1995). Masculinities. Sydney: Allen & Unwin).

Connell, R.W., Davis, M.D. and Dowsett, G.W. (1993). A Bastard of a Life: Homosexual Desire and Practice Among Men in Working-Class Milieux. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 29(1), March.

Corbett, Ken. (2001). Faggot = Loser. Studies in Gender and Sexuality, 2: 3-28. (Also in: Corbett, Ken. (2001). Boyhoods: Rethinking masculinities. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.)

Coveney, Lal, Jackson, Margaret, Jeffreys, Sheila, Kay, Leslie and Mahony, Pat. (1984). The Sexuality Papers: Male Sexuality and the Social Control of Women. London: Hutchinson.

Daboin, I., Peterson, J. L., & Parrott, D. J. (2015). Racial Differences in Sexual Prejudice and Its Correlates among Heterosexual Men. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 21(2), 258.

Davidson, Samuel Marc. (2006). Exploring Socio-Cultural Borderlands: Journeying, Navigating, and Embodying a Queer Identity. Journal of Men’s Studies, Vol. 14 Issue 1.

Davies, M. (2004). Correlates of Negative Attitudes Toward Gay Men: Sexism, Male Role Norms, and Male Sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 41(3).

Dennis, J. P. (2006). Queering Teen Culture: All-American Boys and Same-Sex Desire in Film and Television. New York: Harrington Park Press.

Diefendorf, S., & Bridges, T. (2020). On the enduring relationship between masculinity and homophobia. Sexualities, 0(0), 1363460719876843. doi:10.1177/1363460719876843

Dinshaw, Carolyn. (2009). Queer Perspectives. In Debating Masculinity, eds. Josep M. Armengol and Angels Carabi. Harriman, Tennessee: Men’s Studies Press.

Dollimore, Jonathan. (1997). Desire and Difference: Homosexuality, Race, Masculinity. In Stecopoulos, Harry and Uebel, Michael. (eds). Race and the Subject of Masculinities. Duke University Press.

Dorais, Michael et. al. (2004). Dead Boys Can’t Dance: Sexual Orientation, Masculinity, and Suicide.

Dowsett, Gary W. (1993). I’ll Show You Mine, If You’ll Show Me Yours: Gay men, masculinity research, Men’s Studies, and sex. Theory and Society, 22. (Also reprinted in On The Level, 3(4), October 1995)

Dowsett, Gary W. (1994). Working-Class Homosexuality, Gay Community, and the Masculine Sexual (Dis)order. Revue Sexologique, 2(2), Autumn, pp. 75-105.

Dowsett, Gary W. (1998). Wusses and Willies: Masculinity and Contemporary Sexual Politics. Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 3(2), December.

Doyle, C. M., Rees, A. M., & Titus, T. L. (2015). Perceptions of Same-Sex Relationships and Marriage as Gender Role Violations: An Examination of Gendered Expectations (Sexism). Journal of Homosexuality, 62(11), 1576-1598.

Doyle, James A. (1989). Of Gay Men and Opened Closets: Homosexuality. Chapter 13 in The Male Experience. (2nd edition) Iowa: W.M.C. Brown.

Du Plessis, M. (2000). Nostalgia for a Homogeneous Gay Masculinity [Review], Modern Fiction Studies. 46(2):501-514, Sum.

Edwards, Tim. (1990). Beyond Sex and Gender: Masculinity, Homosexuality and Social Theory. In Hearn, Jeff and Morgan, David H.J. (eds). Men, Masculinities and Social Theory. London: Unwin Hyman.

Edwards, Tim. (1993). Erotics and Politics: Gay Male Sexuality, Masculinity, and Feminism. New York: Routledge.

Edwards, Tim. (2005). Queering the Pitch? Gay Masculinities. In The Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. Eds Michael Kimmel, Jeff Hearn, and R.W. Connell. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Edwards, Tim. (2006). On the Other Side of the Mirror I: Masculinity and homosexuality. Chapter 4 in Cultures of Masculinity. Routledge.

Eguchi, S. (2011). Negotiating Sissyphobia: A Critical/Interpretive Analysis of One “Femme” Gay Asian Body in the Heteronormative World. Journal of Men’s Studies, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 37-56.

Falomir-Pichastor, J. M., Berent, J., & Anderson, J. (2019). Perceived Men’s Feminization and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: Heterosexual Men’s Reactions to the Decline of the Anti-Femininity Norm of Masculinity. Sex Roles, 81(3), 208-222. doi:10.1007/s11199-018-0985-6

Fejes, F. (2000). Making a Gay Masculinity. Critical Studies in Media Communication. 17(1):113-116, Mar.

Flood, M., and C. Hamilton (2008) Mapping Homophobia in Australia. In Homophobia: An Australian History. Ed. S. Robinson. Federation Press (pp. 16-38). (Available at http://www.xyonline.net/content/mapping-homophobia-australia)

Flood, Michael. (1993). Straightjacket. (Homophobia and masculinity) XY: Men, Sex, Politics, 3(2), Winter.

Flood, Michael. (1997). Homophobia and Masculinities Among Young Men (Lessons in Becoming a Straight Man). Presentation to Teachers, Professional Development Training, O’Connell Education Centre, Canberra, 22 April (Copy available from author).

Forrest, David. (1993). ‘We’re Here, We’re Queer, and We’re Not Going Shopping’: Changing Gay Male Identities in Contemporary Britain. In Cornwall, Andrea and Lindisfarne, Nancy. (eds). Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies. London and New York: Routledge.

Frye, Marilyn. (1983). The Politics of Reality: Essays in Feminist Theory. Trumansburg NY: Crossing Press.

Gerdes, Z. T., & Levant, R. F. (2018). Complex Relationships among Masculine Norms and Health/Well-Being Outcomes: Correlation Patterns of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory Subscales. American Journal of Men’s Health, 12(2), 229-240.

Gerdes, Z. T., Alto, K. M., Jadaszewski, S., D'Auria, F., & Levant, R. F. (2018). A content analysis of research on masculinity ideologies using all forms of the Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI). Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 19(4), 584.

Gilbert, Rob, and Pam Gilbert. (1998). Masculinity at the Margins. Chapter 6 in Masculinity Goes to School. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Glick, P., C. Gangl, S. Gibb, S. Klumpner, and E. Weinberg. (2007). Defensive Reactions to Masculinity Threat: More negative affect towards effeminate (but not masculine) gay men. Sex Roles, 57: 55-59.

Glotfelter, M. A., & Anderson, V. N. (2017). Relationships between Gender Self-Esteem, Sexual Prejudice, and Trans Prejudice in Cisgender Heterosexual College Students. International Journal of Transgenderism, 18(2), 182-198.

Goetz, J. (1987). Interrupting Homophobia. Achilles Heel, No. 8, April.

Gough, Jamie. (1989). Theories of Gay Identity and the Masculinisation of the Gay Man. In Sheperd, Simon and Wallis, Mick. (eds). Coming on Strong: Gay Politics and Culture. London: Unwin Hyman

Halberstam, Judith. (1997). Mackdaddy, Superfly, Rapper: Gender, Race, and Masculinity in the Drag King Scene. Social Text, Special Issue: Queer Transexions of Race, Nation, and Gender, No’s 52-53.

Halberstam, Judith. (2005). Shame and White Gay Masculinity. Social Text, 23.3, Fall-Winter.

Han, C.S. (2008). No fats, femmes, or Asians: the utility of critical race theory in examining the role of gay stock stories in the marginalization of gay Asian men. Contemporary Justice Review, 11(1): 11-22.

Hanmer, Jalna. (1990). Men, Power, and the Exploitation of Women. Women’s Studies International Forum, 13(5), pp. 443-456 (Also published in Hearn, Jeff and Morgan, David H.J. (eds). (1990). Men, Masculinities and Social Theory. London: Unwin Hyman)

Harder, B. M. (2016). Gay Men’s Relationships in the United States. Encyclopedia of Family Studies, 1-5.

Harris, W. C. (2006). “In My Day It Used to Be Called a Limp Wrist”: Flip-Floppers, Nelly Boys, and Homophobic Rhetoric in the 2004 US Presidential Campaign. Journal of American Culture, 29(3): 278.

Hart, Fiona. (year?). The Construction of Masculinity in Men’s Friendships: Misogyny, Heterosexism and Homophobia. Resources for Feminist Research, 19(3/4)

Hart, Kylo-Patrick R. (2004). We’re Here, We’re Queer -- and We’re Better Than You: The Representational Superiority of Gay Men to Heterosexuals on Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. Journal of Men’s Studies, Spring, 12(3).

Hartless, J. (2019). ‘They’re Gay Bars, but They’re Men Bars’: Gendering Questionably Queer Spaces in a Southeastern Us University Town. Gender, Place & Culture, 1-20. 10.1080/0966369X.2018.1557601

Harvey, Steve. (1999). Hegemonic Masculinity, Friendship, and Group Formation In an Athletic Subculture. Journal of Men’s Studies, 8(1), Fall.

Hatchell, Helen. (2002). Masculinities And Adolescent Males At School: Disrupting Or Recreating Homophobic Discourses. In Manning the Next Millennium: Studies in Masculinities. Edited by Sharyn Pearce and Vivienne Muller. Black Swan Press.

Healy, Murray. (1996). Gay Skins: Class, Masculinity and Queer Appropriation. London: Cassell.

Heasley, R. (2005). Queer Masculinities of Straight Men: A Typology. Men and Masculinities, 7(3): 310-320.

Heidel, U. (2006). Homosexuality and reason of state. Masculinity, homophobia and politics in Germany 1900-1945. Zeitschrift Fur Geschichtswissenschaft, 54(2): 171-173.

Hennen, P. (2004). Fae Spirits and Gender Trouble: Resistance and Compliance among the Radical Faeries. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 33(5): 499-533.

Hennen, P. (2005). Bear bodies, bear masculinity - Recuperation, resistance, or retreat? Gender & Society, 19 (1), February, pp. 25-43.

Hennen, Peter. (2008). Faeries, Bears, and Leathermen: Men in Community Queering Masculinity. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Hensley, Christopher, Richard Tewksbury, and Jeremy Wright. (2001). Exploring the Dynamics of Masturbation and Consensual Same-Sex Sexual Activity Within a Male Maximum Security Prison. Journal of Men’s Studies, 10(1), Fall.

Hirai, M., Dolma, S., Popan, J. R., & Winkel, M. H. (2017). Machismo Predicts Prejudice toward Lesbian and Gay Individuals: Testing a Mediating Role of Contact. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 1-7.

Hirai, M., Winkel, M. H., & Popan, J. R. (2014). The Role of Machismo in Prejudice toward Lesbians and Gay Men: Personality Traits as Moderators. Personality and Individual Differences, 70, 105-110.

Hopkins, Patrick D. (1992). Gender Treachery: Homophobia, Masculinity, and Threatened Identities. In May, Larry and Robert Strikwerda. (eds). Rethinking Masculinity: Philosophical Explorations in Light of Feminism. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield .

Humphrey, Jill C. (2000). Cracks in the Feminist Mirror? Reflections on Lesbians and Gay Men Working Together. Feminist Review. No. 66, Autumn.

Humphries, Martin. (1985). Gay Machismo. In Metcalf, Andy and Humphries, Martin. (ed.). The Sexuality of Men. London: Pluto Press

Humphries, Martin. (1992). A Gay Man’s Reflections on the Men’s Movement. In Porter, David. (ed.). Between Men and Feminism. London & New York: Routledge

Jackson, Ronald L., and Murali Balaji. (2011). (eds.). Global Masculinities and Manhood. University of Illinois Press.
2. Queer(y)ing Masculinities / Bryant Keith Alexander.

Jeffreys, Sheila. (1990). Anti-Climax: A Feminist Perspective on the Sexual Revolution. London: The Women’s Press.

Jeffreys, Sheila. (1993). The Lesbian Heresy. North Melbourne, VIC: Spinifex.

Johnson, Corey, and Diane Samdahl. (2005). “The Night They Took Over”: Misogyny in a Country-Western Gay Bar. Leisure Sciences, Volume 27, Number 4, July-September, pp. 331-348.

Journal of Gender Studies, Volume 27, Issue 3, April 2018. Special issue: Generational Masculinities;
Introduction: Generational masculinities / Eric Anderson;
Elderly British men: homohysteria and orthodox masculinities / Eric Anderson & Charles Owen Fidler;
Age and changing masculinities in gay–straight male workplace friendships / Nick Rumens;
Domestic labour, masculinity and social change: insights from working-class young men’s transitions to adulthood / Steven Roberts;
The integration of British undergraduate men’s public and private masculinities / Matthew Ripley;
From hegemonic to inclusive masculinities in English professional football: marking a cultural shift / Lindsey Gaston, Rory Magrath & Eric Anderson;
Inclusive ideologies and passive performances: exploring masculinities and attitudes toward gay peers among boys in an elite youth football academy / Adi Adams & Emma Kavanagh;
The impact of gay friendly cultures on religious expression: a study of inclusive attitudes and behaviours among religious adolescent American male athletes / Luis Emilio Morales;
Is masculinity ‘deteriorating’ in China? Changes of masculinity representation in Chinese film posters from 1951 to 2016 / Lingshu Hu;
The makings of a man: social generational masculinities in Bangladesh / Md Kamrul Hasan, Peter Aggleton & Asha Persson;
Caught in-between: social developments and young men in urban India / Shannon Philip.

Kay, M., and S. Jeffries. (2010). Homophobia, Heteronormativism and Hegemonic Masculinity: Male Same-Sex Intimate Violence from the Perspective of Brisbane Service Providers Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 17(3), 412-423.

Keiller, S. W. (2010). Masculine Norms as Correlates of Heterosexual Men’s Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbian Women. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 11(1), 38.

Kendall, Chris, and Wayne Martino. (eds.). (2006). Gendered Outcasts and Sexual Outlaws. Haworth Press.
Foreword (John Stoltenberg).
1. Introduction (Christopher Kendall and Wayne Martino).
2. Brettles (John Gascoigne).
3. The Relevance of Radical Feminism for Gay Men (Robert Jensen).
4. Sissyphobia and Everything After (Tim Bergling).
5. Straight-Acting Masculinities: Normalisation and Gender Hierarchies in Gay Men’s Lives (Wayne Martino).
6. Stats Please: Gay Men As Mimics, Robots, and Commodities in Contemporary Cultural Spaces (Anthony Lambert).
7. Narcissism, the Adonis Complex, and the Pursuit of the Ideal (Daryl Higgins).
8. Pornography, Hypermasculinity, and Gay Male Identity: Implications for Male Rape and Gay Male Domestic Violence (Christopher Kendall).
9. Queer Men and Sexual Assault: What Being Raped Says About Being a Man (Rus Ervin Funk).
10. HE and i =/ (does not equal) US (Peter Shuttlewood).
11. Reading Racial Gaze: Western Gay Society and Pornographic Depictions of Asian Men (Simon Obendorf).

Kendall, Christopher. (1995). Gay Male Pornography: An Issue of Sex Discrimination. Australian Feminist Legal Journal, 5, August, pp. 81-98.

Kendall, Christopher. (1997). Gay Male Pornography After Little Sisters Book and Art Emporium: A Call for Gay Male Cooperation in the Struggle for Sex Equality. Wisconsin Women’s Law Journal, XII(1), Spring.

Kennedy, T. (1987). Homophobia in the Left. In Snodgrass, Jon. (ed.). For Men Against Sexism, Albion CA, Times Change Press

Kilianski, Stephen E. (2003). Explaining Heterosexual Men’s Attitudes Toward Women and Gay Men: The Theory of Exclusively Masculine Identity. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4(1), pp. 37-56.

Kimmel, Michael S. (1990). After Fifteen Years: The Impact of the Sociology of Masculinity on the Masculinity of Sociology. In Hearn, Jeff and Morgan, David. (eds). Men, Masculinities and Social Theory. London: Unwin Hyman, pp. 93-109.

Kimmel, Michael S. (1994). Masculinity as Homophobia: Fear, shame, and silence in the construction of gender identity. In Harry Brod and Michael Kaufman. (eds). Theorizing Masculinities. London: Sage, pp. 119-141. (Also in Whitehead, Stephen M., and Frank J. Barrett. (eds). (2001). The Masculinities Reader. Cambridge: Polity Press.).

Kinsman, Gary. (1987). Men Loving Men: The Challenge of Gay Liberation. In Kaufman, Michael. (ed.). Beyond Patriarchy: Essays by Men on Pleasure, Power and Change. New York: Oxford University Press

Kinsman, Gary. (1993). ‘Inverts’, ‘Psychopaths’ and ‘Normal’ Men: Historical Sociological Perspectives on Gay and Heterosexual Masculinities. In Haddad, Tony. (ed.). Men and Masculinities: A Critical Anthology. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press

Kleinberg, Seymour. (1987). The New Masculinity of Gay Men and Beyond. In Kaufman, Michael. (ed.). Beyond Patriarchy: Essays by Men on Pleasure, Power and Change. New York: Oxford University Press.

Korobov, Neill. (2004). Inoculating Against Prejudice: A Discursive Approach to Homophobia and Sexism in Adolescent Male Talk. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, Volume 5, Issue 2, July, pp. 178-189.

Kupers, Terry A. (1993). Homophobia in Straight Men. Chapter 3 in Revisioning Men’s Lives: Gender, Intimacy, and Power. New York & London: Guilford Press

Landreau, John, and Nelson Rodriguez. (eds.) (2012). Queer Masculinities: A Critical Reader in Education.
Chapter 1. Queer Masculinities in Education: An Introduction, John C. Landreau and Nelson M. Rodriguez. Part I Queer Masculinities at the K-12 Level: Chapter 2. Queering Masculinities in Male Teachers’ Lives, Wayne Martino; Chapter 3. Queer Masculinities, Gender Conformity, and the Secondary School, Mark McCormack; Chapter 4. Phallic Girls?: Girls’ Negotiation of Phallogocentric Power, Emma Renold and Jessica Ringrose; Chapter 5. The Queer in Masculinity: Schooling, Boys, and Identity Formation, Máirt’n Mac an Ghaill and Chris Haywood; Chapter 6. Tangling with Masculinity: Butchness, Trans, and Feminism, Cris Mayo; Chapter 7. Queering Classes: Disrupting Hegemonic Masculinity and the Effects of Compulsory Heterosexuality in the Classroom, Robert Heasley and Betsy Crane. Part II Queer Masculinities at the Collegiate Level: Chapter 8. Queering Masculine Peer Culture: Softening Gender Performances on the University Dance Floor, Grant Tyler Peterson and Eric Anderson; Chapter 9. Does Masculinity Have a Race? Queering White Masculinities, Bobby Noble; Chapter 10. Queer Listening as a Framework for Teaching Men and Masculinities, John C. Landreau; Chapter 11. Becoming the Loon: Queer Pedagogies and Female Masculinity, Stacey Waite; Chapter 12. Trading Gender: University Spaces as a Facilitator for Transgressive Embodiment of Women in Male-Dominated Trades, Louisa Smith. Part III Queer Masculinities and Cultural Pedagogies: Chapter 13. Fighting Fairies, Gazing at Men: How to Become a Queer Reader, Jeffery P. Dennis; Chapter 14. Please Sir! Can I Come Out of the Closet and into the Classroom?”: British Low Culture and Representations of Queer Masculinities in Education, Peter Hughes Jachimiak; Chapter 15. Coming Undone: James Baldwin’s Another Country and Queer Pedagogy, Dennis Carlson; Chapter 16. Queer Imaginative Bodies and the Politics and Pedagogy of Trans Generosity: The Case of Gender Rebel, Nelson M. Rodriguez; Chapter 17. Educating-Bodies: Dialogism, Speech Genres, and Utterances as the Body, David V. Ruffolo.

Lanzieri, N., and T. Hildebrandt (2011). Using Hegemonic Masculinity to Explain Gay Male Attraction to Muscular and Athletic Men. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(2): 275-293.

Lehne, G. K. (1998). Homophobia among men: Supporting and defining the male role. In M. S. Kimmel & M. A. Messner. (eds.), Men’s Lives (4th ed., pp. 237-249). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Lester, T. (1999). Protecting the gender nonconformist from the gender police: Why the harassment of gays and other gender nonconformists is a form of sex discrimination in light of the Supreme Court’s decision Oncale V. Sundowner. New Mexico Law Review, 29,1, pp. 89-118.

Levine, Martin P. (1997). Gay Macho: The Life and Death of the Homosexual Clone. New York University Press.

Leyland, Joyce. (1987). On the Conflicts of Doing Feminist Research Into Masculinity. Studies in Sexual Politics, 16, pp. 38-47 .

Long, Ronald E. (1994). An Affair of Men: Masculinity and the Dynamics of Gay Sex. Journal of Men’s Studies, 3(1), August, pp. 21-48.

Lunny, A. M. (2003). Provocation and ‘Homosexual’ Advance: Masculinized Subjects as Threat, Masculinized Subjects Under Threat. Social & Legal Studies, September, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 311-333.

Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin. (1994). The Making of Men: Masculinities, Sexualities and Schooling. Buckingham: Open University Press..
3. Sexuality: Learning to Become a Heterosexual Man at School.
5. Schooling, Sexuality and Male Power: Towards an Emancipatory Curriculum.

Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin. (2000). Rethinking (Male) Gendered Sexualities in Education: What About the British Heteros?. Journal of Men’s Studies, 8(2), Winter.

Martínez, C., Vázquez, C., & Falomir-Pichastor, J. M. (2015). Perceived Similarity with Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men’s Antigay Prejudice. Journal of Homosexuality, 62(11), 1560-1575.

Martino, Wayne. (2000). Policing Masculinities: Investigating the role of homophobia and heteronormativity in the lives of adolescent school boys. Journal of Men’s Studies, 8(2), Winter.

McCann, Pól Dominic. (2006). The Pressures of Modern Manhood: The Role of Homophobia in Shaping the Gender and Sexual Identities of Australian Men. PhD thesis, University of New England.

McCormack, M. (2011). Hierarchy without hegemony: Locating boys in an inclusive school setting. Sociological Perspectives, 54(1), 83-101.

McCormack, M. (2011). The declining significance of homohysteria for male students in three sixth forms in the south of England. British Educational Research Journal, 37(2), 337-353.

McCormack, M. (2020). On the construction of an artificial paradox: A critical commentary on Diefendorf and Bridges’ ‘On the enduring relationship between masculinity and homophobia’. Sexualities, 0(0), 1363460720905519. doi:10.1177/1363460720905519

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2. Seeking Sexual Lives: Gay Youth and Masculinity Tensions / Mutchler, Matt G.
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4. Gay Male Domestic Violence and the Pursuit of Masculinity / Cruz, J. Michael.
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1. Making Masculinity: Adolescence, Identity, and High School.
Revenge of the Nerds.
What Do We Mean by Masculinity?
Bringing in Sexuality.
Rethinking Masculinity, Sexuality, and Bodies.
Organization of the Book.
2. Becoming Mr. Cougar: Institutionalizing Heterosexuality and Masculinity at River High.
River High’s Gender and Sexuality Curriculum.
Pedagogy: The Unofficial Gender and Sexuality Curriculum.
School Rituals: Performing and Policing Gender and Sexuality.
Gender and Sexuality Regimes.
3. Dude, You’re a Fag: Adolescent Male Homophobia.
What Is a Fag? Gendered Meanings.
Becoming a Fag: Fag Fluidity.
Embodying the Fag: Ricky’s Story.
Racializing the Fag.
Where the Fag Disappears: Drama Performances.
Reframing Homophobia.
4. Compulsive Heterosexuality: Masculinity and Dominance.
A Stud with the Ladies.
Getting Girls.
Sex Talk.
Girls Respond.
I’m Different from Other Guys.
Females Are the Puppets.
5. Look at My Masculinity! Girls Who Act Like Boys.
Tomboy Pasts.
Rebeca and the Basketball Girls.
The Homecoming Queen: Jessie Chau.
The Gay/Straight Alliance Girls.
Embodying Masculinity.
6. Conclusion: Thinking about Schooling, Gender, and Sexuality.
Masculinity at River High.
Theoretical Implications.
Practical Steps.
Appendix: What If a Guy Hits on You? Intersections of Gender, Sexuality, and Age in Fieldwork with Adolescents.

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Masculinity on Trial: Undressing Homophobia in the Bible Belt / Megan Boler.
Men’s Bodies: Listening to the Voices of Young Gay Men / Murray J. N. Drummond.
Part of the Package: Ideas of Masculinity among Male-Identified Transpeople / Jamison Green.
Staging Sex and Masculinity at the Mineshaft / Ira Tattelman.
Queer Masculinities of Straight Men: A Typology / Robert Heasley.

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