(iii) Violence against women in the military

Note: This focuses on violence against women serving in military forces. For references on violence against women in the contexts of war and conflict, and on conflict-related sexual violence, see here.


Abrams, J. R. (2009). The collateral consequences of masculinizing violence. Wm. & Mary J. Women & L., 16, 703.

Australian Defence Force. (1998). Report of the review into policies and practices to deal with sexual harassment and sexual offences at the Australian Defence Force Academy. Canberra, Director of Publishing and Visual Communications, Department of Defence (the Grey Report).

Australian Human Rights Commission. (2011). Report on the Review into the Treatment of Women in the Australian Defence Force Academy. Phase 1 of the Review into the Treatment of Women in the Australian Defence Force. Canberra.

Bell, N. S., Harford, T. C., Fuchs, C. H., McCarroll, J. E., & Schwartz, C. E. (2006). Spouse abuse and alcohol problems among White, African American, and Hispanic US Army soldiers. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 30(10), 1721-1733.

Bowen, G. L., Jensen, T. M., & Williams, B. (2017). Prevention of family maltreatment in the US Air Force: A systematic review of research on active-duty military personnel. Journal of Family Social Work, 20(1), 52-80.

Callahan, J. L. (2009). Manifestations of Power and Control: Training as the Catalyst for Scandal at the United States Air Force Academy. Violence Against Women, 15(10): 1149-1168.

Campbell, J.C., M.A. Garza, A.C. Gielen, P. O’Campo, J. Kub, J. Dienemann, A.S. Jones, and E. Jafar. (2003). Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse among Active Duty Military Women. Violence Against Women, 9(9): 1072-1092.

Cancio, R. (2017). Structural pathways between race/ethnicity, substance use, military service, and male-perpetrated intimate partner violence in pre-9/11 military families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0886260517723142.

Cancio, R. (2020). Military Cohorts, Substance Use, and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 1077801219893475. doi:10.1177/1077801219893475

Cancio, R. (2020). Post-9/11 service era veterans: intimate partner violence and substance use. Substance use & misuse, 55(2), 241-251.

Carroll, M.H., and M.D. Clark. (2006). Men’s Acquaintance Rape Scripts: A Comparison Between a Regional University and a Military Academy. Sex Roles, 55(7-8): 469.

Dean, Donna M. (1997). Warriors Without Weapons: The Victimization Of Military Women. Pasadena, MD: Minerva Center.

Deschamps, M. (2015) External Review Into Sexual Misconduct and Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces. Commonwealth of Canada, Toronto.

Durham, N., Gierisch, J. M., Shapiro, A., Grant, N. N., King, H. A., McDuffie, J. R., . . . Wing, L. (2013). Intimate partner violence: Prevalence among US Military veterans and active duty servicemembers and a review of intervention approaches.

Ellner, A. (2015). The ethics of inclusion: Gender equality, equal opportunity and sexual assault in the Australian, British, Canadian and U.S. armed forces. In G. Lucas (Ed.). Routledge Handbook of Military Ethics. New York: Routledge. 

Erez, E., and S. Bach. (2003). Immigration, Domestic Violence, and the Military: The Case of “Military Brides”. Violence Against Women, 9(9): 1093-1117.

Goodmark, L. (2015). Hands up at home: Militarized masculinity and police officers who commit intimate partner abuse. BYU L. Rev., 1183.

Hajizadeh, M., Aiken, A., & Cox, C. (2019). Risk Factors Associated with Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces: Does It Vary by Sex and Environmental Command? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(8), 2581-2594. doi:10.1007/s10508-019-01507-x

Harrison, Deborah. (2002). The First Casualty: Violence Against Women in the Canadian Military. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company.

Hillman, E. L. (2009). Front and center: Sexual violence in US military law. Politics & Society, 37(1), 101-129

Jensen, T. M., & Bowen, G. L. (2018). Informing efforts to prevent family maltreatment among airmen: A focus on personal resilience. Journal of Family Social Work, 21(2), 129-151.

Jones, A. D. (2012). Intimate partner violence in military couples: A review of the literature. Aggression and violent behavior, 17(2), 147-157.

Kasinsky, Renee Goldsmith. (1998). Tailhook and the construction of sexual harassment in the media: ‘Rowdy Navy Boys’ and women who made a difference. Violence Against Women, 4(1), pp. 81-99.

Kimmel, Michael S. (2000). Saving the males: The sociological implications of the Virginia Military Institute and the Citadel. Gender & Society. 14(4), August.

Layton, J. S. (2019). Informing Military Sexual Violence Prevention: An Exploration of Individual, Relational, and Cultural Factors. PhD.Lohman, A. (2015). Silence of the lambs: Giving voice to the problem of rape and sexual assault in the United States armed forces. Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy, 10(1): 230-279.

MacKenzie, M., Gunaydin, E., & Chaudhuri, U. (2020). Illicit Military Behavior as Exceptional and Inevitable: Media Coverage of Military Sexual Violence and the “Bad Apples” Paradox. International Studies Quarterly. doi:10.1093/isq/sqz093

Magley, V.J., Waldo, C.R., Drasgow, F., and Fitzgerald, L.F. (1999). The impact of sexual harassment on military personnel: Is it the same for men and women? Military Psychology, 11(3), 283-302.

Marshall, A.D., J. Panuzio, and C.T. Taft. (2005). Intimate partner violence among military veterans and active duty servicemen. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(7): 862-876.

Matthews, M., Farris, C., Tankard, M., & Dunbar, M. S. (2018). Needs of male sexual assault victims in the US Armed Forces. Rand Health Quarterly, 8(2).

McGann, P., and P. Schewe. (2008). The Department of Defense Sexual Assault Prevention Strategy. Creating a National Benchmark Program. September 30. Interdisciplinary Center for Research on Violence, University of Illinois at Chicago. Produced under contract by Amer Technology, Inc.

McWhorter, S. K., Stander, V. A., Merrill, L. L., Thomsen, C. J., & Milner, J. S. (2009). Reports of rape reperpetration by newly enlisted male Navy personnel. Violence and Victims, 24(2), 204-218.

Merrill, Lex L., Julie L. Crouch, Cynthia J. Thomsen, Jennifer Guimond, and Joel S. Milner. (2005). Perpetration of Severe Intimate Partner Violence: Premilitary and Second Year of Service Rates. Military Medicine, August, Vol. 170, Iss. 8.

National Task Force to End Sexual and Domestic Violence. (2013). Statement of Priorities for Response to Sexual Violence in the Military. June 5, 2013.http://4vawa.org/4vawa/2013/6/5/statement-of-priorities-for-response-to…. Accessed, January 5, 2016.

Nelson, Terry Spahr. (2002). For Love Of Country: Confronting Rape And Sexual Harassment In The U.S. Military. New York: Haworth.

O’Neill, W.L. (1998). Sex scandals in the gender-integrated military. Gender Issues, 16(1/2): 64.

Pollard, R., & Ferguson, C. (2020). Intimate partner violence within Australian Defence Force families: an exploratory study. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, Advance online publication.

Powers, R. A., Moule, R. K., Dodge, C. E., & Boggess, L. N. (2020). Structuring the Invisible War: Base and Community Influences on Military Sexual Assault Occurrence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.03.003

Quinn, Kathryn. (1996). Sexual Harassment in the Australian Defence Force. Canberra, Department of Defence.

Rodrigues, A. E., Funderburk, J. S., Keating, N. L., & Maisto, S. A. (2015). A methodological review of intimate partner violence in the military: where do we go from here? Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 16(3), 231-240.

Rosen, L. N., and L. Martin. (1998). Predictors of tolerance of sexual harassment among male U.S. Army soldiers. Violence Against Women, 4(4), 491-504.

Rosen, L.N., R.J. Kaminski, A.M. Parmley, K.H. Knudson, and P. Fancher. (2003). The Effects of Peer Group Climate on Intimate Partner Violence Among Married Male U.S. Army Soldiers. Violence Against Women, 9(9), September: 1045-1071.

Rosenthal, L., and S. McDonald. (2003). Seeking Justice: A Review of the Second Report of the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women, 9(9): 1153-1161.

Rumble, G. A., McKean, M. M., & Pearce, D. (2011). Report of the Review of allegations of sexual and other abuse in Defence. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia,

Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade. (1994). Sexual Harassment in the Australian Defence Force (Facing the future together). Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Sety, M., James, K., & Breckenridge, J. (2014). Understanding the Risk of Domestic Violence During and Post Natural Disasters: Literature Review. In Issues of Gender and Sexual Orientation in Humanitarian Emergencies (pp. 99-111). Springer International Publishing.

Siminski, P., Ville, S., & Paull, A. (2016). Does the military turn men into criminals? New evidence from Australia’s conscription lotteries. Journal of Population Economics, 29(1), 197-218.

Skomorovsky, A., Hujaleh, F., & Wolejszo, S. (2015). Intimate partner violence in the Canadian armed forces: the role of family stress and its impact on well-being. Military Medicine, 180(7), 809-816.

Stacer, M. J., & Solinas-Saunders, M. (2018). Criminal Thinking Among Men Beginning a Batterer Intervention Program: The Relevance of Military Background. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 27(2), 199-219.

Stander, V. A., & Thomsen, C. J. (2016). Sexual harassment and assault in the US military: A review of policy and research trends. Military Medicine, 181(suppl_1), 20-27.

Stander, V. A., Thomsen, C. J., Merrill, L. L., Rabenhorst, M. M., Crouch, J. L., & Milner, J. S. (2011). Gender and Military Contextual Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Aggression. Military Psychology, 23(6), 639-658. doi:10.1080/08995605.2011.616808Sturdevant, Saundra and Brenda Stoltzfus. (1993). Let the Good Times Roll: Prostitution and the US Military in Asia. New York: The New Press.

Trevillion, K., Williamson, E., Thandi, G., Borschmann, R., Oram, S., & Howard, L. M. (2015). A systematic review of mental disorders and perpetration of domestic violence among military populations. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 50(9), 1329-1346.

Turchick, J. A., & Wilson, S. M. (2010). Sexual assault in the U.S. military: A review of the literature and recommendations for the future. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15, 267-277.

U.S. Department of Defense. (2014). Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military: Fiscal year 2013. Department of Defense Sexual Assault Prevention and Response. Retrieved http://www.sapr.mil/public/docs/reports/ FY13_DoD_SAPRO_Annual_Report_on_Sexual_Assault.pdf.

Williamson, E. (2012). Domestic abuse and military families: the problem of reintegration and control. British Journal of Social Work, 42(7), 1371-1387.

Zamorski, M. A., & Wiens-Kinkaid, M. E. (2013). Cross-sectional prevalence survey of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization in Canadian military personnel. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1019.