Measures or scales of gender

Note: This section concentrates on measures of gender. For works focused on what such measures show, see e.g. the section on attitudes to gender and gender identity, and other sections focused on dimensions of gender other than attitudes.


Bardhan, Kalpana and Steven Klasen (1999). On UNDP’s Revisions to the Gender Related Development Index.

Berkel, L. (2004). A Psychometric Evaluation of the Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale with African Americans. Sex Roles, 50(9): 737-742.

Bigler, R. S. (1997). Conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of children’s sex typing. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(1): 53-69.

Billard, T. J. (2018). The Crisis in Content Validity among Existing Measures of Transphobia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(5), 1305-1306.

Blancas Peral, F. J., M. n. Domínguez Serrano, et al. (2008). An alternative approach to measuring gender inequality. Journal of Gender Studies, 17(4): 369-374.

Blazina, C., S. Pisecco, and J. M. O’neil. (2005). An Adaptation of the Gender Role Conflict Scale for Adolescents: Psychometric Issues and Correlates With Psychological Distress. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 6(1), 39–45.

Braun, M. (2008). Using Egalitarian Items to Measure Men’s and Women’s Family Roles. Sex Roles, 59(9): 644-656.

Fassinger, Ruth E. (1994). Development and Testing of the Attitudes Toward Feminism And The Women’s Movement (FWM) Scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18(3): 389-402.

Hausmann, Ricardo, Laura D. Tyson, and Saadia Zahidi (2007). The Global Gender Gap Report. Geneva: World Economic Forum.

Hill, D., and B. Willoughby. (2005). The Development and Validation of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale. Sex Roles. 53: 531-544.

Kachel, S., Steffens, M. C., & Niedlich, C. (2016). Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 956.

Mahalik, J. R., E. B. Morray, A. Coonerty-Femiano, L. H. Ludlow, S. M. Slattery and A. Smiler (2005). Development of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory. Sex Roles, 52(7): 417-435.

McCreary, D. R. (2007). The Drive for Muscularity Scale: Description, Psychometrics, and Research Findings. In J. Thompson & G. Cafri (Eds.), The Muscular Ideal: Psychological, Social, and Medical Perspectives. (pp. 87-106). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

McGhee, M. R., N. Johnson and J. Liverpool (2001). Assessing Psychometric Properties of the Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale (SRES) with African Americans. Sex Roles, 45(11): 859-866.

McHugh, M. C. and I. H. Frieze (1997). The Measurement of Gender-Role Attitudes: A Review and Commentary. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(1): 1-16.

McKinley, N. M., & Hyde, J. S. (1996). The Objectified Body Consciousness Scale: Development and Validation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20(2), 181-215.

McMahon, J. M., Volpe, E. M., Klostermann, K., Trabold, N., & Xue, Y. (2015). A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale in HIV/AIDS Research. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(2), 267-294.

Moradi, B., J. Yoder and L. Berendsen (2004). An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Womanist Identity Attitudes Scale. Sex Roles, 50(3): 253-266.

Moser, Annalisa. (2007). Gender and Indicators Overview Report. Brighton: BRIDGE.

Nanda, Geeta. (2011). Compendium of Gender Scales. Washington, DC: FHI 360/C-Change.

Neilands, T. B., Dworkin, S. L., Chakravarty, D., Campbell, C. K., Wilson, P. A., Gomez, A. M., . . . Hoff, C. C. (2019). Development and Validation of the Power Imbalance in Couples Scale. Archives of sexual behavior, 48(3), 763-779.

Nelson, M. C. (1988). Reliability, validity, and cross-cultural comparisons for the simplified attitudes toward women scale. Sex Roles, 18(5): 289-296.

Parpart, Jane L. M. Patricia Connelly, and V. Eudine Barriteau Eds. (2000). Theoretical Perspectives on Women and Development. Ottawa: IDRC.

Simoni, J. M., N. M. Henley and C. S. Christie (1999). A Lesbian Feminist Subscale for the Feminist Perspectives Scale. Sex Roles, 41(11): 833-850.

Smiler, A. P., & Epstein, M. (2010). Measuring Gender: Options and Issues Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology (pp. 133-157): Springer.

Swim, J. K. and L. L. Cohen (1997). Overt, covert, and subtle sexism: A comparison between the Attitudes Toward Women and Modern Sexism Scales. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(1): 103-118.

Swim, J. K., R. Mallett, Y. Russo-Devosa and C. Stangor (2005). Judgments Of Sexism: A Comparison Of The Subtlety Of Sexism Measures And Sources Of Variability In Judgments Of Sexism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29(4): 406-411.

Tolman, D. L. and M. V. Porche (2000). The Adolescent Femininity Ideology Scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24(4): 365-376.

UNDP (1995). Measuring Gender Inequality. Human Development Report 1995. New York: UNDP.

Vickberg, S., and K. Deaux. (2005). Measuring the Dimensions of Women’s Sexuality: The Women’s Sexual Self-Concept Scale. Sex Roles. 53: 361-369.