Measures or scales of masculinity

Note: The full text of some of the measures listed here is available in this compendium.


Chu, J. Y., M. V. Porche, and D. L. Tolman. (2005). The Adolescent Masculinity Ideology in Relationships Scale: Development and Validation of a New Measure for Boys. Men and Masculinities, 8(1): 93-115.

Doss, Brian D., and J. Roy Hopkins. (1998). The multicultural masculinity ideology scale: Validation from three cultural perspectives. Sex Roles, May, Vol. 38, Iss. 9/10.

Levant, R. F., and K. Richmond. (2007). A Review of Research on Masculinity Ideologies Using the Male Role Norms Inventory. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15(2).

Levant, R. F., & Powell, W. A. (2017). The gender role strain paradigm. In R. F. Levant & Y. J. Wong (Eds.), The psychology of men and masculinities (p. 15–43). American Psychological Association

 O'Neil, J. M. (2008). Summarizing 25 Years of Research on Men's Gender Role Conflict Using the Gender Role Conflict Scale: New Research Paradigms and Clinical Implications. The Counseling Psychologist, 36(3), 358-445.

Thompson, E.H., J.H. Pleck, and D.L. Ferrera. (1993). Men and Masculinities: Scales for Masculinity Ideology and Masculinity-Related Constructs. Sex Roles, 27(11/12), pp. 573-607.

Thompson, E. H., Jr., & Bennett, K. M. (2015). Measurement of Masculinity Ideologies: A (Critical) Review. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 16(2), 115.

Thompson, E. H., Jr., & Bennett, K. M. (2017). Masculinity ideologies. In R. F. Levant & Y. J. Wong (Eds.), The psychology of men and masculinities (p. 45–74). American Psychological Association.

 Smiler, Andrew P. (2004). Thirty Years After the Discovery of Gender: Psychological Concepts and Measures of Masculinity. Sex Roles, 50 (1-2), pp. 15-26, January.


Further works

Alt, M., Lewis, A. M., Liu, W. M., Vilain, E., & Sánchez, F. J. (2014). On the validity of popular masculinity rating scales with gay men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43(8), 1547-1557.

Brannon, R. (1985). A scale for measuring attitudes about masculinity. In A.G. Sargent (Ed.), Beyond Sex Roles (pp. 110-116). St. Paul, MN: West.

Choi, N., and D. R. Fuqua. (2003). The Structure of the Bem Sex Role Inventory: A Summary Report of 23 Validation Studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(5): 872-887.

Fischer, Ann R., David M. Tokar, Glenn E. Good, and Andrea F. Snell. (1998). More on the Structure of Male Role Norms. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22(2): 135-155.

Fleming, P. J., Harris, K. M., & Halpern, C. T. (2017). Description and Evaluation of a Measurement Technique for Assessment of Performing Gender. Sex Roles, 76(11-12), 731-746.

Gerdes, Z. T., Alto, K. M., Jadaszewski, S., D’Auria, F., & Levant, R. F. (2018). A content analysis of research on masculinity ideologies using all forms of the Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI). Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 19(4), 584.

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1999). The Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23(3), 519-536.

Griffith, D. M., Gunter, K., & Watkins, D. C. (2012). Measuring masculinity in research on men of color: findings and future directions. American Journal of Public Health, 102(S2), S187-S194.

Harrison, A., L. O’Sullivan, S. Hoffman, C. Dolezal and R. Morrell. (2006). Gender Role and Relationship Norms among Young Adults in South Africa: Measuring the Context of Masculinity and HIV Risk. Journal of Urban Health, 83(4): 709-722.

Hill, A. L., Miller, E., Switzer, G. E., Yu, L., Heilman, B., Levtov, R. G., ... & Coulter, R. W. (2020). Harmful masculinities among younger men in three countries: Psychometric study of the Man Box Scale. Preventive Medicine, 139, 106185.

Hsu, K., & Iwamoto, D. K. (2014). Testing for Measurement Invariance in the Conformity to Masculine Norms-46 across White and Asian American College Men: Development and Validity of the Cmni-29. Psychology of men & masculinity, 15(4), 397.

Janey, Bradley A., Natalia V. Janey, Natasha Goncherova, and Vladimir Savchenk. (2006). Masculinity Ideology in Russian Society: Factor Structure and Validity of the Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale. Journal of Men’s Studies, Vol. 14 Issue 1.

Levant, R. F., and K. Richmond. (2007). A Review of Research on Masculinity Ideologies Using the Male Role Norms Inventory. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15(2): 130.

Luyt, R. (2005). The Male Attitude Norms Inventory-II: A Measure of Masculinity Ideology in South Africa. Men and Masculinities, 8(2): 208-229.

Luyt, R. (2018). Masculinities Representations Inventory (MRI, English Version): A Measure of Gender (Re)Presentation. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 26(2), 157-183.

Mahalik, J. R., Locke, B., Ludlow, L., Diemer, M., Scott, R. P. J., Gottfried, M., & Freitas, G. (2003). Development of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4, 3–25.

McDermott, R. C., Borgogna, N. C., Hammer, J. H., Berry, A. T., & Levant, R. F. (2019). More similar than different? Testing the construct validity of men’s and women’s traditional masculinity ideology using the Male Role Norms Inventory-Very Brief. Psychology of Men & Masculinities.Mosher, D. L., and M. Sirkin. (1984). Measuring a macho personality constellation. Journal of Research in Personality, 18, 150-163.

Mosher, D. L., and R.D. Anderson. (1986). Macho personality, sexual aggression, and reactions to guided imagery of realistic rape. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 77-94.

Mosher, D. L., and S.S. Tomkins. (1988). Scripting the macho man: Hypermasculine socialization and enculturation. Journal of Sex Research, 25: 60-84.

Oransky, M., and C. Fisher. (2009). The development and validation of the meanings of adolescent masculinity scale. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 10(1): 57-72.

Owen, J. (2011). Assessing the Factor Structures of the 55-and 22-Item Versions of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory. American Journal of Men's Health, 5(2), 118-128.

Parent, M. C., & Moradi, B. (2011). An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Conformity to Masculine Norms: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 12(4), 339.

Parent, M. C., Moradi, B., Rummell, C. M., & Tokar, D. M. (2011). Evidence of Construct Distinctiveness for Conformity to Masculine Norms. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 12(4), 354.

Pleck, J. H., F. L. Sonenstein, and L. C. Ku. (1994) Attitudes toward male roles among adolescent males: A discriminant validity analysis. Sex Roles, 30 (7/8): 481-501.

Pulerwitz, J., and G. Barker. (2008). Measuring Attitudes toward Gender Norms among Young Men in Brazil: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the GEM Scale. Men and Masculinities, 10(3): 322-338.

Reigeluth, C. S., & Addis, M. E. (2021). Policing of Masculinity Scale (POMS) and pressures boys experience to prove and defend their “manhood”. Psychology of Men & Masculinities.

Smiler, A. (2006). Conforming to Masculine Norms: Evidence for Validity among Adult Men and Women. Sex Roles, 54(11): 767-775.

Smiler, A. (2006). Living the Image: A Quantitative Approach to Delineating Masculinities. Sex Roles, 55(9): 621-632.

Snell, W. E., Jr, Belk, S., & Hawkins, R., II. (1986). The stereotypes about male sexuality scale (SAMSS): Components, correlates, antecedents, consequences and counselor bias. Social and Behavioural Sciences Documents, 16(10).

Snell, W. E., Jr. (1998). The stereotypes about male sexuality scale. In C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, R. Bauserman, G. Schreer & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality related measures. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.

Thompson, E., H., and J. H. Pleck. (1986). The structure of male role norms. American Behavioral Scientist, 29, 531-543.

Thompson, E. H., Webster, B. A., Stanley, J. T., & Levant, R. F. (2020). Measurement Invariance by Age Group for the Aging Men’s Masculinity Ideologies Inventory. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 28(3), 301-317. doi:10.1177/1060826520911159

Vera, Wildredo, and Martin S. Fiebert. (1987). Validity of an Instrument Measuring Male Attitudes: The Traditional-Liberated Content Scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 65, pp. 437-38.

Whorley, M. R., & Addis, M. E. (2006). Ten Years of Psychological Research on Men and Masculinity in the United States: Dominant Methodological Trends. Sex Roles, 55(9-10), 649-658.

Wong, Y. J., Shea, M., Hickman, S. J., LaFollette, J. R., Cruz, N., & Boghokian, T. (2013). The Subjective Masculinity Stress Scale: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 14(2), 148.

Wong, Y. J., Shea, M., LaFollette, J. R., Hickman, S. J., Cruz, N., & Boghokian, T. (2011). The Inventory of Subjective Masculinity Experiences: Development and Psychometric Properties. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 19(3), 236-255.