i) General references

Note: Also see references under the heading “Counselling or healing for survivors of abuse/violence” (on working with male survivors of sexual abuse), and under “Child Assault Sexual Assault”.


Abdullah-Khan, N. (2008). Male Rape: The Emergence of a Social and Legal Issue. Hampshire, UK, and New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.

Anderson, C.L. (1981-82). Males as Sexual Assault Victims: Multiple Levels of Trauma. Journal of Homosexuality, Special Issue: Homosexuality and Psychotherapy, 7(2-3), pp. 145-62.

Anderson, Irina. (2004). Explaining Negative Rape Victim Perception: Homophobia and the Male Rape Victim. Current Research in Social Psychology, 10, 4, 43-57.

Anderson, R. E., Goodman, E. L., & Thimm, S. S. (2020). The assessment of forced penetration: A necessary and further step toward understanding men’s sexual victimization and women’s perpetration. Journal of contemporary criminal justice, 36(4), 480-498.

Apperley, H. (2015). Hidden victims: a call to action on sexual violence against men in conflict. Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 31(2), 92-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13623699.2015.1060575

Aris, Sharon. (1994). Mate Rape. The Independent Monthly, August, pp. 31-32.

Artime, T. M., McCallum, E. B., & Peterson, Z. D. (2014). Men’s acknowledgment of their sexual victimization experiences. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 15(3), 313.

Aspin, C., P. Reynolds, et al. (2009). An investigation of the phenomenon of non-consensual sex among Maori men who have sex with men. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 11(1): 35-49.

Banning, Ann. (1989). Mother-Son Incest: Confronting a Prejudice. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13(4), pp. 563-570.

Bartholow, Bradford, Doll, Lynda, et. al. (1994). Emotional, Behavioral, & HIV Risks Associated With Sexual Abuse Among Adult Homosexual & Bisexual Men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18(9), pp. 747-761.

Bavin, Mizzi, Jill. (1995). Unnatural Offences: Sexual Assaults on Males. In Ravished: Sexual Violence in Victorian Australia. Sydney: University of NSW Press.

Benedict, Helen. (1985). Men Get Raped Too!. In Recovery. New York: Doubleday & Co.

Bidwell, R.J., and R.W. Deisher. (1987). Sexual Abuse of Male Adolescents. Seminars in Adolescent Medicine, 3(1), pp. 47-54.

Blackburn, K., Grubb, L. K., & Vargas, G. (2022). Sexual violence experiences among adolescent and young adult males: a review to empower healthcare providers. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 34(4), 297-305.

Blanchard, Geral. (1986a). Sexual Molestation of Boys: Identification & Treatment. Protecting Children, Fall, pp. 22-23.

Blanchard, Geral. (1986b). Male Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: A Portent of Things to Come. Journal of Independent Social Work, 1(1), Fall, pp. 19-27.

Bolton, Frank G., Larry A. Morris, and Ann E. MacEachron. (1989). Males at Risk: The Other Side of Child Sexual Abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Braun, V., G. Terry, et al. (2009). ‘Risk’ and sexual coercion among gay and bisexual men in Aotearoa/New Zealand-key informant accounts. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 11(2): 111-124.

Braun, V., J. Schmidt, et al. (2009). Sexual Coercion Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Journal of Homosexuality 56(3): 336-360.

Briere, J., Evans, D., Runtz, M. and Wall, T. (1988). Symptomatology in Men Who Were Molested as Children: A Comparison Study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 58, pp. 457-461.

Broban, A., Van den Bergh, R., Russell, W., Benedetti, G., Caluwaerts, S., Owiti, P., . . . De Plecker, E. (2020). Assault and care characteristics of victims of sexual violence in eleven Médecins Sans Frontières programs in Africa. What about men and boys? PLoS ONE, 15(8), e0237060. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0237060

Brochman, Sue. (1991). Silent Victims: Bringing Male Rape Out of the Closet. The Advocate, July 30, 582, pp. 38-43.

Brothers, Barbara Jo. (2001). The Abuse of Men: Trauma Begets Trauma. New York: Haworth Press.

Bullock, C., & Beckson, M. (2011). Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 39(2), 197-205. http://jaapl.org/content/39/2/197.long

Burrow, J., Isom Scott, D. A., & Mikell, T. (2019). No man’s land: the denial of victimisation in male statutory rape cases. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 1-18.

Calderwood, D. (1987). The Male Rape Victim. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 21(5), May, pp. 53-5.

Carlisle, Z. T. (2020). Hidden in Plain Sight: Men’s Lived Experiences with Sexual Violence as College Students. Oklahoma State University.

Carlisle, Z. T., & Schmitz, R. M. (2021). Hidden in Plain Sight: Men’s Lived Experiences With Sexual Violence as College Students. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 0(0), 10608265211050679. doi:10.1177/10608265211050679

Carlisle, Z. T., & Schmitz, R. M. (2022). Hidden in Plain Sight: Men’s Lived Experiences With Sexual Violence as College Students. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 30(2), 193-212. doi:10.1177/10608265211050679

Casali, M. B., Palazzo, E., Blandino, A., Battistini, A., Motta, F., Kustermann, A., & Cattaneo, C. (2017). The adult male rape victim: forensic description of a series of 57 cases. The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology, 38(3), 175-179.

Chapleau, K. M., D. L. Oswald, and B. L. Russell (2008). Male Rape Myths: The Role of Gender, Violence, and Sexism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(5): 600-615.

Cohen, C. (2014). Male Rape Is a Feminist Issue: Feminism, Governmentality and Male Rape. Springer.

Cotton, Donald J. (1980). The Male Victim of Sexual Assault: Patterns of Occurrence, Trauma Reaction and Adaptive Responses. San Francisco: Wright I.

Cotton, Donald J., and A. Nicholas Groth. (1982). Inmate Rape: Prevention & Intervention. Journal of Prison & Jail Health, 2, pp. 47-57.

Coxell, A.W., and M.B. King. (1996). Male victims of rape and sexual abuse. Sexual & Marital Therapy, 11(3) 297-308.Crome, S. (2006). Male survivors of sexual assault and rape. Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault, 2, 1-7.

Crowder, A. (1995). Opening the Door: A Treatment Model for Therapy with Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse. New York, New York: Brunner/Mazel, Inc.

Curry, T. J. (2019). Expendables for whom: Terry Crews and the erasure of Black male victims of sexual assault and rape. Women’s studies in communication, 42(3), 287-307.

Davies, M. (2002). Male sexual assault victims: a selective review of the literature and implications for support services. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7(3): 203-214.

Davies, M., and P. Rogers. (2006). Perceptions of male victims in depicted sexual assaults: A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11(4): 367-377.

DeLong, A., et.al. (1980). Epidemiologic Factors in the Sexual Abuse of Boys. American Journal of Diseases in Children, 136, pp. 990-993.

Denborough, David. (2005). Prisoner rape support package: Addressing sexual assault in men’s prisons. International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, No.2: 29-37.

Depraetere, J., Vandeviver, C., Beken, T. (2018). Big Boys Don’t Cry: A Critical Interpretive Synthesis of Male Sexual Victimization. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 21(5), 991-1010. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838018816979

Dimock, Peter. (1988). Adult Males Sexually Abused as Children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3(2), pp. 203-221.

Dimock, Peter. (1989). Factors in Underreporting (Male Sexual Abuse). National Organization On Male Sexual Victimization Homepage, http://www.nomsv.org/myths.html.

Doherty, Kathy, and Irina Anderson. (2004). Making Sense of Male Rape: Constructions of Gender, Sexuality and Experience of Rape Victims. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 14, 2, Mar-Apr, 85-103.

Doll, Lynda, et. al. (1992). Self-Reported Childhood & Adolescent Sexual Abuse Among Adult Homosexual & Bisexual Men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16(6), pp. 855-864.

Donaldson, Donald. (1990). Rape of Males. In Dynes, Wayne et.al The Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 2 volumes. New York & London: Garland Publishing.

Donne, M. D., DeLuca, J., Pleskach, P., Bromson, C., Mosley, M. P., Perez, E. T., . . . Frye, V. (2018). Barriers to and facilitators of help-seeking behavior among men who experience sexual violence. American Journal of Men’s Health, 12(2), 189-201.

Donne, M. D., DeLuca, J., Pleskach, P., Bromson, C., Mosley, M. P., Perez, E. T., . . . Frye, V. (2018). Barriers to and facilitators of help-seeking behavior among men who experience sexual violence. American Journal of Men’s Health, 12(2), 189-201.

Donovan, Basil, Juliet Richters, and Tony Butler. (2011). Prison Sex. Don’t Believe What You See on TV. HIV Australia, Vol. 9, No. 1: 12-14.

Ellerstein, N., and W. Canavan. (1980). Sexual Abuse of Boys. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 134, pp. 255-257.

Fiebert, Martin S., and Lisa M. Tucci. (1997). Sexual Coercion: Men Victimized by Women. Journal of Men’s Studies, 6(2), Winter, pp. 127-133.

Finkelhor, David. (1984). Boys as Victims: A review of the evidence. In Finkelhor, David. (ed.). Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory & Research. New York: Free Press.

Finkelhor, David. (1985). Sexual Abuse of Boys. In Burgess, Anne Wolbert. (ed). Rape and Sexual Assault: A Research Handbook. New York: Garland Publications, pp. 97-109.

Finkelhor, David. (1986). A Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse. Sage.

Ford, J. V. (2018). “Going with the flow”: How college men’s experiences of unwanted sex are produced by gendered interactional pressures. Social Forces, 96(3), 1303-1324.

Forman, B.D. (1982). Reported Male Rape. Victimology International Journal, 7, pp. 235-236.

Foster, Gary (2005). Male Rape and the Government of Bodies: An Unnatural History of the Present. PhD thesis, University of Queensland.

Freeman-Longo, R.E. (1989). The Sexual Victimization of Males: Victim to Victimizer: Clinical Observations & Case Studies. In Viano, E. (ed.). Crimes and its Victims, Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing, pp. 193-204.

Freeman, R. (1986). The Impact of Sexual Victimization on Males. Child Abuse & Neglect, 10, pp. 411-416.

Friedrich, William, Lucy Berliner, Anthony Urquiza, and Robert Beilke. (1988). Brief Diagnostic Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Boys. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3(3), pp. 331-343.

Friedrich, William, Luecke, William, Beilike, Robert and Place, Victor. (1992). Psychotherapy Outcome of Sexually Abused Boys. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7(3), pp. 396-409.

Friedrich, William, Robert Beilke, and Anthony Urquiza. (1988). Behavior Problems in Young Sexually Abused Males. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3(1), pp. 21-28.

Fritz, G. S., Stoll, K., & Wagner, N. N. (1981, Spring) A Comparison of Males and Females Who Were Sexually Molested as Children. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 7(1), 54-59.

Fromuth, M.E. and Burkhart, E.R. (1989). Long-Term Psychological Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Two Samples of College Men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, pp. 533-542.

Ganson, K. T., Rodgers, R. F., Lipson, S. K., Cadet, T. J., & Putnam, M. (2020). Sexual assault victimization and eating disorders among college-enrolled men. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0886260520958634.

Gartner, Richard B. (1999). Betrayed as Boys. Guilford Press.

Gaspar, M., Skakoon-Sparling, S., Adam, B. D., Brennan, D. J., Lachowsky, N. J., Cox, J., . . . Grace, D. (2021). “You’re Gay, It’s Just What Happens”: Sexual Minority Men Recounting Experiences of Unwanted Sex in the Era of MeToo. The Journal of Sex Research, 58(9), 1205-1214. doi:10.1080/00224499.2021.1962236

Gear, S. (2005). Rules of engagement: Structuring sex and damage in men’s prisons and beyond. Culture Health & Sexuality, 7(3): 195-208, May.

Gear, S. (2007). Behind the Bars of Masculinity: Male Rape and Homophobia in and about South African Men’s Prisons. Sexualities, 10(2): 209-227.

Gilbert, Neil. (1992). Realities and Mythologies of Rape. Society, 29(4), May/June.

Gilgun, Jane, and Elizabeth Reiser. (1987). The Development of Sexual Identity Among Men Sexually Abused as Children. Unpublished Paper, University of Minnesota School of Social Work. Minneapolis, MN.

Gill, M., and L.M. Tutty. (1997). Sexual Identity Issues for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 6(3), 31-47.

Gillespie, Terry. (1996). Rape crisis centres and ‘male rape’: A face of the backlash. In Marianne Hester, Liz Kelly, and Jill Radford. (eds.) Women, Violence and Male Power: Feminist Research, Activism and Practice. Buckingham & Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Gonsiorek, J. C., W.H. Bera, and D. LeTourneau. (1994). Male Sexual Abuse: A Trilogy of Intervention Strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Goyer, P.F., and H.C. Eddleman. (1984). Same-Sex Rape of Non-Incarcerated Men. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, pp. 576-597.

Graham, R. (2006). Male Rape and the Careful Construction of the Male Victim. Social Legal Studies, 15(2): 187-208.

Groth, A. Nicholas, and Ann Burgess. (1980). Male Rape: Offenders and Victims. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137(7), pp. 806-810.

Hammond, L., Ioannou, M., & Fewster, M. (2017). Perceptions of male rape and sexual assault in a male sample from the United Kingdom: Barriers to reporting and the impacts of victimization. Journal of investigative psychology and offender profiling, 14(2), 133-149. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/jip.1462

Harry, Joseph. (1992). Conceptualizing Anti-Gay Violence. In Herek, Gregory M. and Berrill, Kevin T. (eds.). Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men. Newbury Park/London & New Delhi: Sage.

Hartill, M. (2009). The Sexual Abuse of Boys in Organized Male Sports. Men and Masculinities, 12(2): 225-249.

Heilpern, David M. (1998). Fear or Favour: Sexual Assault of Young Prisoners. Lismore, NSW: Southern Cross University Press.

Heilpern, David M. (2005). Sexual assault of prisoners: reflections. University of New South Wales Law Journal Forum, v.11 no.1, Aug: 25-28.

Heleen, T., Sarah, C., Sarah, M., Chen, R., Henri, M., Philipp, S., . . . David, D. (2020). From ‘It Rarely Happens’ to ‘It’s Worse for Men’: Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Displacement. Journal of Humanitarian Affairs, 2(3), 25-34. doi:10.7227/JHA.049

Hensley, C., M. Koscheski, and R. Tewksbury. (2005). Examining the Characteristics of Male Sexual Assault Targets in a Southern Maximum-Security Prison. J Interpers Violence, 20(6): 667-679.

Hensley, C., R. Tewksbury, and T. Castle. (2003). Characteristics of Prison Sexual Assault Targets in Male Oklahoma Correctional Facilities. J Interpers Violence, 18(6): 595-606.

Hlavka, H. R. (2017). Speaking of stigma and the silence of shame: Young men and sexual victimization. Men and Masculinities, 20(4), 482-505.

Hodge, S., & Canter, D. (1998). Victims and perpetrators of male sexual assault. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13(2), 222-239.

Hodge, Samantha, and David Canter. (1998). Victims and perpetrators of male sexual assault. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13(2), April, pp. 222-239.

Hudson, Eric. (1998). The Impact of Male Childhood Sexual Assault: Implications for Relationships and Families. Paper to National Men and Family Relationships Forum. Canberra, 9-11 June.

Hunter, Mic. (1989). Abused Boys: The Neglected Victims of Sexual Abuse. New York: Lexington Books.

Hunter, Mic. (ed). (1990). The Sexually Abused Male, Vol. 1: Prevalence, Impact & Treatment. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Hunter, Mic. (ed). (1990). The Sexually Abused Male, Vol. 2: Application of Treatment Strategies. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

International Committee of the Red Cross. (2022). "That never happens here": Sexual and gender-based violence against men, boys and/including LGBTIQ+ people in humanitarian settings. Norwegian Red Cross.

Isely, P.J., and D. Gehrenbeck-Shim. (1997). Sexual assault of men in the community. Journal of Community Psychology, 25(2), 159-166.

Isely, P.J., W. Busse, and P. Isely. (1998). Sexual assault of males in late adolescence: A hidden phenomenon. Professional School Counseling, 2(2), 153-160.

Isely, Paul J. (1998). Sexual Assault of Men: College-Age Victims. NASPA Journal, Vol. 35: No. 4.

Isley, Paul and D. Gehrenbeck-Shim. (1997), Sexual Assault of Men in the Community. Journal of Community Psychology. 25(2):159-166.

Isley, Paul. (1991). Adult Male Sexual Assault in the Community: A Literature Review and Group Treatment Model. In Burgess, Anne Wolbert. (ed). Rape and Sexual Assault III: A Research Handbook. New York: Garland Publications.

Janus, M.D., A.W. Burgess, and A. McCormick. (1987). Histories of Sexual Abuse in Adolescent Male Runaways. Adolescence, 22(86), pp. 405-417.

Javaid, A. (2015). The Dark Side of Men: The Nature of Masculinity and Its Uneasy Relationship With Male Rape. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 23(3), 271-292.

Javaid, A. (2018). ‘The penis is a weapon of power’: a feminist and hate crime interpretation of male sexual victimisation. NORMA, 13(1), 23-40.

Johnson, Robert and Shrier, Diane. (1985). Sexual Victimization of Boys. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 6, pp. 372-376.

Josenhans, V., Kavenagh, M., Smith, S., & Wekerle, C. (2019). Gender, rights and responsibilities: The need for a global analysis of the sexual exploitation of boys. Child Abuse & Neglect, 104291. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.104291

Kassing, Leslee R., Denise Beesley, and Lisa L Frey. (2005). Gender Role Conflict, Homophobia, Age, and Education as Predictors of Male Rape Myth Acceptance. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Oct., Vol. 27, Iss. 4.

Kaszniak, A., et al. (1988). Amnesia as a Consequence of Male Rape: A Case Report. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, pp. 100-104.

Kaufman, A. (1984). Rape of Men in the Community. In Stuart, I.R. and Greer, J.G. (eds.). Victims of Sexual Aggression: Treatment of Children, Women, and Men. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

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Kelly, Liz, and Jill Radford. (1996). When Does the Speaking Profit Us?: Reflections on the Challenges of Developing Feminist Perspectives on Abuse and Violence by Women. In Hester, Marianne, Kelly, Liz and Radford, Jill. (eds.). Women, Violence and Male Power: Feminist Research, Activism and Practice. Buckingham & Philadelphia: Open University Press.

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Lawson, Christine. (1993). Mother-Son Sexual Abuse: Rare or Underreported? A Critique of the Research. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17(2), pp. 261-269.

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Lillywhite, R. and P. Skidmore (2006). Boys are not sexually exploited? A challenge to practitioners. Child Abuse Review, 15(5): 351-361.

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Nkosi, S., Nunze, N., & Sikweyiya, Y. (2021). (Mis)Understanding Same-Sex Sexual Violence Amongst Boys: A Perspective on Recent Rape Incidents in South Africa. Social and Health Sciences, 19(1), 133-143. Retrieved from https://unisapressjournals.co.za/index.php/SaHS/article/view/10336

O’Donnell, Ian. (2004). Prison Rape in Context. British Journal of Criminology, 44, 2, Mar, 241-255.

O’Sullivan LF, Byers ES, Finkelman L. (1998), A Comparison of Male and Female College Students’ Experiences of Sexual Coercion. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 22:177-195.

Peake, A. (1989). Issues in Under-Reporting: The Sexual Abuse of Boys. Educational & Child Psychology, 6(1), pp. 42-50.

PeConga, E. K., Spector, J. E., & Smith, R. E. (2022). Judgments About Male Victims of Sexual Assault by Women: A 35-Year Replication Study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37(23-24), NP21672-NP21698. doi:10.1177/08862605211062990

Peterson, Z. D., Beagley, M. C., McCallum, E. B., & Artime, T. M. (2019). Sexual attitudes and behaviors among men who are victims, perpetrators, or both victims and perpetrators of adult sexual assault. Psychology of Violence, 9(2), 221.

Peterson, Z. D., Voller, E. K., Polusny, M. A., & Murdoch, M. (2011). Prevalence and consequences of adult sexual assault of men: Review of empirical findings and state of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(1), 1-24.

Petersson, C. C., & Plantin, L. (2019). Breaking with Norms of Masculinity: Men Making Sense of Their Experience of Sexual Assault. Clinical Social Work Journal, 47(4), 372-383. doi:10.1007/s10615-019-00699-y

Pierce, Lois. (1987). Father-Son Incest: Using the Literature to Guide Practice. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 68(2), February, pp. 67-74.

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Platt, J. J., and D. M. Busby (2009). Male Victims: The Nature and Meaning of Sexual Coercion. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 37(3): 217-226.

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