(iii) Sexual consent

Note: In a sense, all literature on sexual violence concerns issues of consent. This section concentrates, however, on literature focused on understandings and practices of consent. Also see:


Ahmed, S., Kilimnik, C., Sears, M., & Meston, C. (2020). Lewis, P., Bergenfeld, I., Thu Trang, Q., Minh, T. H., Sales, J. M., & Yount, K. M. (2021). Gender norms and sexual consent in dating relationships: a qualitative study of university students in Vietnam. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 1-16.

Ahmed, S., Kilimnik, C., Sears, M., & Meston, C. (2020). Undergraduates’ Definitions of Sexual Consent: The Role of Rape Myth Acceptance. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 17(7), S25.

Baldwin-White, A. (2019). “When a Girl Says No, You Should Be Persistent Until She Says Yes”: College Students and Their Beliefs About Consent. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0886260519875552.

Beres, M. (2009). Moving beyond “no means no”: Understanding heterosexual casual sex and consent. In B. A. Crow & L. Gotell (Eds.), Open boundaries: A Canadian women’s studies reader. (3rd ed.) (pp. 275-282). Toronto, Canada: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Beres, M. (2010). Sexual miscommunication? Untangling assumptions about sexual communication between casual sex partners. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 12(1), 1-14. doi: 10.1080/13691050903075226

Beres, M. (2020). Perspectives of rape-prevention educators on the role of consent in sexual violence prevention. Sex Education, 20(2), 227-238.

Beres, M. A. (2014). Rethinking the concept of consent for anti-sexual violence activism and education. Feminism & Psychology, 24(3), 373-389.

Beres, M. A., & Farvid, P. (2010). Sexual ethics and young women’s accounts of heterosexual casual sex. Sexualities, 13(3), 377-393. doi: 10.1177/1363460709363136

Beres, M.A. (2007). ‘Spontaneous’ Sexual Consent: An Analysis of Sexual Consent Literature. Feminism Psychology, 17(1): 93-108.

Bindesbøl Holm Johansen, K., Pedersen, B. M., & Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, T. (2020). “You can Feel that on the Person” – Danish Young People’s Notions and Experiences of Sexual (Non) Consenting. NORA-Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 28(1), 4-17.

Bragg, S., Ponsford, R., Meiksin, R., Emmerson, L., & Bonell, C. (2020). Dilemmas of school-based relationships and sexuality education for and about consent. Sex Education, 1-15.

Brian, L. (2018). After Steubenville: incapacitated bodies, rape, and a theory of sexual subjectivity beyond consent. Feminist Media Studies, 1-15.

Burgin, R. (2018). Persistent Narratives of Force and Resistance: Affirmative Consent as Law Reform. The British Journal of Criminology, 59(2), 296-314. 10.1093/bjc/azy043

Bussel, Rachel Kramer. (2008). Beyond Yes or No: Consent as Sexual Process. In Yes Means Yes! Visions of Female Sexual Power & A World Without Rape edited by Jaclyn Friedman and Jessica Valenti. New York: Seal Press.

Cense, M., Bay-Cheng, L., & Dijk, L. v. (2018). ‘Do I Score Points If I Say “No”?’: Negotiating Sexual Boundaries in a Changing Normative Landscape. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, 2(2), 277-291.

Coy, M., Kelly, L., Vera-Gray, F., Garner, M., & Kanyeredzi, A. (2016). From ‘no means no’ to ‘an enthusiastic yes’: Changing the discourse on sexual consent through sex and relationships education. In Global perspectives and key debates in sex and relationships education: Addressing issues of gender, sexuality, plurality and power (pp. 84-99). Palgrave Pivot, London.

Curtis, J. N., & Burnett, S. (2017). Affirmative consent: What do college student leaders think about “yes means yes” as the standard for sexual behavior?. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 12(3), 201-214.

Degiuli, F., & Nowotny, J. (2020). The Administration of Consent: An Exploration of How Consent Education is Understood and Implemented at a Small Private University. Sexuality & Culture, 24(3), 863-882.

Dutcher, H., & McClelland, S. I. (2019). Laboring to Make Sex “Safe”: Sexual Vigilance in Young US College Women. Sex Roles, 1-16.

Edenfield, A. C. (2019). Queering consent: Design and sexual consent messaging. Communication Design Quarterly Review, 7(2), 50-63.

Edwards, J. (2020). Knowledge Gaps, Perceived Barriers, and Perceived Rewards in Sexual Consent (Master’s thesis, University of Waterloo).

Fischel, J. J. (2019). Screw Consent: A better politics of sexual justice. Univ of California Press.

Gilbert, J. (2018). Contesting consent in sex education. Sex Education, 18(3), 268-279.

Glace, A. M., & Kaufman, K. L. (2020). Sexual consent attitudes and rapesupportive norms among gender and sexual minority students. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 20(1), 657-675.

Glace, A. M., Zatkin, J. G., & Kaufman, K. L. (2020). Moving toward a new model of sexual consent: the development of the process-based consent scale. Violence against women, 1077801220952159.

Griner, S. B., Kline, N., Monroy, E., & Thompson, E. L. (2021). Sexual Consent Communication among Sexual and Gender Minority College Students. The Journal of Sex Research, 1-7.

Groggel, A., Burdick, M., & Barraza, A. (2020). She Left the Party: College Students’ Meanings of Sexual Consent. Violence Against Women, 1077801220911462.

Gronert, N. M. (2019). Law, campus policy, social movements, and sexual violence: Where do we stand in the# MeToo movement? Sociology Compass, e12694.

Gronert, Nona Maria, and Joshua Raclaw. (2018). Contesting the terms of consent: how university students (dis) align with institutional policy on sexual consent. Gender and Language 13, no. 3 (2018): 291-313.

Halley, J. (2016). The move to affirmative consent. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 42(1), 257-279.

Harris, K. L. (2018). Yes Means Yes and No Means No, but Both These Mantras Need to Go: Communication Myths in Consent Education and Anti-Rape Activism. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 46(2), 155-178.

Hermann, C., Liang, C. T., & DeSipio, B. E. (2018). Exploring sexual consent and hostile masculine norms using the theory of planned behavior. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 19(4), 491.

Hills, P. J., Pleva, M., Seib, E., & Cole, T. (2021). Understanding how university students use perceptions of consent, wantedness, and pleasure in labeling rape. Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 50(1), 247-262.

Hills, P. J., Seib, E., Pleva, M., Smythe, J., Gosling, M. R., & Cole, T. (2020). Consent, wantedness, and pleasure: Three dimensions affecting the perceived stress of and judgements of rape in sexual encounters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 26(1), 171.

Hirsch, J. S., Khan, S. R., Wamboldt, A., & Mellins, C. A. (2019). Social Dimensions of Sexual Consent Among Cisgender Heterosexual College Students: Insights From Ethnographic Research. Journal of Adolescent Health, 64(1), 26-35. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.06.011

Holmström, C., Plantin, L., & Elmerstig, E. (2020). Complexities of sexual consent: young people’s reasoning in a Swedish context. Psychology & Sexuality, 11(4), 342-357.

Hotten, J. N. (2018). Sexual consent and sexual violence prevention in sexuality education: What can be learned from the negotiation of sexual consent between same-sex attracted women? (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).

Hovick, S. R., & Silver, N. (2019). “Consent is sexy”: A poster campaign using sex-positive images and messages to increase dyadic sexual communication. Journal of American College Health, 67(8), 817-824.

Javidi, H., Maheux, A. J., Widman, L., Kamke, K., Choukas-Bradley, S., & Peterson, Z. D. (2020). Understanding Adolescents’ Attitudes Toward Affirmative Consent. The Journal of Sex Research, 57(9), 1100-1107.

Jozkowski, K. N. (2015). Barriers to affirmative consent policies and the need for affirmative sexuality. The U. of Pac. L. Rev., 47, 741.

Jozkowski, K. N., & Willis, M. (2020). People perceive transitioning from a social to a private setting as an indicator of sexual consent. Psychology & Sexuality, 11(4), 359-372.

Jozkowski, K. N., Manning, J., & Hunt, M. (2018). Sexual consent in and out of the bedroom: Disjunctive views of heterosexual college students. Women’s studies in communication, 41(2), 117-139.

Jozkowski, K. N., Marcantonio, T. L., Rhoads, K. E., Canan, S., Hunt, M. E., & Willis, M. (2019). A Content Analysis of Sexual Consent and Refusal Communication in Mainstream Films. The Journal of Sex Research, 1-12.

Linander, I., Goicolea, I., Wiklund, M., Gotfredsen, A., & Strömbäck, M. (2021). Power and subjectivity: Making sense of sexual consent among adults living in Sweden. NORA - Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 29(2), 110-123. doi:10.1080/08038740.2021.1903553

Lindstadt, C. J. (2020). Recognizing, Negotiating, & Normalizing: college students’ memorable messages of sexual consent (Doctoral dissertation).

Lofgreen, A. M., Mattson, R. E., Wagner, S. A., Ortiz, E. G., & Johnson, M. D. (2017). Situational and dispositional determinants of college men’s perception of women’s sexual desire and consent to sex: A factorial vignette analysis. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0886260517738777.

Marcantonio, T. L., Jozkowski, K. N., & Lo, W.-J. (2018). Beyond “just saying no”: A preliminary evaluation of strategies college students use to refuse sexual activity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(2), 341-351.

Marg, L. Z. (2020). College Men’s Conceptualization of Sexual Consent at a Large, Racially/Ethnically Diverse Southern California University. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 1-38. doi:10.1080/15546128.2020.1737291

Menzie, L. A. (2018). “ITT: Rape Analysts”: Hosting Negotiations of Consent, Kink, and Violence in Virtual Space (Doctoral dissertation, Carleton University).

Miller, M. K. (2020). Judgments about sexual assault vary depending on whether an affirmative consent policy or a “no means no” policy is applied. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace research.Nash, J. C. (2019). Pedagogies of Desire. differences, 30(1), 197-227.

Newstrom, N. P., Harris, S. M., & Miner, M. H. (2020). Sexual Consent: How Relationships, Gender, and Sexual Self-Disclosure Affect Signaling and Interpreting Cues for Sexual Consent in a Hypothetical Heterosexual Sexual Situation. Sex Roles, 1-11.

Novack, S. (2017). Sex Ed in Higher Ed: Should We Say Yes to “Affirmative Consent?”. Studies in Gender and Sexuality, 18(4), 302-312.

Ólafsdottir, K., & Kjaran, J. I. (2019). “Boys in Power”: Consent and Gendered Power Dynamics in Sex. Boyhood Studies, 12(1), 38-56.

Padilla-Walker, Laura M., Ryan McLean, Benjamin Ogles, and Brittany Pollard. (2020). How do parents teach “no means no”? An exploration of how sexual consent beliefs are socialized during adolescence. The Journal of Sex Research 57, no. 9: 1122-1133.

Piemonte, J. L., Gusakova, S., Nichols, M., & Conley, T. D. (2020). Is consent sexy? Comparing evaluations of written erotica based on verbal sexual consent. Psychology & Sexuality, 11(4), 270-292.

Reiner, S. (2020). Me Too? Incentivising States to Adopt Consent-Based Sex Education. NEULR, 12, 162.

Shumlich, E. J., & Fisher, W. A. (2018). Affirmative Sexual Consent? Direct and Unambiguous Consent Is Rarely Included in Discussions of Recent Sexual Interactions. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 27(3), 248-260.

Shumlich, E. J., & Fisher, W. A. (2020). An exploration of factors that influence enactment of affirmative consent behaviors. The Journal of Sex Research, 57(9), 1108-1121.

Siegel, J. A., Anderson, R. A., Silver, K. E., & Mitchell, T. L. (2021). Yes, (most) men know what rape is: A mixed-methods investigation into college men’s definitions of rape. Psychology of Men & Masculinities.

Smith, L. A., Kolokotroni, K. Z., & Turner-Moore, T. (2020). Making and communicating decisions about sexual consent during drug-involved sex: A thematic synthesis. The Journal of Sex Research, 1-19.

Stacey, C. (2020). “Not just a simple yes or no”: how college students define and communicate sexual consent (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh).

Sternin, S., McKie, R. M., Winberg, C., Travers, R. N., Humphreys, T. P., & Reissing, E. D. (2021). Sexual consent: Exploring the perceptions of heterosexual, and non-heterosexual men. Psychology & Sexuality, null-null. doi:10.1080/19419899.2021.1879911

Sternin, S., McKie, R. M., Winberg, C., Travers, R. N., Humphreys, T. P., & Reissing, E. D. (2021). Sexual consent: Exploring the perceptions of heterosexual, and non-heterosexual men. Psychology & Sexuality.

Travis, M. (2019). The vulnerability of heterosexuality: Consent, gender deception and embodiment. Social & Legal Studies, 28(3), 303-326.

Tuerkheimer, D. (2015). Affirmative Consent. Ohio St. J. Crim. L., 13, 441.

Van Wagner, N. (2020, October). Consent in context: Developing student-centered consent education at post-secondary schools. In APHA’s 2020 VIRTUAL Annual Meeting and Expo (Oct. 24-28). American Public Health Association.

Walsh, K., Honickman, S., Valdespino-Hayden, Z., & Lowe, S. R. (2019). Dual Measures of Sexual Consent: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Internal Consent Scale and External Consent Scale. The Journal of Sex Research, 56(6), 802-810.

Whittington, E. (2020). Rethinking consent with continuums: sex, ethics and young people. Sex Education, 1-17.

Wignall, L., Stirling, J., & Scoats, R. (2020). UK University Students’ Perceptions and Negotiations of Sexual Consent. Psychology & Sexuality.

Willis, M., & Jozkowski, K. N. (2018). Barriers to the success of affirmative consent initiatives: An application of the social ecological model. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 13(3), 324-336.

Willis, M., & Jozkowski, K. N. (2019). Sexual precedent’s effect on sexual consent communication. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(6), 1723-1734.

Willis, M., Blunt-Vinti, H. D., & Jozkowski, K. N. (2019). Associations between internal and external sexual consent in a diverse national sample of women. Personality and Individual Differences, 149, 37-45.

Willis, M., Hunt, M., Wodika, A., Rhodes, D. L., Goodman, J., & Jozkowski, K. N. (2019). Explicit verbal sexual consent communication: Effects of gender, relationship status, and type of sexual behavior. International Journal of Sexual Health, 31(1), 60-70.

Willis, M., Jozkowski, K. N., & Read, J. (2019). Sexual consent in K–12 sex education: An analysis of current health education standards in the United States. Sex Education, 19(2), 226-236.

Zinzow, H. M., & Thompson, M. (2019). Beliefs About Consent and Sexual Assault Perpetration in a Longitudinal Study of College Men. Violence and Victims, 34(3), 548-565.