04. Media representations, language

AbiNader, M. A., Thomas, M. M., & Carolan, K. (2020). Talking (or not) about sexual violence: newspaper coverage of the confirmation hearings of Justices Thomas and Kavanaugh. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260520906174.

Aldrete, M. (2023). Femicide in Mexico. Who Are the Slain Women According to News Media? A Quantitative Study of Social Representations of Victims and Perpetrators. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012231174346. doi:10.1177/10778012231174346

Anastasio, Phyllis A., and Diana M. Costa. (2004). Twice Hurt: How Newspaper Coverage May Reduce Empathy and Engender Blame for Female Victims of Crime. Sex Roles, 51(9/10), pp. 535-542.

Anderson, I. (1999). Characterological and behavioral blame in conversations about female and male rape. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 18(4), 377-394.

Aroustamian, C. (2020). Time’s up: Recognising sexual violence as a public policy issue: A qualitative content analysis of sexual violence cases and the media. Aggression and violent behavior, 50, 101341. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2019.101341

Atmore, Chris. (1994). Brand News: Rape and the Mass Media. Media Information Australia, No. 72, May (Special Issue: Body’s image).

Attenborough, F. (2014). Rape Is Rape (except When It’s Not): The Media, Recontextualisation and Violence against Women. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 2(2), 183-203.

Aubrey, J. S., Hopper, K. M., & Mbure, W. G. (2011). Check That Body! The Effects of Sexually Objectifying Music Videos on College Men’s Sexual Beliefs. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 55(3), 360-379.

Baillie, G., Fileborn, B., & Wadds, P. (2021). Gendered Responses to Gendered Harms: Sexual Violence and Bystander Intervention at Australian Music Festivals. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012211012096. doi:10.1177/10778012211012096.

Baker, A. & Williams, K. (2019). Building on #MeToo and #MeNoMore: Devising a framework to examine sexual violence in Australian music journalism. Australian Journalism Review, 41(1), 103-116.

Baldwin-White, A., & Gower, K. (2023). Influence of social media on how college students perceive healthy relationships and consent. Journal of American College Health, 71(4), 1301-1309.

Bareket, O., & Shnabel, N. (2020). Domination and objectification: Men’s motivation for dominance over women affects their tendency to sexually objectify women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 44(1), 28-49.

Beck, V. S., Boys, S., Rose, C., & Beck, E. (2012). Violence against Women in Video Games: A Prequel or Sequel to Rape Myth Acceptance? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(15), 3016-3031. 10.1177/0886260512441078

Beck, V., & Rose, C. (2018). Is Sexual Objectification and Victimization of Females in Video Games Associated with Victim Blaming or Victim Empathy? Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260518770187.

Benedict, Helen. (1992). Virgin or Vamp: How the Press Covers Sex Crimes. New York: Oxford University Press.

Berns, N. (2004). Framing the Victim: Domestic violence, media, and social problems. Transaction Publishers.

Berns, Nancy. (2001). Degendering the Problem and Gendering the Blame: Political Discourse on Women and Violence. Gender & Society, 15, 2, Apr, 262-281.

Bevens, C. L., & Loughnan, S. (2019). Insights into men’s sexual aggression toward women: dehumanization and objectification. Sex Roles, 81(11-12), 713-730.

Blumell, L. E., & Mulupi, D. (2021). Investigating Rape Culture in News Coverage of the Anita Hill and Christine Blasey Ford Cases. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012211021129. doi:10.1177/10778012211021129

Bohner, G. (2001). Writing About Rape: Use of the Passive Voice and Other Distancing Text Features as an Expression of Perceived Responsibility of the Victim. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), 515-529.

Bows, H., Day, A., & Dhir, A. (2022). “It’s Like a Drive by Misogyny”: Sexual Violence at UK Music Festivals. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012221120443. doi:10.1177/10778012221120443

Bows, H., King, H., & Measham, F. (2022). Perceptions of safety and experiences of gender-based violence at UK music festivals. Journal of Gender-Based Violence.

Boyle, K., and S. Berridge. (2023). The Routledge Companion on Gender, Media and Violence. Routledge.
Introduction to Part 1 / Karen Boyle, Susan Berridge
1. “Sensational spikes” and “isolated incidents”: Examining the misrepresentation of domestic abuse by the media using the case studies of football and Covid-19 / Nancy Lombard
2. The media and male victim-survivors of domestic abuse  / Stephen R. Burrell, Alishya Dhir
3. / Invisible feelings, anti-Asian violences and abolition feminisms  / Salonee Bhaman, Rachel Kuo
4. Towards a fair justice system in Canada; Women and girls homicide database project / Kandice Parker, Melanie A. Morrison, Todd G. Morrison, Lillian Eva Quan Dyck, Karissa Wall
5. Familicide, gender and “mental illness”: Beyond false dualisms / Denise Buiten
6. Femminicidio in Italian televised news: A case study of La Vita in Diretta / Federica Formato
7. Cruel benevolence: Vulnerable menaces, menacing vulnerabilities and the white male vigilante trope / Kathryn Claire Higgins
8. Exploring US news media portrayals of girls' violence in the 1980s and 1990s: The emergence of a moral panic / Tia S. Andersen, Jennifer Silcox, Deena A. Isom
9. Child sexual exploitation and scapegoating minority communities  / Aisha K. Gill
10. Hidden or hypervisible? Mapping the making of a moral panic over female genital mutilation/cutting  / Emmaleena Käkelä
11. Examining the Zimbabwean news media's framing of men as victims of sexual assault  / Mthokozisi Phathisani Ndhlovu
12. The HIV man, Alexandra man and Hotboy: Swedish news coverage of rape as a folklore of fear / Gabriella Nilsson
13. Forward and backwards: Sexual violence in Portuguese news media / Júlia Garraio, Inês Amaral, Rita Basílio Simões, Sofia José Santos
14. Representations of gender-based violence against children in Nigeria  / Onyinyechi Nancy Nwaolikpe
15. Media, courts and “#RiceBunny” testimonies in China  / Li Jun
16. Journalism, sexual violence and social responsibility  / Einar Thorsen, Chindu Sreedharan
Part 2: Representing reality
Representing reality: Introduction to Part 2 / Karen Boyle, Susan Berridge
17. The politics of the traumatised voice: Communicative injustice and structural silencing in contemporary media culture / Jilly Boyce Kay
18. Public survivors: The burdens and possibilities of speaking as a survivor / Tanya Serisier
19. Telling an authentic, relatable #MeToo story on YouTube  / Carol Harrington, MacKenzie Gerrard
20. Mental images and emotive voices in true crime podcasts focused on female victims  / Jennifer O'Meara
21. Sexual violence and social justice: The celebrity #MeToo documentary in the US / Tanya Horeck
22. Remediating the “Yorkshire Ripper” event in the era of feminist true crime  / Hannah Hamad
23. Class, victim credibility and the Pygmalion problem in real crime dramas Three Girls and Unbelieveable  / Helen Wood
24. Victimhood and violence: Weaponising white femininity in South Africa / Nicky Falkof
25. Pregnant and disappeared: The Missing White Woman Syndrome in magazines / Jennifer Musial
26. Discourses and narratives of gender-based violence in Greek women's magazines  / Rafaela Orphanides
27. Just a fantasy: How the discourse of fantasy attempts to resolve the conflicts of porn consumption / Maria Garner, Fiona Vera-Gray
28. Patriarchal protectors of the national body: Violence, masculinity and gendered constructions of the US/Mexico border / Lucia M. Palmer
29. Militarised masculinity and the perpetration of violence in Chilean documentary  / Lisa DiGiovanni
30. Women's activist filmmaking against gendered violence in Pakistan  / Rahat Imran
Part 3: Gender-based violence online
Gender-based violence online: Introduction to Part 3 / Susan Berridge, Karen Boyle
31. Technology-facilitated abuse: Intimate partner violence in digital society / Anastasia Powell
32. Tactics of hate: Toxic “creativity” in anti-feminist men's rights politics / Debbie Ging
33. Bad actors or bad architecture? Rethinking gendered violence online  / Emma A. Jane
34. Networked misogyny on TikTok: A critical conjuncture / Sarah Banet-Weiser, Sophie Maddocks
35. Naming and framing the harms of cyberflashing: Men sending non-consensual dick pics / Clare McGlynn
36. The non-consensual dissemination of intimate images on Telegram: The Italian case / Silvia Semenzin, Lucia Bainotti
37. Online child sexual exploitation in the news: Competing claims of gendered and sexual harm / Michael Salter
38. Responding to transphobic violence online  / Ben Colliver
39. Homophobic humour in rape memes  / Maja Brandt Andreasen
40. Online discourses of violence against men: Portrayals of neglect, discrimination and equality gone too far / Satu Venäläinen
41. The curious case of Karen Carney: The argument for equity over equality in curbing the online abuse of women in sports media / Guy Harrison, Melody Huslage
42. “Online othering”: The case of women in politics / Emily Harmer
43. Cyberviolence against women in politics  / Eleonora Esposito
44. Violence and the feminist potential of content moderation  / Carolina Are, Ysabel Gerrard
Part 4: Feminist responses
Feminist responses: Introduction to Part 4 / Susan Berridge, Karen Boyle
45. Engaging men online: Using online media for violence prevention with men and boys / Michael Flood
46. Hashtag feminism in Brazil: Making sense of gender-based violence with #PrimeiroAssédio / Gabriela Loureiro
47. After the affect: The tenuous leadership of viral feminists / Angela Towers
48. Mediatisation of women's rage in Spain: Strategies of discursive transformation in digital spaces / Sonia Núñez Puente, Diana Fernández Romero
49. Hashtag feminism straddling the Americas: A comparison between #NiUnaMenos and #MeToo / Francesca Belotti, Vittoria Bernardini, Francesca Comunello
50. Digital feminist activism against gender violence in South Korea  / Kaitlynn Mendes, Euisol Jeong
51. Women 2020: How Pakistani feminisms unfolded between Twitter and the streets / Munira Cheema
52. Digital feminist and queer activism against gender violence in China  / Jia Tan
53. Controversies, protests, coalitions: Screen media's lessons from the past / Gary Needham
54. Collective action, performance and the body-territory in Latin American feminisms  / Paula Serafini
55. Doing feminist activism through creative practice research  / Eylem Atakav
56. Rethinking the curriculum: #MeToo and contemporary literary studies / Mary K. Holland, Heather Hewett
57. I won't look: Refusing to engage with gender-based violence in women-led screen media / Rebecca Harrison

Braber, N. (2015). Representation of domestic violence in two British newspapers, The Guardian and The Sun, 2009-2011. ELR Journal, 1: 86-104.

Breen, M. D., Easteal, P., Holland, K., Sutherland, G., & Vaughan, C. (2017). Exploring Australian journalism discursive practices in reporting rape: The pitiful predator and the silent victim. Discourse & Communication, 11(3), 241-258.

Bretthauer, B., Zimmerman, T. S., & Banning, J. H. (2007). A feminist analysis of popular music: Power over, objectification of, and violence against women. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 18(4), 29-51.

Brown, M. (1996). The Portrayal of Violence in the Media: Impacts & Implications for Policy. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 55. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Bufkin, J., and S. Eschholz. (2000). Images of Sex and Rape: A Content Analysis of Popular Film. Violence Against Women, 6(12), 1317-1344.

Buiten, D. (2022). Familicide, Gender and the Media: Gendering Familicide, Interrogating News. Springer (Singapore).

Buiten, D., & Coe, G. (2021). Competing discourses and cultural intelligibility: Familicide, gender and the mental illness/distress frame in news. Crime, Media, Culture. https://doi.org/10.1177/17416590211009275

Bullock, C.F., and J. Cubert. (2002). Coverage of domestic violence fatalities by newspapers in Washington State. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(5): 475.

Bushman, B. J. (2005). Violence and Sex in Television Programs Do Not Sell Products in Advertisements. Psychological Science, 16(9): 702-708.

Caputi, Jane. (1990). The New Founding Fathers: The Lore and Lure of the Serial Killer in Contemporary Culture. Journal of American Culture, 13(3), Fall.

Carll, Elizabeth K. (2003). News Portrayal of Violence and Women: Implications for public policy. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(12): 1601-1610.

CDC. (2008). Electronic Media and Youth Violence: A CDC Issue Brief for Educators and Caregivers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Cheeseborough, T., Overstreet, N., & Ward, L. M. (2020). Interpersonal sexual objectification, Jezebel stereotype endorsement, and justification of intimate partner violence toward women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 0361684319896345.

Chesney-Lind, M., & Chagnon, N. (2017). Media representations of domestic violence. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Clinnick, I., Ison, J., & Hooker, L. (2023). “Paralysed and powerless”: a feminist critical discourse analysis of ‘Drink spiking’ in Australian news media. Feminist Media Studies, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2023.2226831

Coates, L., & Wade, A. (2007). Language and Violence: Analysis of Four Discursive Operations. Journal of Family Violence, 22(7), 511-522.

Comstock, G., Scharrer, E., & Powers, J. (2014). The contribution of meta-analysis to the controversy over television violence and aggression. Media Violence and Children: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals, 381.

Coy, M. & Horvath, M.A.H. (2011). ‘Lads mags’, young men’s attitudes towards women and acceptance of myths about sexual aggression. Feminism & Psychology, 21(1), 144-150.

Cuklanz, Lisa M. (1995). Rape on Trial: How the Mass Media Construct Legal Reform and Social Change. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Cuklanz, Lisa M. (1999). Rape on Prime Time: Television, Masculinity, and Sexual Violence. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Cullen, P., O’Brien, A., & Corcoran, M. (2019). Reporting on domestic violence in the Irish media: an exploratory study of journalists’ perceptions and practices. Media, Culture & Society, 41(6), 774-790.

DiBennardo, R. A. (2018). Ideal victims and monstrous offenders: How the news media represent sexual predators. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, 4. https://doi.org/10.1177/2378023118802512.

Easteal AM, P., Blatchford, A., Holland, K., & Sutherland, G. (2021). Teaching Journalists About Violence Against Women Best Reportage Practices: An Australian Case Study. Journalism Practice, 1-17.

Easteal, P., Bartels, L., Holland, N. & Nelson, N. (2015). How are women who kill portrayed in newspaper media? Connections with social values and the legal system. Women’s Studies International Forum, 51: 31-41.

Easteal, P., Holland, K., & Judd, K. (2015). Enduring themes and silences in media portrayals of violence against women. Women’s Studies International Forum, 48, 103-113. doi: 10.1016/j.wsif.2014.10.015.

Easteal, P., Holland, K., Breen, M. D., Vaughan, C., & Sutherland, G. (2019). Australian media messages: Critical discourse analysis of two intimate homicides involving domestic violence. Violence Against Women, 25(4), 441-462.

Ehrlich, S. (2001). Representing Rape: Language and Sexual Consent. Routledge.

Elmore, K. C., Scull, T. M., Malik, C. V., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (2021). Rape Myth Acceptance Reflects Perceptions of Media Portrayals as Similar to Others, but Not the Self. Violence Against Women, 27(3-4), 529-551. doi:10.1177/1077801220908335

Elson, M. & Ferguson, C. (2014). Twenty-Five Years of Research on Violence in Digital Games and Aggression: Empirical Evidence, Perspectives, and a Debate Gone Astray, European Psychologist, 19(1), 33-46.

Enck-Wanzer, S. M. (2009). All’s Fair in Love and Sport: Black Masculinity and Domestic Violence in the News. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 6(1): 1-18.

Evans, L. (2001). Desperate lovers and wanton women: Press representations of domestic violence. Hecate, 27(2): 147-173.

Ferguson, C. J., & Donnellan, M. B. (2017). Are Associations Between “Sexist” Video Games and Decreased Empathy Toward Women Robust? A Reanalysis of Gabbiadini et al. 2016. Journal of youth and adolescence. doi:10.1007/s10964-017-0700-x

Ferguson, Christopher J. (2012). Positive Female Role-Models Eliminate Negative Effects of Sexually Violent Media. Journal of Communication, 62(5) (October 27): 888–899.

Fox, J., & Potocki, B. (2016). Lifetime Video Game Consumption, Interpersonal Aggression, Hostile Sexism, and Rape Myth Acceptance: A Cultivation Perspective. Journal of interpersonal violence, 31(10), 1912-1931.

Fox, J., Ralston, R. A., Cooper, C. K., & Jones, K. A. (2014). Sexualized Avatars Lead to Women’s Self-Objectification and Acceptance of Rape Myths. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39(3): 349-362.

Franiuk R, Seefelt JL, Cepress SL, Vandello JA. (2008). Prevalence and effects of rape myths in print journalism: the Kobe Bryant case. Violence Against Women, 14(3): 287-309.

Franiuk, R., Coleman, J., & Apa, B. (2017). The influence of non-misogynous and mixed portrayals of intimate partner violence in music on beliefs about intimate partner violence. Violence against women, 23(2), 243-257.

Fuentes, L., Saxena, A.S., & Bitterly, J. (2022). Mapping the Nexus between Media Reporting of Violence against Girls: The Normalization of Violence, and the Perpetuation of Harmful Gender Norms and Stereotypes. New York, NY USA: United Nations Women.

Gabbiadini, A., Riva, P., Andrighetto, L., Volpato, C., & Bushman, B. J. (2016). Acting Like a Tough Guy: Violent-Sexist Video Games, Identification with Game Characters, Masculine Beliefs, & Empathy for Female Violence Victims. PLOS ONE, 11(4), e0152121. 10.1371/journal.pone.0152121

Galdi, S., Maass, A., & Cadinu, M. (2013). Objectifying media: their effect on gender role norms and sexual harassment of women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38(3): 398-413

Gilmore, J. (2019). Fixed It: Violence and the Representation of Women in the Media. Sydney: Penguin Random House.

Hanson, K., & Lysova, A. (2021). The Father, the Son, and the Abuser: The Portrayal of Male Victims of Intimate Partner Homicide in the News Media. Homicide Studies, 10887679211047445.

Harris KL, Palazzolo KE & Savage MW (2012). ‘I’m not sexist, but…’: How ideological dilemmas reinforce sexism in talk about intimate partner violence. Discourse & Society 2012, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 643-656.

Hawley, E., Clifford, K., & Konkes, C. (2018). The “Rosie Batty effect” and the framing of family violence in Australian news media. Journalism Studies, 19(15), 2304-2323.

Hedrick, A. (2021). A meta-analysis of media consumption and rape myth acceptance. Journal of Health Communication, 1-12.

Henley, N. M., M. Miller,and Beazley, J. (1995). Syntax, semantics, and sexual violence Agency and the passive voice. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 14(1-2), 60-84.

Hernandez, L.H. (2018). A feminist health communication analysis of media framing of Olivia Benson/Mariska Hargitay’s anti-sexual assault advocacy efforts. In C.M. Madere (Ed.), Celebrity Media Effects: The persuasive power of the stars. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Hill, R. L., & Megson, M. (2020). Sexual Violence and Gender Equality in Grassroots Music Venues: How to Facilitate Change. IASPM Journal, 10(1), 3-21.

Hill, R. L., Hesmondhalgh, D., & Megson, M. (2020). Sexual violence at live music events: Experiences, responses and prevention. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 23(3), 368-384.

Hoffman, K. (2005). Framing the Victim: Domestic Violence, Media, and Social Problems. Teaching Sociology, 33(4): 436.

Hollander, J. A. (2016). Teaching About Gendered Violence without Disempowering Women. Teaching Gender and Sex in Contemporary America (pp. 85-92): Springer.

Horvath, M.A.H., Hegarty, P., Tyler, S. & Mansfield, S. (2011). “Lights on at the end of the party”: Are Lads Mags’ Mainstreaming Dangerous Sexism? British Journal of Psychology, 103(4), 454-471.DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8295.2011.02086.x

Howe, Adrian. (1997). “The war against women”: Media representations of men’s violence against women in Australia. Violence Against Women, 3(1): 59.

Hust, S. J. T., Marett, E. G., Lei, M., Ren, C., & Ran, W. (2015). Law & Order, CSI, and NCIS: The Association Between Exposure to Crime Drama Franchises, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Sexual Consent Negotiation Among College Students. Journal of health communication, 20(12), 1369-1381. doi:10.1080/10810730.2015.1018615

Hust, S. J., Lei, M., Ren, C., Chang, H., McNab, A. L., Marett, E. G., & Willoughby, J. F. (2013). The Effects of Sports Media Exposure on College Students’ Rape Myth Beliefs and Intentions to Intervene in a Sexual Assault. Mass Communication and Society, 16(6), 762-786.

Hust, S. J., Marett, E. G., Ren, C., Adams, P. M., Willoughby, J. F., Lei, M., . . . Norman, C. (2014). Establishing and adhering to sexual consent: The association between reading magazines and college students’ sexual consent negotiation. The Journal of Sex Research, 51(3), 280-290.

Johnson, J.D., M.S. Adams, L. Ashburn, and W. Reed. (1995). Differential gender effects of exposure to rap music on African American adolescents’ acceptance of teen dating violence. Sex Roles, 33(7-8): 597.

Judd, K., & Easteal, P. (2013). Media reportage of sexual harassment: The credible complainant. Denning Law Journal, 25(1), 159-180.

Kaestle C. E., C. T. Halpern, and J. D. Brown (2007) Music videos, pro wrestling, and acceptance of date rape among middle school males and females: an exploratory analysis. J Adolesc Health, Feb; 40(2): 185-7.

Karageorgos, E., Boyle, A., Pender, P., & Cook, J. (2023). Perpetration, Victimhood, and Blame: Australian Newspaper Representations of Domestic Violence, 2000–2020. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012231166401. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778012231166401

Karlsson, N., Lila, M., Gracia, E., & Wemrell, M. (2021). Representation of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Swedish News Media: A Discourse Analysis. Violence Against Women, 27(10), 1499-1524. doi:10.1177/1077801220940403.

Komazec, S., & Farmer, C. (2021). Family violence homicide in Australia: the effect of victim/offender gender on social media commentary. Journal of Gender Studies, 30(1), 4-17. doi:10.1080/09589236.2020.1754177

Krahé, B., & Busching, R. (2015). Breaking the vicious cycle of media violence use and aggression: A test of intervention effects over 30 months. Psychology of Violence, 5(2), 217-226. doi:10.1037/a0036627

Kras, H. R. (2023). Rearranging the News Agenda: State Action and News Media Reporting on Violence against Women in Brazil. Comparative Politics, 55(3), 425-421. doi:10.5129/001041523x16632537506848

Lamb, S., and S. Keon. (1995). Blaming the perpetrator: Language that distorts reality in writing about men battering women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19: 209-220.

Lee, M. J., Hust, S., Zhang, L., & Zhang, Y. (2010). Effects of violence against women in popular crime dramas on viewers’ attitudes related to sexual violence. Mass Communication and Society, 14(1), 25-44.

Lee, N. C. (2020). Man to Man: Communicating Narrative about Violence Against Women in Sport Media (Doctoral dissertation, Carleton University).

Lelaurain, S., Fonte, D., Aim, M.-A., Khatmi, N., Decarsin, T., Lo Monaco, G., & Apostolidis, T. (2018). “One Doesn’t Slap a Girl but…” Social Representations and Conditional Logics in Legitimization of Intimate Partner Violence. Sex Roles, 78(9), 637-652.

Lemmens, J. S., B. J. Bushman and E. A. Konijn (2006). The Appeal of Violent Video Games to Lower Educated Aggressive Adolescent Boys from Two Countries. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9(5): 638-641.

Lewis, N., Scarduzio, J. A., Walker, C. S., & Limperos, A. M. (2021). Audience Responses to Media Portrayals of Professional Athletes and Intimate Partner Violence. Communication & Sport, 2167479521989654.

Lin, J.-H. (2013). Do video games exert stronger effects on aggression than film? The role of media interactivity and identification on the association of violent content and aggressive outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 535-543.

Little, J. (2018). Filicide, journalism and the ‘disempowered man’ in three Australian cases 2010–2016. Journalism, 22(6), 1450-1466. doi:10.1177/1464884918809739

Little, J. (2020). Domestic violence beyond representation: finding a feminist subject in the Allison Baden-Clay murder case. Feminist Media Studies, 20(1), 1-17.

Little, J. (2021). Filicide, journalism and the ‘disempowered man’ in three Australian cases 2010–2016. Journalism, 22(6), 1450-1466. doi:10.1177/1464884918809739

Little, Janine. 2021. Family Men and the Women They Murdered: A Critique of Popular Press Reporting of Three Crimes in AustraliaHecate: an interdisciplinary journal of women’s liberation46(1): 138-163.

Lonne, B., and K. Gillespie. (2014). How do Australian print media representations of child abuse and neglect inform the public and system reform? Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(5): 837-850.

Lykke, L.C. (2015). Visibility and denial: Accounts of sexual violence in race- and gender-specific magazines. Feminist Media Studies, [ahead-of-print]. DOI:10.1080/14680777.2015.1061034

Magestro, M.A. (2015). Assault on the small screen: Representations of sexual violence on prime time television dramas. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Manganello, J. A. (2008). Teens, Dating Violence, and Media Use: A Review of the Literature and Conceptual Model for Future Research. Trauma Violence Abuse, 9(1): 3-18.

Mantziari, D. (2018). Sadistic Scopophilia in Contemporary Rape Culture: I Spit on Your Grave (2010) and the Practice of “Media Rape”. Feminist Media Studies, 18(3), 397-410.

Martino, S. C., R. L. Collins, M. N. Elliott, A. Strachman, D. E. Kanouse and S. H. Berry (2006). Exposure to Degrading Versus Nondegrading Music Lyrics and Sexual Behavior Among Youth. Pediatrics, 118(2): e430-441.

Martins, N., & Weaver, A. (2019). The role of media exposure on relational aggression: A meta-analysis. Aggression and violent behavior, 47, 90-99. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2019.03.001

McGrath, A. R. (2018). Redefining a Rape Culture: The Influence of Anti-Violence-Against-Women Organizations on Mass Media Discourse (Doctoral dissertation).

Meier, M. R., & Medjesky, C. A. (2018). The Office Was Asking for It: “That’s What She Said” as a Joke Cycle That Perpetuates Rape Culture. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 15(1), 2-17.

Meltzer, C. E. (2023). Isolated Incidents. Media Reporting on Violence Against Women in the German Press. Journalism Practice, 1-20.

Möller, I., & Krahé, B. (2009). Exposure to Violent Video Games and Aggression in German Adolescents: A Longitudinal Analysis. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 35(1), 75-89.

Morgan, J., & Simons, M. (2018). Changing media coverage of violence against women: the role of individual cases and individual journalists. Journalism Practice, 12(9), 1165-1182.

Nettleton, P. H. (2011). Domestic Violence in Men’s and Women’s Magazines: Women Are Guilty of Choosing the Wrong Men, Men Are Not Guilty of Hitting Women. Women’s Studies in Communication, 34(2), 139-160.

Nikolova, E. (2021). “The balance of power is me: 0, Harvey Weinstein: 10”: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the press representation of Hollywood’s biggest sexual harassment scandal. Women’s Studies International Forum, 88, 102515. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2021.102515

Nilsson, B., & Lundgren, A. S. (2021). The #MeToo Movement: Men and Masculinity in Swedish News Media. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 29(1), 8-25. doi:10.1177/1060826520913613

Nilsson, G. (2019). Rape in the news: on rape genres in Swedish news coverage. Feminist Media Studies, 19(8), 1178-1194. doi:10.1080/14680777.2018.1513412

Nomamiukor, F. O., & Wisco, B. E. (2023). Social Media's Impact on Rape Myth Acceptance and Negative Affect in College Women: Examining the #MeToo and #HimToo Movement. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012231181045. doi:10.1177/10778012231181045

O’Hara, S. (2012). Monsters, playboys, virgins and whores: Rape myths in the news media’s coverage of sexual violence. Language and Literature, 21(3), 247-259.

Oliver, K. (2015). Rape as spectator sport and creepshot entertainment: Social media and the valorization of lack of consent. American Studies Journal, 10: 1-16.

Osborn, M. (2022). U.S. News Coverage of Transgender Victims of Fatal Violence: An Exploratory Content Analysis. Violence Against Women, 28(9), 2033-2056. doi:10.1177/10778012211025995

Our Watch. (2019). How to report on violence against women and their children. Melbourne, VIC: Our Watch.

Owusu-Addo, E., Owusu-Addo, S. B., Antoh, E. F., Sarpong, Y. A., Obeng-Okrah, K., & Annan, G. K. (2018). Ghanaian media coverage of violence against women and girls: implications for health promotion. BMC women’s health, 18(1), 1-11

Papp, L. J., Ward, L. M., & Marshall, R. A. (2022). Contributions of Reality TV Consumption to College Women’s Endorsement of the Heterosexual Script and Acceptance of Sexualized Aggression. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 46(1), 50-65. doi:10.1177/03616843211044686

Phillips, N.D. (2016). Beyond blurred lines: Rape culture in popular media. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Prescott, A. T., Sargent, J. D., & Hull, J. G. (2018). Metaanalysis of the Relationship between Violent Video Game Play and Physical Aggression over Time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(40), 9882-9888. 10.1073/pnas.1611617114

Ramsey, L. R., & Hoyt, T. (2015). The Object of Desire: How Being Objectified Creates Sexual Pressure for Women in Heterosexual Relationships. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39(2), 151-170.

Randhawa, S. (2019). Just don’t say feminism: covering the domestic violence act in the women’s pages of the Malaysian Malay-language press. Feminist Media Studies, 1-17.

Rhodes, N., Potocki, B., & Masterson, D. S. (2018). Portrayals of intimate partner violence in music videos: Effects on perceptions of IPV warning signs. Media psychology, 21(1), 137-156.

Richards, T.N, Kirkland Gillespie L, Dwayne Smith M. (2011). Exploring News Coverage of Femicide: Does Reporting the News Add Insult to Injury? Fem. Criminol; 6(3): 178-202.

Richards, Tara, Lane Kirkland Gillespie and Dwayne Smith. (2014). An examination of the media portrayal of femicide-suicides: An exploratory frame analysis. Feminist Criminology, 9(1): 24-44.

Robertson, L. (2019). ‘Crimes of passion’ or ‘horrific murders’? A corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis of reporting on domestic and non-domestic violence in The Sydney Morning Herald and The Daily Telegraph. (Master’s thesis, University of Sydney).

Rodenhizer, K. A. E., & Edwards, K. M. (2017). The Impacts of Sexual Media Exposure on Adolescent and Emerging Adults’ Dating and Sexual Violence Attitudes and Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 1524838017717745.

Rollè, L., Santoniccolo, F., D’Amico, D., & Trombetta, T. (2020). News Media Representation of Domestic Violence Victims and Perpetrators: Focus on Gender and Sexual Orientation in International Literature. In Gendered Domestic Violence and Abuse in Popular Culture. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Santos, S. J., Garraio, J., de Sousa Carvalho, A., & Amaral, I. (2022). A space to resist rape myths? Journalism, patriarchy and sexual violence. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 29(2), 298-315. doi:10.1177/13505068211048465

Scarduzio, J. A., Walker, C. S., Lewis, N., & Limperos, A. M. (2021). Media Portrayals of Athlete-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence: An Examination of the Social Ecological Model, Race, and Communication Perceptions. International Journal of Sport Communication, 14(1), 11. doi:10.1123/ijsc.2020-0269

Schnepf, J., & Christmann, U. (2023). “Domestic Drama,” “Love Killing,” or “Murder”: Does the Framing of Femicides Affect Readers’ Emotional and Cognitive Responses to the Crime? Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012231158103. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778012231158103

Schwark, S., & Bohner, G. (2019). Sexual Violence — “Victim” or “Survivor”: News Images Affect Explicit and Implicit Judgments of Blame. Violence Against Women, 25(12), 1491-1509. doi:10.1177/1077801218820202

Seabrook, R. C., Ward, L. M., & Giaccardi, S. (2019). Less than human? Media use, objectification of women, and men’s acceptance of sexual aggression. Psychology of Violence, 9(5), 536-545. doi:10.1037/vio0000198

Simon, S. (2003). Greatest hits: domestic violence in American country music. Or. L. Rev., 82, 1107.

Simons, M., & Khan, E. (2018). Working with media to prevent violence against women – the Uncovered intervention. Australian Journalism Review, 40(1), 51-63.

Slakoff, D. C. (2022). The Mediated Portrayal of Intimate Partner Violence in True Crime Podcasts: Strangulation, Isolation, Threats of Violence, and Coercive Control. Violence Against Women, 28(6-7), 1659-1683. doi:10.1177/10778012211019055

Smart, Carol, and Barry Smart. (1978). Accounting for Rape: Reality and Myth in Press Reporting. In Smart, Carol and Smart, Barry. (eds.). Women, Sexuality and Social Control. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Stillman, S. (2007). ‘The missing white girl syndrome’: Disappeared women and media activism. Gender & development, 15(3), 491-502.

Storer, H. L., Mitchell, B., & Willey-Sthapit, C. (2023). “Safety Is Elusive:” A Critical Discourses Analysis of Newspapers’ Reporting of Domestic Violence During the Coronavirus Pandemic. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012221150277. doi:10.1177/10778012221150277

Su, C., Mercado Jones, R., & Palmer-Mehta, V. (2022). The Hall of Shame: Reconstituting Dominant Masculinities in The New York Times’ Representation of U.S. #MeToo Offenders’ Apologias. The Communication Review, 1-29. doi:10.1080/10714421.2022.2031444

Sutherland, G., Easteal, P., Holland, K., & Vaughan, C. (2019). Mediated representations of violence against women in the mainstream news in Australia. BMC public health, 19(1), 1-8.

Sutherland, G., McCormack, A., Easteal, P., Holland, K., & Pirkis, J. (2016). Media guidelines for the responsible reporting of violence against women: A review of evidence and issues. Australian Journalism Review, 38(1): 5-17.

Sutherland, G., McCormack, A., Pirkis, J., Easteal, P., Holland, K., & Vaughan, C. (2016). Media representations of violence against women and their children: State of knowledge paper. ANROWS Landscapes, 15/2015.

Sutherland, G., McCormack, A., Pirkis, J., Vaughan, C., Dunne-Breen, M., Easteal, P., & Holland, K. (2016). Media representations of violence against women and their children: Final report (ANROWS Horizons, 03/2016). Sydney: ANROWS.

Sutherland, G., McCormack, A., Pirkis, J., Vaughan, C., Dunne-Breen, M., Easteal, P., & Holland, K. (2016). Media representations of violence against women and their children: key findings and future directions. ANROWS Compass, Issue 4, June 2016. Sydney: ANROWS.

Thaller, J., Brown, M. L., & Messing, J. T. (2020). Depictions of Intimate Partner Violence: Responses of College-Aged Youth to the Music Video “Love the Way You Lie”. In Recent Advances in Digital Media Impacts on Identity, Sexuality, and Relationships (pp. 82-98). IGI Global.

Tranchese, A. (2019). Covering rape: how the media determine how we understand sexualised violence. Gender and Language, 13(2), 174-201.

Uibu, K. (2020). How Australian online news frames domestic violence homicides. Australian Journalism Review, 42(1), 113-125. doi:10.1386/ajr_00022_7

Uibu, K. (2020). How Australian online news frames domestic violence homicides. Australian Journalism Review, 42(1), 113-125.

Vance, K., Sutter, M., Perrin, P.B., & Heesacker, M. (2015). The media’s sexual objectification of women, rape myth acceptance, and interpersonal violence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 24(5): 569-587. DOI: 10.1080/10926771.2015.1029179

Vandenbosch, L. & Eggermont, S. (2015). The role of mass media in adolescents’ sexual behaviors: Exploring the explanatory value of the three-step self-objectification process. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(3), 729-742.

Vasquez, E. A., Ball, L., Loughnan, S., & Pina, A. (2018). The object of my aggression: Sexual objectification increases physical aggression toward women. Aggressive Behavior, 44(1), 5-17.

Vayá, I. L., Zurbano-Berenguer, B., & Edo, A. (2020). Femicides in native digital news outlets: greater and better coverage? A study of violence against women in the Spanish media. Observatorio (OBS*), 14(1).

Ward, L. M., Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2015). The impact of men’s magazines on adolescent boys’ objectification and courtship beliefs. Journal of Adolescence, 39, 49-58.

Waterhouse-Watson, D. (2016). It’s more than a job: Discourse and the treatment of elite footballers accused of sexual violence. Media International Australia, [ahead-of-print]. DOI:10.1177/1329878X16665001

Zaleski, K.L., Gunderson, K.K., Baes, J., Estupinian, E., & Vergara, A. (2016). Exploring rape culture in social media forums. Computers in Human Behavior, 63: 922-927.