04. Media representations, language

Anastasio, Phyllis A., and Diana M. Costa. (2004). Twice Hurt: How Newspaper Coverage May Reduce Empathy and Engender Blame for Female Victims of Crime. Sex Roles, 51(9/10), pp. 535-542.

Anderson, I. (1999). Characterological and behavioral blame in conversations about female and male rape. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 18(4), 377-394.

Aroustamian, C. (2020). Time's up: Recognising sexual violence as a public policy issue: A qualitative content analysis of sexual violence cases and the media. Aggression and violent behavior, 50, 101341. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2019.101341

Atmore, Chris. (1994). Brand News: Rape and the Mass Media. Media Information Australia, No. 72, May (Special Issue: Body’s image).

Attenborough, F. (2014). Rape Is Rape (except When It’s Not): The Media, Recontextualisation and Violence against Women. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 2(2), 183-203.

Aubrey, J. S., Hopper, K. M., & Mbure, W. G. (2011). Check That Body! The Effects of Sexually Objectifying Music Videos on College Men’s Sexual Beliefs. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 55(3), 360-379.

Baker, A. & Williams, K. (2019). Building on #MeToo and #MeNoMore: Devising a framework to examine sexual violence in Australian music journalism. Australian Journalism Review, 41(1), 103-116.

Beck, V. S., Boys, S., Rose, C., & Beck, E. (2012). Violence against Women in Video Games: A Prequel or Sequel to Rape Myth Acceptance? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(15), 3016-3031. 10.1177/0886260512441078

Beck, V., & Rose, C. (2018). Is Sexual Objectification and Victimization of Females in Video Games Associated with Victim Blaming or Victim Empathy? Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260518770187.

Benedict, Helen. (1992). Virgin or Vamp: How the Press Covers Sex Crimes. New York: Oxford University Press.

Berns, N. (2004). Framing the Victim: Domestic violence, media, and social problems. Transaction Publishers.

Berns, Nancy. (2001). Degendering the Problem and Gendering the Blame: Political Discourse on Women and Violence. Gender & Society, 15, 2, Apr, 262-281.

Bohner, G. (2001). Writing About Rape: Use of the Passive Voice and Other Distancing Text Features as an Expression of Perceived Responsibility of the Victim. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), 515-529.

Braber, N. (2015). Representation of domestic violence in two British newspapers, The Guardian and The Sun, 2009-2011. ELR Journal, 1: 86-104.

Bretthauer, B., Zimmerman, T. S., & Banning, J. H. (2007). A feminist analysis of popular music: Power over, objectification of, and violence against women. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 18(4), 29-51.

Brown, M. (1996). The Portrayal of Violence in the Media: Impacts & Implications for Policy. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 55. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Bufkin, J., and S. Eschholz. (2000). Images of Sex and Rape: A Content Analysis of Popular Film. Violence Against Women, 6(12), 1317-1344.

Bullock, C.F., and J. Cubert. (2002). Coverage of domestic violence fatalities by newspapers in Washington State. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(5): 475.

Bushman, B. J. (2005). Violence and Sex in Television Programs Do Not Sell Products in Advertisements. Psychological Science, 16(9): 702-708.

Caputi, Jane. (1990). The New Founding Fathers: The Lore and Lure of the Serial Killer in Contemporary Culture. Journal of American Culture, 13(3), Fall.

Carll, Elizabeth K. (2003). News Portrayal of Violence and Women: Implications for public policy. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(12): 1601-1610.

CDC. (2008). Electronic Media and Youth Violence: A CDC Issue Brief for Educators and Caregivers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Coates, L., & Wade, A. (2007). Language and Violence: Analysis of Four Discursive Operations. Journal of Family Violence, 22(7), 511-522.

Comstock, G., Scharrer, E., & Powers, J. (2014). The contribution of meta-analysis to the controversy over television violence and aggression. Media Violence and Children: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals, 381.

Coy, M. & Horvath, M.A.H. (2011). ‘Lads mags’, young men’s attitudes towards women and acceptance of myths about sexual aggression. Feminism & Psychology, 21(1), 144-150.

Cuklanz, Lisa M. (1995). Rape on Trial: How the Mass Media Construct Legal Reform and Social Change. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Cuklanz, Lisa M. (1999). Rape on Prime Time: Television, Masculinity, and Sexual Violence. University of Pennsylvania Press

DiBennardo, R. A. (2018). Ideal victims and monstrous offenders: How the news media represent sexual predators. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, 4. https://doi.org/10.1177/2378023118802512.

Easteal, P., Bartels, L., Holland, N. & Nelson, N. (2015). How are women who kill portrayed in newspaper media? Connections with social values and the legal system. Women’s Studies International Forum, 51: 31-41.

Easteal, P., Holland, K., & Judd, K. (2015). Enduring themes and silences in media portrayals of violence against women. Women’s Studies International Forum, 48, 103-113. doi: 10.1016/j.wsif.2014.10.015.

Easteal, P., Holland, K., Breen, M. D., Vaughan, C., & Sutherland, G. (2017). Australian Media Messages: Critical Discourse Analysis of Two Intimate Homicides Involving Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 1077801218780364.

Easteal, P., Holland, K., Judd, K. (2015). Enduring themes and silences in media portrayals of violence against women. Women’s Studies International Forum, 48, 103-113.

Ehrlich, S. (2001). Representing Rape: Language and Sexual Consent. Routledge.

Elson, M. & Ferguson, C. (2014). Twenty-Five Years of Research on Violence in Digital Games and Aggression: Empirical Evidence, Perspectives, and a Debate Gone Astray, European Psychologist, 19(1), 33-46.

Enck-Wanzer, S. M. (2009). All’s Fair in Love and Sport: Black Masculinity and Domestic Violence in the News. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 6(1): 1-18.

Evans, L. (2001). Desperate lovers and wanton women: Press representations of domestic violence. Hecate, 27(2): 147-173.

Ferguson, C. J., & Donnellan, M. B. (2017). Are Associations Between “Sexist” Video Games and Decreased Empathy Toward Women Robust? A Reanalysis of Gabbiadini et al. 2016. Journal of youth and adolescence. doi:10.1007/s10964-017-0700-x

Ferguson, Christopher J. (2012). Positive Female Role-Models Eliminate Negative Effects of Sexually Violent Media. Journal of Communication, 62(5) (October 27): 888–899.

Fox, J., & Potocki, B. (2016). Lifetime Video Game Consumption, Interpersonal Aggression, Hostile Sexism, and Rape Myth Acceptance: A Cultivation Perspective. Journal of interpersonal violence, 31(10), 1912-1931.

Fox, J., Ralston, R. A., Cooper, C. K., & Jones, K. A. (2014). Sexualized Avatars Lead to Women’s Self-Objectification and Acceptance of Rape Myths. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39(3): 349-362.

Franiuk R, Seefelt JL, Cepress SL, Vandello JA. (2008). Prevalence and effects of rape myths in print journalism: the Kobe Bryant case. Violence Against Women, 14(3): 287-309.

Gabbiadini, A., Riva, P., Andrighetto, L., Volpato, C., & Bushman, B. J. (2016). Acting Like a Tough Guy: Violent-Sexist Video Games, Identification with Game Characters, Masculine Beliefs, & Empathy for Female Violence Victims. PLOS ONE, 11(4), e0152121. 10.1371/journal.pone.0152121

Galdi, S., Maass, A., & Cadinu, M. (2013). Objectifying media: their effect on gender role norms and sexual harassment of women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38(3): 398-413

Harris KL, Palazzolo KE & Savage MW (2012). ‘I’m not sexist, but…’: How ideological dilemmas reinforce sexism in talk about intimate partner violence. Discourse & Society 2012, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 643-656.

Henley, N. M., M. Miller,and Beazley, J. (1995). Syntax, semantics, and sexual violence Agency and the passive voice. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 14(1-2), 60-84.

Hernandez, L.H. (2018). A feminist health communication analysis of media framing of Olivia Benson/Mariska Hargitay’s anti-sexual assault advocacy efforts. In C.M. Madere (Ed.), Celebrity Media Effects: The persuasive power of the stars. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Hoffman, K. (2005). Framing the Victim: Domestic Violence, Media, and Social Problems. Teaching Sociology, 33(4): 436.

Hollander, J. A. (2016). Teaching About Gendered Violence without Disempowering Women. Teaching Gender and Sex in Contemporary America (pp. 85-92): Springer.

Horvath, M.A.H., Hegarty, P., Tyler, S. & Mansfield, S. (2011).”Lights on at the end of the party”: Are Lads Mags’ Mainstreaming Dangerous Sexism? British Journal of Psychology, 103(4), 454-471.DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8295.2011.02086.x

Howe, Adrian. (1997). “The war against women”: Media representations of men’s violence against women in Australia. Violence Against Women, 3(1): 59.

Hust, S. J. T., Marett, E. G., Lei, M., Ren, C., & Ran, W. (2015). Law & Order, CSI, and NCIS: The Association Between Exposure to Crime Drama Franchises, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Sexual Consent Negotiation Among College Students. Journal of health communication, 20(12), 1369-1381. doi:10.1080/10810730.2015.1018615

Hust, S. J., Lei, M., Ren, C., Chang, H., McNab, A. L., Marett, E. G., & Willoughby, J. F. (2013). The Effects of Sports Media Exposure on College Students’ Rape Myth Beliefs and Intentions to Intervene in a Sexual Assault. Mass Communication and Society, 16(6), 762-786.

Hust, S. J., Marett, E. G., Ren, C., Adams, P. M., Willoughby, J. F., Lei, M., . . . Norman, C. (2014). Establishing and adhering to sexual consent: The association between reading magazines and college students’ sexual consent negotiation. The Journal of Sex Research, 51(3), 280-290.

Johnson, J.D., M.S. Adams, L. Ashburn, and W. Reed. (1995). Differential gender effects of exposure to rap music on African American adolescents’ acceptance of teen dating violence. Sex Roles, 33(7-8): 597.

Judd, K., & Easteal, P. (2013). Media reportage of sexual harassment: The credible complainant. Denning Law Journal, 25(1), 159-180.

Kaestle C. E., C. T. Halpern, and J. D. Brown (2007) Music videos, pro wrestling, and acceptance of date rape among middle school males and females: an exploratory analysis. J Adolesc Health, Feb; 40(2): 185-7.

Krahé, B., & Busching, R. (2015). Breaking the vicious cycle of media violence use and aggression: A test of intervention effects over 30 months. Psychology of Violence, 5(2), 217-226. doi:10.1037/a0036627

Lamb, S., and S. Keon. (1995). Blaming the perpetrator: Language that distorts reality in writing about men battering women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19: 209-220.

Lee, M. J., Hust, S., Zhang, L., & Zhang, Y. (2010). Effects of violence against women in popular crime dramas on viewers' attitudes related to sexual violence. Mass Communication and Society, 14(1), 25-44.

Lelaurain, S., Fonte, D., Aim, M.-A., Khatmi, N., Decarsin, T., Lo Monaco, G., & Apostolidis, T. (2018). “One Doesn’t Slap a Girl but…” Social Representations and Conditional Logics in Legitimization of Intimate Partner Violence. Sex Roles, 78(9), 637-652.

Lemmens, J. S., B. J. Bushman and E. A. Konijn (2006). The Appeal of Violent Video Games to Lower Educated Aggressive Adolescent Boys from Two Countries. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9(5): 638-641.

Lin, J.-H. (2013). Do video games exert stronger effects on aggression than film? The role of media interactivity and identification on the association of violent content and aggressive outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 535-543.

Lonne, B., and K. Gillespie. (2014). How do Australian print media representations of child abuse and neglect inform the public and system reform? Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(5): 837-850.

Lykke, L.C. (2015). Visibility and denial: Accounts of sexual violence in race- and gender-specific magazines. Feminist Media Studies, [ahead-of-print]. DOI:10.1080/14680777.2015.1061034

Magestro, M.A. (2015). Assault on the small screen: Representations of sexual violence on prime time television dramas. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Manganello, J. A. (2008). Teens, Dating Violence, and Media Use: A Review of the Literature and Conceptual Model for Future Research. Trauma Violence Abuse, 9(1): 3-18.

Mantziari, D. (2018). Sadistic Scopophilia in Contemporary Rape Culture: I Spit on Your Grave (2010) and the Practice of “Media Rape”. Feminist Media Studies, 18(3), 397-410.

Martino, S. C., R. L. Collins, M. N. Elliott, A. Strachman, D. E. Kanouse and S. H. Berry (2006). Exposure to Degrading Versus Nondegrading Music Lyrics and Sexual Behavior Among Youth. Pediatrics, 118(2): e430-441.

Martins, N., & Weaver, A. (2019). The role of media exposure on relational aggression: A meta-analysis. Aggression and violent behavior, 47, 90-99. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2019.03.001

Meier, M. R., & Medjesky, C. A. (2018). The Office Was Asking for It: “That’s What She Said” as a Joke Cycle That Perpetuates Rape Culture. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 15(1), 2-17.

Möller, I., & Krahé, B. (2009). Exposure to Violent Video Games and Aggression in German Adolescents: A Longitudinal Analysis. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 35(1), 75-89.

Nettleton, P. H. (2011). Domestic Violence in Men’s and Women’s Magazines: Women Are Guilty of Choosing the Wrong Men, Men Are Not Guilty of Hitting Women. Women’s Studies in Communication, 34(2), 139-160.

Nilsson, G. (2019). Rape in the news: on rape genres in Swedish news coverage. Feminist Media Studies, 19(8), 1178-1194. doi:10.1080/14680777.2018.1513412

Oliver, K. (2015). Rape as spectator sport and creepshot entertainment: Social media and the valorization of lack of consent. American Studies Journal, 10: 1-16.

Our Watch. (2019). How to report on violence against women and their children. Melbourne, VIC: Our Watch.

Phillips, N.D. (2016). Beyond blurred lines: Rape culture in popular media. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Prescott, A. T., Sargent, J. D., & Hull, J. G. (2018). Metaanalysis of the Relationship between Violent Video Game Play and Physical Aggression over Time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(40), 9882-9888. 10.1073/pnas.1611617114

Ramsey, L. R., & Hoyt, T. (2015). The Object of Desire: How Being Objectified Creates Sexual Pressure for Women in Heterosexual Relationships. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39(2), 151-170.

Richards, T.N, Kirkland Gillespie L, Dwayne Smith M. (2011). Exploring News Coverage of Femicide: Does Reporting the News Add Insult to Injury? Fem. Criminol; 6(3): 178-202.

Richards, Tara, Lane Kirkland Gillespie and Dwayne Smith. (2014). An examination of the media portrayal of femicide-suicides: An exploratory frame analysis. Feminist Criminology, 9(1): 24-44.

Robertson, L. (2019). ‘Crimes of passion’ or ‘horrific murders’? A corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis of reporting on domestic and non-domestic violence in The Sydney Morning Herald and The Daily Telegraph. (Master’s thesis, University of Sydney).

Rodenhizer, K. A. E., & Edwards, K. M. (2017). The Impacts of Sexual Media Exposure on Adolescent and Emerging Adults’ Dating and Sexual Violence Attitudes and Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 1524838017717745.

Schwark, S., & Bohner, G. (2019). Sexual Violence — “Victim” or “Survivor”: News Images Affect Explicit and Implicit Judgments of Blame. Violence Against Women, 25(12), 1491-1509. doi:10.1177/1077801218820202

Schwark, S., & Bohner, G. (2019). Sexual Violence — “Victim” or “Survivor”: News Images Affect Explicit and Implicit Judgments of Blame. Violence Against Women, 25(12), 1491-1509. doi:10.1177/1077801218820202

Smart, Carol, and Barry Smart. (1978). Accounting for Rape: Reality and Myth in Press Reporting. In Smart, Carol and Smart, Barry. (eds.). Women, Sexuality and Social Control. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Sutherland, G., McCormack, A., Easteal, P., Holland, K., & Pirkis, J. (2016). Media guidelines for the responsible reporting of violence against women: A review of evidence and issues. Australian Journalism Review, 38(1): 5-17.

Sutherland, G., McCormack, A., Pirkis, J., Easteal, P., Holland, K., & Vaughan, C. (2016). Media representations of violence against women and their children: State of knowledge paper. ANROWS Landscapes, 15/2015.

Sutherland, G., McCormack, A., Pirkis, J., Vaughan, C., Dunne-Breen, M., Easteal, P., & Holland, K. (2016). Media representations of violence against women and their children: Final report (ANROWS Horizons, 03/2016). Sydney: ANROWS.

Vance, K., Sutter, M., Perrin, P.B., & Heesacker, M. (2015). The media’s sexual objectification of women, rape myth acceptance, and interpersonal violence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 24(5): 569-587. DOI: 10.1080/10926771.2015.1029179

Vandenbosch, L. & Eggermont, S. (2015). The role of mass media in adolescents’ sexual behaviors: Exploring the explanatory value of the three-step self-objectification process. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(3), 729-742.

Ward, L. M., Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2015). The impact of men’s magazines on adolescent boys’ objectification and courtship beliefs. Journal of Adolescence, 39, 49-58.

Waterhouse-Watson, D. (2016). It’s more than a job: Discourse and the treatment of elite footballers accused of sexual violence. Media International Australia, [ahead-of-print]. DOI:10.1177/1329878X16665001

Zaleski, K.L., Gunderson, K.K., Baes, J., Estupinian, E., & Vergara, A. (2016). Exploring rape culture in social media forums. Computers in Human Behavior, 63: 922-927.