(viii) Bystander intervention strategies

Guides for bystanders and/or to bystander action

Berkowitz, Alan. (2009). Response Ability: A Complete Guide to Bystander Behavior. Beck & Co.

Fenton, R. A., Mott, H. L., McCartan, K. & Rumney, P. N. S. (2014). The intervention initiative toolkit and website. Retrieved from http://www1.uwe.ac.uk/bl/research/interventioninitiative/thetoolkit.aspx

Flood, Michael. (2011). Men Speak Up: A toolkit for action in men’s daily lives. Sydney: White Ribbon Prevention Research Series, No. 4. https://www.whiteribbon.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Men_speak_up_Flood_2011-1.pdf

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Playbook for Female College Students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Playbook for Male College Students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Trainer’s Guide: For working with female college students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Trainer’s Guide: For working with male college students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Moynihan, M. M., Eckstein, R. P., Banyard, V. L., & Plante, E. G. (2010). Facilitator’s Guide For Bringing In The Bystander™: A Prevention Workshop For Establishing A Community Of Responsibility (Revised Version). Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Prevention Innovations.

VicHealth. (2014). ‘Stepping in’: A bystander action toolkit to support equality and respect at work - A resource for State Sporting Associations. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth).


Useful introductions to and overviews of bystander intervention

Banyard, Victoria L., Elizabethe G. Plante, and Mary M. Moynihan. (2004). Bystander education: Bringing a broader community perspective to sexual violence prevention. Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 1, January: 61-79.

Banyard, Victoria L., Elizabethe G. Plante, and Mary M. Moynihan. (2005). Rape Prevention Through Bystander Education: Bringing a broader perspective to sexual violence prevention. Washington: US Department of Justice.

Cares, A. C., Moynihan, M. M., & Banyard, V. L. (2014). Taking stock of bystander programmes. In Preventing Sexual Violence: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Overcoming a Rape Culture, eds N. Henry and A. Powell, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp. 170-188.

Powell, A. (2011). Review of Bystander Approaches in Support of Preventing Violence Against Women. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth).

Powell, A. (2014). Shifting upstream: bystander intervention against sexism and discrimination against women. In Preventing Sexual Violence: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Overcoming a Rape Culture, eds N. Henry and A. Powell, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp. 189-207.

Storer, H. L., Casey, E., & Herrenkohl, T. (2016). Efficacy of Bystander Programs to Prevent Dating Abuse Among Youth and Young Adults: A Review of the Literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 17(3), 256-269. doi:10.1177/1524838015584361

Tabachnick, J. (2009). Engaging Bystanders in Sexual Violence Prevention. National Sexual Violence Resource Center: Pennsylvannia. http://www.nsvrc.org/cms/fileUpload/Projects/EngagingBystanders.pdf.


Further works

Alegria-Flores, K., Raker, K., Pleasants, R.K., Weaver, M.A, & Weinberger, M. (2015). Preventing interpersonal violence on college campuses: The effect of One Act training on bystander intervention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, [ahead-of-print]. DOI: 10.1177/0886260515587666

Bannon, R. S., Brosi, M. W., & Foubert, J. D. (2013). Sorority women’s and fraternity men’s rape myth acceptance and bystander intervention attitudes. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 50(1), 72-87.

Banyard, V.L., Moynihan, M.M. Cares, A.C., and Warner, R. (2014). How do we know if it works? Measuring outcomes in bystander-focused abuse prevention on campuses. American Psychological Association, 4(1), 101-115.

Banyard, Victoria L. (2008). Measurement and correlates of pro-social bystander behavior: The case of interpersonal violence. Violence and Victims, 23, 85-99.

Banyard, Victoria L., and Mary M. Moynihan (2011). Variation in Bystander Behavior Related to Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence Prevention: Correlates in a Sample of College Students. Psychology of Violence, Vol 1 No 4.

Banyard, Victoria L., Mary M. Moynihan, and Elizabethe G. Plante. (2007). Sexual violence prevention through bystander education: An experimental evaluation. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(4): 463-481.

Bennett, S., Banyard, V.L., and Garnhart, L. (2014). To act or not to act, that is the question? Barriers and facilitators of bystander intervention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(3), 476-496.

Brown, A. L. and T. L. Messman-Moore (2010). Personal and Perceived Peer Attitudes Supporting Sexual Aggression as Predictors of Male College Students’ Willingness to Intervene Against Sexual Aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 25(3): 503-517.

Burn, S.M. (2009). A Situational Model of Sexual Assault Prevention through Bystander Intervention. Sex Roles, 60(11-12): 779-792.

Cares, A. C., Banyard, V. L., Moynihan, M. M., Williams, L. M., Potter, S. J., & Stapleton, J. G. (2015). Changing attitudes about being a bystander to violence: Translating an in- person sexual violence prevention program to a new campus. Violence Against Women, 21(2), 165-187. doi:10.1177/1077801214564681

Carlson, M. (2008). I’d rather go along and be considered a man: masculinity and bystander intervention. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 16(1): 3(15).

Casey, E., and K. Ohler. (2012). Being a positive bystander: Male anti-violence allies’ experiences of ‘stepping up’. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 62-83.

Casey, E. A., and T. P. Lindhorst. (2009). Toward a multi-level, ecological approach to the primary prevention of sexual assault: Prevention in peer and community contexts. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 10(2), 91-114.

Christy, C. A., and H. Voigt. (1994), Bystander Responses to Public Episodes of Child Abuse. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24: 824-847.

Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Cook-Craig, P. G., DeGue, S. A., Clear, E. R., Brancato, C. J., . . . Recktenwald, E. A. (2017). RCT Testing Bystander Effectiveness to Reduce Violence. Am J Prev Med. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.020

Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Fisher, B. S., Swan, S. C., Williams, C. M., Clear, E. R., & DeGue, S. (2016). Multi-college bystander intervention evaluation for violence prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50(3), 295-302.

Coker, Ann L., Patricia G. Cook-Craig, Corrine M. Williams, Bonnie S. Fisher, Emily R. Clear, Lisandra S. Garcia, and Lea M. Hegge. (2011). Evaluation of Green Dot: An Active Bystander Intervention to Reduce Sexual Violence on College Campuses.  Violence Against Women, 17: 777-796.

Cook-Craig P.G, Coker A.L, Clear E.R, Garcia L.S, Bush H.M, Brancato C.J, Williams C.M, Fisher B.S. (2014). Challenge and opportunity in evaluating a diffusion-based active bystanding prevention program: Green Dot in high schools. Violence Against Women, ePub, 2014.

Cook-Craig P.G, Millspaugh P.H, Recktenwald E.A, Kelly N.C, Hegge L.M, Coker A.L, Pletcher T.S. (2014). From Empower to Green Dot: Successful strategies and lessons learned in developing comprehensive sexual violence primary prevention programming. Violence Against Women, ePub, 2014.

Corboz, J., Flood, M., & Dyson, S. (2016). Challenges of bystander intervention in male-dominated professional sport: lessons from the Australian Football League. Violence Against Women: an international and interdisciplinary journal, 22(33), 324-343. doi:10.1177/1077801215602343

Cowie, H., and N. Hutson. (2005). Peer support: A strategy to help bystanders challenge school bullying. Pastoral Care in Education, 23(2): 40–44.

Domestic Violence Task Force of San Luis Obispo County. (year?). Beat the Punch Tool Kit! Domestic Violence Task Force of San Luis Obispo County.

Eagly, A. H. (2009). The his and hers of prosocial behavior: An examination of the social psychology of gender. American Psychologist, 64(8): 644–658.

Epstein, J. (2002). Breaking the code of silence: Bystanders to campus violence and the law of college and university safety. Stetson L. Rev., 32.

Exner, D. and N. Cummings (2011). Implications for sexual assault prevention: college students as prosocial bystanders. Journal of American College Health 59(7): 655-657.

Fenton, R. A., & Mott, H. L. (2015a). The intervention initiative: Student feedback February 2015. Bristol: University of the West of England. Retrieved from https://public.uwe.ac.uk/faculties/BBS/BUS/law/Law%20docs/bystander/Par… dent_Feedback_report.pdf

Fenton, R. A., & Mott, H. L. (2017). The bystander approach to violence prevention: Considerations for implementation in Europe. Psychology of Violence, 7(3), 450-458. doi:10.1037/vio0000104

Witte, T.H., Casper, D.M., Hackman, C.L., & Mulla, M.M. (2017). Bystander interventions for sexual assault and dating violence on college campuses: Are we putting bystanders in harm’s way? Journal of American College Health, 65(3), 149-157.

Fenton, R. A., Mott, H. L., McCartan, K., & Rumney, P. N. S. (2016). A review of evidence for bystander intervention to prevent sexual and domestic violence in universities. (No. 2016011). London, UK: Public Health England. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/fi…

Fenton, R.A., & Mott, H.L. (2016) Evaluation of The Intervention Initiative, a Bystander Intervention Program to Prevent Violence Against Women in Universities (under review)

Fileborn, B. (2017). Bystander intervention from the victims’ perspective: experiences, impacts and justice needs of street harassment victims. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, 1(2), 187-204. doi:10.1332/239868017X15048754886046

Fischer, Peter; Krueger, Joachim I.; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Vogrincic, Claudia; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Frey, Dieter; Heene, Moritz; Wicher, Magdalena; Kainbacher, Martina. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 137(4), Jul 2011, 517-537.

Fold, S. L., and D. T. Robinson. (1998). Secondary bystander effects on intimate violence: when norms of restraint reduce deterrence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, (15)2: 277-285.

Foubert, J.D., J. Langhinrichsen-Rohling, H. Brasfield, and B. Hill. (2010). Effects of a rape awareness program on college women: increasing bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(7): 813-827.

Franklin, C. A., Brady, P. Q., & Jurek, A. L. (2017). Responding to gendered violence among college students: the impact of participant characteristics on direct bystander intervention behavior. Journal of school violence, 16(2), 189-206.

Gidycz, C. A., L. M. Orchowski, and A. D. Berkowitz. (2011). Preventing Sexual Aggression Among College Men: An Evaluation of a Social Norms and Bystander Approach Intervention Program. Violence Against Women, 17(6): 720-42.

Gracia, E., García, F. et al. (2009). Public Responses to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: The Influence of Perceived Severity and Personal Responsibility. The Spanish Journal of Psychology12(2): 648–656.

Grigoriou, S., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., & Theodorakis, Y. (2013). Preliminary exploration of bystander intention to stand up for a female-peer targeted in sexual harassment in Greek academia. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 14(1), 184.

Hamby, S., Weber, M. C., Grych, J., & Banyard, V. (2016). What difference do bystanders make? The association of bystander involvement with victim outcomes in a community sample. Psychology of Violence, 6(1), 91-102. doi:10.1037/a0039073

Hart, T. C., and T. D. Miethe. (2008). Exploring Bystander Presence and Intervention in Nonfatal Violent Victimization: When Does Helping Really Help? Violence and Victims, 23(5): 637–651.

Hitlan, R. T., Schneider, K. T. et al. (2006). Upsetting behavior: Reactions to personal and bystander sexual harassment experiences. Sex Roles, 55(3): 187–195.

Hust, S. J., Lei, M., Ren, C., Chang, H., McNab, A. L., Marett, E. G., & Willoughby, J. F. (2013). The Effects of Sports Media Exposure on College Students’ Rape Myth Beliefs and Intentions to Intervene in a Sexual Assault. Mass Communication and Society, 16(6), 762-786.

Hyers, L. (2007). Resisting prejudice every day: Exploring women’s assertive responses to anti-Black racism, anti-Semitism, heterosexism, and sexism. Sex Roles, 56(1), 1–12.

Janson, G. R. and R. J. Hazler (2004). Trauma reactions of bystanders and victims to repetitive abuse experiences. Violence and Victims19(2): 239–255.

Jouriles, E. N., Kleinsasser, A., Rosenfield, D., & McDonald, R. (2016). Measuring bystander behavior to prevent sexual violence: Moving beyond self reports. Psychology of Violence, 6(1), 73-81. doi:10.1037/a0038230

Jouriles, E. N., McDonald, R., Rosenfield, D., Levy, N., Sargent, K., Caiozzo, C., & Grych, J. H. (2016). TakeCARE, a video bystander program to help prevent sexual violence on college campuses: Results of two randomized, controlled trials. Psychology of Violence, 6(3), 410.

Jouriles, E. N., Rosenfield, D., Yule, K., Sargent, K. S., & McDonald, R. (2016). Predicting high-school students’ bystander behavior in simulated dating violence situations. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(3), 345-351.

Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community. (2008). Special issue: Sexual Violence: Current Perspectives on Prevention and Intervention, 36(1-2);
Sharyn J. Potter, Jane G. Stapleton, Mary M. Moynihan, Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Media Campaign Illustrating the Bystander Role.

Kantor, G.K. (no date). Final Report: Evaluation of Prevent Child Abuse Vermont’s SAFE-T Program.

Katz, J., & Moore, J. (2013). Bystander education training for campus sexual assault prevention: An initial meta-analysis. Violence and Victims, 6, 1054-1067.

Katz, J., & Nguyen, L. J. (2016). Bystander Responses to Risk for Rape Perpetrated by a Friend, Acquaintance, or Stranger. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 25(6), 652-667. doi:10.1080/10926771.2016.1185755

Katz, J., Olin, R., Herman, C., & DuBois, M. (2013). Spotting the Signs: firstyear college students’ responses to bystanderthemed rape prevention posters. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(4), 523-529.

Laner, M. R., Benin, M. H. et al. (2001). Bystander attitudes toward victims of violence: who’s worth helping? Deviant Behavior, 22(1): 23–42.

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., J. D. Foubert, Hm. M. Brasfield, B. Hill, and S. Shelley-Tremblay. (2011). The Men’s Program: Does it impact college men’s self-reported bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene? Violence Against Women, 17(6): 743-759.

Leone, R. M., Parrott, D. J., & Swartout, K. M. (2017). When is it ‘manly’ to intervene?: Examining the effects of a misogynistic peer norm on bystander intervention for sexual aggression. Psychology of Violence, 7(2), 286-295. doi:10.1037/vio0000055

Leone, R. M., Parrott, D. J., Swartout, K. M., & Tharp, A. T. (2016). Masculinity and bystander attitudes: Moderating effects of masculine gender role stress. Psychology of Violence, 6(1), 82-90. doi:10.1037/a0038926

Levine, M., and K. Thompson. (2004). Identity, place, and bystander intervention: Social categories and helping after natural disasters. The Journal of Social Psychology 144(3): 229–245.

Levine, M., and S. Crowther. (2008). The responsive bystander: How social group membership and group size can encourage as well as inhibit bystander intervention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(6): 1429–1439.

Levine, M., Prosser, A., Evans, D., and Reicher, S. (2005). Identity and emergency intervention: How social group membership and inclusiveness of group boundaries shape helping behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(4), 443–453.

Loh, C., Orchowski, L. M. et al. (2007). Socialization and sexual aggression in college men: The role of observational influence in detecting risk cues. Psychology Of Men And Masculinity, 8(3).

 Lynch, Annette, and Michael Fleming. (2005). Bystander Approaches: Empowering Students to Model Ethical Sexual Behavior. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, September, Vol. 97, Iss. 3.

Matt W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R Sean Bannon, and Gabriel Yandell. (2011). Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/ Sorority Advisors, 6.2: 26-35.

McDonald, P., and M. Flood (2012). Encourage. Support. Act! Bystander Approaches to Sexual Harassment in the Workplace. Sydney: Human Rights Commission. URL: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/encourage-support-act-bystander-approaches-sexual-harassment-workplace-2012.

McDonald, P., Charlesworth, S. and Graham, T., 2016. Action or inaction: bystander intervention in workplace sexual harassment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(5), pp. 548-566.

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