i) Guns, men, masculinities, and gender

Note: Also see this section on "Men, masculinity, war, and militarism".


Bassin, A. (1997). Why packing a pistol perpetuates patriarchy. Hastings Women’s Law Journal, 8(2).

Bevan, James, and Nicolas Florquin. (2006). Few Options but the Gun: Angry Young Men. In Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business. Geneva: Oxford University Press.

Buchanan, C., V. Farr, M. Flood, and J. Galeria. (2005). Women, Men, and Gun Violence: Options for action. In Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. (eds.) Missing Pieces: Directions for reducing gun violence through the UN process on small arms control. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (pp. 68-78). [Available at: http://www.xyonline.net/content/women-men-and-gun-violence-options-action]

Callahan, J. L. (2009). Manifestations of power and control: Training as the catalyst for scandal at the United States Air Force Academy. Violence against Women, 15(10), 1149-1168.

Carlson, J. (2014). The equalizer? Crime, vulnerability, and gender in pro-gun discourse. Feminist Criminology, 9(1), 59-83.

Carlson, J., & Goss, K. A. (2017). Gendering the second amendment. Law & Contemp. Probs., 80, 103.

Cassino, D., & BesenCassino, Y. (2013, September). Sometimes (but Not This Time), a Gun Is Just a Gun: Masculinity Threat and Guns in the United States, 1999–2018. Sociological Forum.

Cooke, C.A., and J.E. Puddifoot. (2000). Gun culture and symbolism among U.K. and U.S. women. Journal of Social Psychology, 140(4): 423.

Cox, A. A. (2007). Aiming for Manhood: The Transformation of Guns into Objects of American Masculinity. In Open fire: Understanding global gun cultures, ed. C.F. Springwood, pp. 141-52.

Farr, V. (2006). Gender analysis as a tool for multilateral negotiators in the small arms context. In Disarmament as Humanitarian Action: From Perspective to Practice, Ed. J. Borrie and V. Martin Randin, May, pp. 109-136.

Farr, Vanessa, Henri Myrttinen and Albrecht Schnabel. (2009). Sexed Pistols: The gendered impacts of small arms and light weapons. Tokyo, New York & Paris: United Nations University Press.

Gahman, L. (2015). Gun Rites: Hegemonic Masculinity and Neoliberal Ideology in Rural Kansas. Gender, Place & Culture, 22(9), 1203-1219.

Hagedorn, J. M. (2008). A World of Gangs: Armed Young Men and Gangsta Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Haider, S. (2016). The shooting in Orlando, terrorism or toxic masculinity (or both?). Men and Masculinities, 19(5), 555-565.

Jackman, Geoffrey A. et al. (2001). Seeing Is Believing: What Do Boys Do When They Find a Real Gun? Pediatrics, June, 107, p. 1247-1250.

Kadet, L. N. (2016). Guns, Gender, Geography: Exploring Reasons for Gun Ownership.

Kalish, R., & Kimmel, M. (2010). Suicide by mass murder: Masculinity, aggrieved entitlement, and rampage school shootings. Health Sociology Review, 19(4), 451-464.

Kellner, Douglas. (2008). Guys and Guns Amok: Domestic Terrorism and School Shootings from the Oklahoma City Bombing to the Virginia Tech Massacre. Paradigm.

Kennedy-Kollar, D., & Charles, C. (2013). Hegemonic masculinity and mass murderers in the United States. Southwest Journal of Criminal Justice, 8(2).

Kimmel, Michael S. (2008). Profiling School Shooters and Shooters’ Schools: The Cultural Contexts of Aggrieved Entitlement and Restorative Masculinity. Pp X-X in There’s a Gunman on Campus: Tragedy and Terror at Virginia Tech, edited by Ben Agger and Timothy Luke. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.

Kirkham, Pat. (ed.). The Gendered Object. (chapter on guns).

Klein, Jessie, and Lynn S. Chancer. (2000). Masculinity Matters: The Omission of Gender from High-Profile School Violence Cases. Pp. 129-162 in Smoke and Mirrors: The Hidden Context of Violence in Schools and Society, edited by Stephanie Urso Spina. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.

Larkin, R. W. (2011). Masculinity, school shooters, and the control of violence. In Control of violence (pp. 315-344). Springer, New York, NY.

Lizotte, Alan and David Sheppard. (2001). Gun Use by Male Juveniles: Research and Prevention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Luster, Tom, and Su Min Oh. (2001). Correlates of male adolescents carrying handguns among their peers. Journal of Marriage and Family, August, Vol. 63, Iss. 3.

Myrttinen, H. (2003). Disarming Masculinities. Disarmament Forum, 4: 37-46.

Myrttinen, H. (2004). ‘Pack Your Heat and Work the Streets’ - Weapons and the Active Construction of Violent Masculinities. Women and Language, 27(2): 29.

Page, E. (2009). Men, masculinity and guns: can we break the link?. IANSA Women’s Network.

Petrin, D. T. (2018). Martial citizenship: firearms, identity, and masculinity in a public militia group (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri--Columbia).

Parashar, Swati. (2014). Women and Militant Wars: The politics of injury. Routledge.

Rosenfeld, Sarah, Julie Phillips, and Helene White. (2006). Gender, Race, and the Self in Mental Health and Crime. Social Problems, Vol. 52: 161-185.

Spraggins, Johnnie David. (1996). Body and Soul: The Sociology of the Bodies and Emotions of Male Gun Owners. PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Stretesky, P.B., and M.R. Pogrebin. (2007). Gang-related gun violence: socialization, identity, and self. J. Contemp. Ethnogr., 36: 85–114.

Stroud, A. (2012). Good guys with guns: Hegemonic masculinity and concealed handguns. Gender & Society, 26(2), 216-238.

Tonso, K. L. (2009). Violent Masculinities as Tropes for School Shooters: The Montreal Massacre, the Columbine Attack, and Rethinking Schools. American Behavioral Scientist, 52(9): 1266-1285.

Twine, Frances Winddance. (2013). Girls with Guns: Firearms, Feminism, and Militarism. Routledge.

Vito, C., Admire, A., & Hughes, E. (2018). Masculinity, aggrieved entitlement, and violence: considering the Isla Vista mass shooting. NORMA, 13(2), 86-102.

Warner, T. D. (2020). Fear, Anxiety, and Expectation: Gender Differences in Openness to Future Gun Ownership. Violence and Gender, 7(1), 11-18. doi:10.1089/vio.2019.0025

Widmer, M. (with G. Barker. and C. Buchanan). (2006). Hitting the Target: Men and Guns. Revcon Policy Brief, June.

Wilkinson, Deanna, and Jeffrey Fagan. (1996). Understanding the Role of Firearms in Violence ‘Scripts’: The Dynamics of Gun Events Among Adolescent Males. Law and Contemporary Problems, 59(1), pp. 55-90.

Wozniak, J., and C. Uggen (2009). Real Men Use Nonlethals: Appeals to Masculinity in Marketing Police Weaponry. Feminist Criminology, 4(3): 275-293.