1. General

Alexeyeff, Kalissa. (2008). Globalizing Drag in the Cook Islands: Friction, Repulsion and Abjection. Moving Masculinities: Memories and Bodies across Oceania, guest ed. Margaret Jolly, special issue, Contemporary Pacific 20(1): 143–161.

Alexeyeff, Kalissa. (2008). Neoliberalism, Mobility, and Cooks Islands Men in Transit. Changing Pacific Masculinities, guest ed. John Taylor, special issue, Australian Journal of Anthropology. 19(2): 136-149.

Allen, M.R. (1967). Male Cults and Secret Initations in Melanesia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.

Allen, M.R. (1998). Male cults revisited: the politics of blood versus semen. Oceania, 68(3), 189–199.

Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology. (2016). Special Issue: Emergent Masculinities in the Pacific, Volume 17, Issue 3-4, 2016.
Introduction: Emergent Masculinities in the Pacific / Aletta Biersack
Bati as Bodily Labour: Rethinking Masculinity and Violence in Fiji / Geir Henning Presterudstuen & Dominik Schieder
Once were Warriors, now are Rugby Players? Control and Agency in the Historical Trajectory of the Maori Formulations of Masculinity in Rugby / Domenica Gisella Calabrò
Inequality and Changing Masculinities Among the Gende in Papua New Guinea: The ‘Good’, the ‘Bad’ and the ‘Very Bad’ / Laura Zimmer-Tamakoshi
Changing Generational Values and New Masculinities Amongst Smallholder Export Cash Crop Producers in Papua New Guinea / Gina Koczberski & George N. Curry
Being ‘Like a Woman’: Fa’af?fine and Samoan Masculinity / Johanna Schmidt
Men of War, Men of Peace: Changing Masculinities in Vanuatu / Margaret Jolly
I Could Be the Last Man: Changing Masculinities in Enga Society / Philip Gibbs
Masculine Sexuality, Violence and Sexual Exploitation in Micronesia / Manuel Rauchholz.

Belich, J. (1996). Making peoples: A history of the New Zealanders from Polynesian settlement to the end of the nineteenth century. Auckland, New Zealand: Penguin Press.

Bettelheim, Bruno. (1962). Symbolic Wounds: Puberty Rites and the Envious Male. New York: Collier Books.

Bjarnegård, Elin and Erik Melander. (2017). Pacific Men: How Attitudes to Gender Equality Explain Hostility. Pacific Review 30(4): 478-493

Bleibtreu–Ehrenberg, G. (1980). Mannbarkeitsriten: zur institutionellen Päderastie bei Papuas und Melanesiern. Frankfurt/M: Ulstein.

Bohle, B. (1990). Ethnologische Untersuchung zur Konstruktion von “Männlichkeit” und “Weiblichkeit” in Gesellschaften mit ritualisierter Homosexualität in den “Randgebieten” von Neuguinea. Wien: Institut für Völkerkunde, Universität Wien.

Bonnemere, P. (2006). Variations on a theme: fertility, sexuality and masculinity in highland New Guinea. In Ulijaszek, S. J. (Ed.). Population, reproduction, and fertility in Melanesia. Fertility, reproduction, and sexuality, v. 8. New York: Berghahn Books.

Bonnemere, P. (Ed.) (2004). Women as unseen characters: male ritual in Papua New Guinea. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Contents: Sambia women’s positionality and men’s rituals / Gilbert Herdt —Embod- iments of detachment: engendering agency in the highlands of Papua New Guinea / Sandra C. Bamford— When women enter the picture: looking at Anga initiations from the mothers’ angle / Pascale Bonnemère — Ujawe: the ritual transformation of sons and mothers / Marta A. Rohatynskyj —Bachelors and their spirit wife: interpreting the omatisia ritual of Porgera and Paiela / Aletta Biersack —Cults, closures, collaborations / Andrew Strathern and Pamela J. Stewart —Variability of women’s “involvement” in Anga male initiations / Pierre Lemonnier —Of human and spirit women: from mother to seductress to second wife / Polly Wiess- ner —Relating to women: female presence in Melanesian “male cults” / Bruce M. Knauft.

Bosse, H., & Knauss, W. (1994). Der fremde Mann: Jugend, Männlichkeit, Macht: eine Ethnoanalyse: Gruppengespräche mit jungen Sepiks in Papua–Neuguinea. Sozialwissenschaft Fischer. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag.

Bosse, H., & Knauss, W. (1994). Der fremde Mann: Jugend, Männlichkeit, Macht: eine Ethnoanalyse: Gruppengespräche mit jungen Sepiks in Papua–Neuguinea. Sozialwissenschaft Fischer. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag.

Bosse, Hans (1990). Violence and Care: The Appropriation of `Sons’ by their `Fathers’ in Papua New Guinea. Group Analysis,23, 5–16.

Bosse, Hans (1997). Männliche Identität und das Individuum der Modernein Papua Neuguinea. In Völger, G. (Ed.), Sie und Er: Frauenmacht und Männerherrschaft im Kulturvergleich. Köln: Rautenstrauch–Joest–Museum. Vol. 2.

Brison, Karen. (1995). Changing Constructions of Masculinity in a Sepik Society. Ethnology, 34(3), Summer, pp. 155-175.

Carucci, L. M. M. (1987). ‘Jekero’: symbolizing the transition to manhood in the Marshall Islands. Micronesica, 20(1/2), 1–17.

Clark, Marshall (2010) Maskulinitas: Culture, gender and politics in Indonesia. Melbourne: Monash University Press.

Davis, Richard. (2000). Epochal Bodies and Gendered Time: Engagement and Transformation in Saibaian (Tores Strait) Masculinity. (PhD thesis) Canberra: Dept. of Archaeology and Anthropology, The Faculties, Australian National University.

Derne, Steve (2005). Globalization and masculine space in India and Fiji. In van Hoven, B. & Hoerschelmann K. (Eds.). Spaces of Masculinities. London: Routledge.

Douaire-Marsaudon, F. (2001). From One Sex to the Other: The Kava Ceremony and the Reproduction of Masculine Identity in Polynesia. [French]. Homme. (157):7-34, Jan-Mar.

Eves, Richard. (2007). Exploring the Role of Men and Masculinities in Papua New Guinea in the 21st century: How to address violence in ways that generate empowerment for both men and women. Caritas Australia.

Ferguson, Kathy, & Phyllis Turnbull (1997). Military Presence/Missionary Past: The Historical Construction of Masculine Order and Feminine Hawai’i. In Chinen, J. N., Kane, K. O., & Yoshinaga, I. M. (Eds.). Women in Hawai’i: sites, identities, and voices. Social process in Hawai’i, vol. 38. Honolulu, Hawaii: Dept. of Sociology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, pp. 94–107.

Fife, Wayne. (1995). Models for Masculinity in Colonial and Postcolonial Papua New Guinea. Contemporary Pacific, 7(2), Fall, pp. 277-302.

Flood, Michael; Judith Kegan Gardiner, Bob Pease, Keith Pringle (Eds.) (2007). International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities. Routledge [entries include: “Cultural Formations, Asia and Pacific”; “History, Pacific”; “History, Asia and Pacific”]

Foundation of the Peoples of the South Pacific Vanuatu. (2002). Masculinity, mental health and violence in Vanuatu: situation analysis. [Port Vila, Vanuatu]: Foundation of the Peoples of the South Pacific Vanuatu.

Gilmore, David D. (1990). Manhood in the making: cultural concepts of masculinity. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Relevant chapters include: Looking for manhood: Truk Island —Performance anxiety: Mehinaku —Rites of manhood: Sambia —Exceptions: Tahiti and Semai.

Gilmore, David D.(2001). Misogyny: the male malady. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [section on Melanesia]

Gilmore, David. (1990). Manhood. (Adolescent boys around the world suffer through rites of passage. Why?) Natural History, June 1, No. 6, p. 6.

Gilmore, David. (1992). Manhood in the Making. Anthropos, 87(1/3).

Godelier, M. (1986). The making of great men: male domination and power among the New Guinea Baruya. Cambridge [England]: CambridgeUniversity Press [Godelier, M. (1996). La production des grands hommes: pouvoir et domination masculine chez les Baruya de Nouvelle–Guinée (rev. and corr. ed.). [Paris]: Fayard]

Godelier, M., & Bonte, P. (1976). Le probleme des formes et des fondements de la domination masculine: deux exemples, les Baruya de Nouvelle–Guinâee, les Bahima d’Ankole. Paris: Centre d’études et de recherches marxistes.

Gray, J. P. (1985). Growing yams and men: an interpretation of Kimam male ritualized homosexual behavior. Journal of Homosexuality, 11(3–4), 55–68.

Gregor, T., & Tuzin, D. F. (2001). Gender in Amazonia and Melanesia: an exploration of the comparative method. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Heather, Anna Paris, & Louisa Allen (Eds.). The Life of Brian: Masculinities, Sexualities and Health in New Zealand. Dunedin: University of Otago Press.

Helliwell, Christine (1994). The Hero as a Family Man: Constructing Masculinity in a Borneo Dayak Community. Australian Studies in Southeast Asian Issues, 1, 48–55.

Herdt, G. H. (1994). Guardians of the flutes: idioms of masculinity. Chicago [etc]: University of Chicago Press.

Herdt, G. H. (1999). Sambia sexual culture: essays from the field. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Herdt, G. H. (2000). Männlichkeit bei den Sambia. Zwischen Tradition und moderne Formen am Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts. In Bosse, H., King, V., & Connell, R. W. (Eds.). Männlichkeitsentwürfe: Wandlungen und Widerstände im Geschlechterverhältnis. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag, pp. 29–50.

Herdt, G. H. (2003). Secrecy and cultural reality: utopian ideologies of the New Guinea men’s house. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Herdt, G. H. (2006). The Sambia: ritual, sexuality, and change in Papua New Guinea(2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Herdt, G. H. (Ed.) (1982/1998). Rituals of manhood: male initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press. Contents: Editor’s Preface, xxi; Roger M. Keesing: 1. Introduction, 1 / Gilbert H. Herdt: 2. Fetish And Fantasy In Sambia Initiation, 44 / Fitz John Porter Poole: 3. The Ritual Forging Of Identity: As- pects of Person and Self in Bimin–Kuskusmin Male Initiation, 99 / Edward L. Schieffelin: 4. The Bau A Cer- emonial Hunting Lodge: An Alternative to Initiation, 155 / Terence E. Hays & Patricia H. Hays: 5. Opposition and Complementarity of the Sexes in Ndumba Initiation, 201 / Philip L. Newman & David J. Boyd: 6. The Making Of Men: Ritual and Meaning in Awa Male Initiation, 239 / Deborah B. Gewertz: 7. The Father Who Bore Me: The Role of Tsambunwuro during Chambri Initiation Ceremonies, 286 / Donald F. Tuzin: 8. Rit- ual Violence Among The Ilahita Arapesh: The Dynamics of Moral and Religious Uncertainty, 321.

Herdt, G. H. (Ed.) (1984). Ritualized homosexuality in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press. Contents: Ritualized homosexual behavior in the male cults of Melanesia, 1862–1983: an introduction / Gilbert H. Herdt —Homosexuality, male power, and political organization in north Vanuatu: a comparative analysis / Michael R. Allen —The dialectics of sex in Marind–anim culture / J. Van Baal —Semen transactions in Sambia culture / Gilbert H. Herdt —The Nama cult recalled / Kenneth E. Read —Male couples in New Guinea / Eric Schwimmer —The ritual meaning of homosexuality and pedophilia among the Kimam–Pau- pans of south Irian Jaya / Laurent Serpenti —Growth and decay: Bedamini notions of sexuality / Arve Sørum —Variations on a sociosexual theme in Melanaesia / Shirley Lindenbaum.

Herdt, Gilbert H. (1981). Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hogbin, Herbert Ian. (1970). The Island of Menstruating Men: Religion in Wogeo, New Guinea. Scranton, PA: Chandler Publishing Co.

Jackson, P. (2001). Interpreting ‘Sambia’ masculine erotics: a question of sexuality or of gender? The Asia Pacific journal of anthropology, 2(1), 109–113.

James, Kerry E. (1994). Effeminate Males and Changes in the Construction of Gender in Tonga. Pacific Studies, 17(2), 39–69.

Kanahele, George H. S. (2002). ‘Fight Boys, ‘til the Last’: Islandstyle Football and —the Remasculinization of Indigeneity in the Militarized —American Pacific Islands. In Spickard, P. R., Rondilla, J. L., & Hippolite Wright, D. (Eds.). Pacific diaspora: island peoples in the United States and across the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, p. 169et seq.

Kempf, W. (2002). The politics of incorporation: masculinity, spatiality and modernity among the Ngaing of Papua New Guinea. Oceania, 73(1), 56–78.

Knauft, B. M. (2003). What ever happened to ritualized homosexuality? Modern sexual subjects in Melanesia and elsewhere.Annual Review of Sex Research 14, 137–59.

Langness, L. L. (1999). Men and “woman” in New Guinea. Chandler & Sharp publications in anthropology and related fields. Novato, Calif: Chandler & Sharp.

Lidz, R. W, & Lidz T. (1977). Male menstruation: a ritual alternative to the oedipal transition. The International Journal of Psycho–Analysis, 58(1), 17–31.

Lidz, T, & Lidz R. W. (1984). Oedipus in the stone age. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 32(3), 507–27.

Lidz, T., & Lidz, R. W. (1986). Turning Women Things into Men: Masculinization in Papua New Guinea. The Psychoanalytic review,73(4), 521–39.

Lidz, T., Lidz, R. W., & Borsuch, H. D. (1989). Oedipus in the Stone Age: a psychoanalytic study of masculinization in Papua New Guinea. Madison, Conn.: International Universities Press.

Lipset, D. (2004). Modernity without romance? Masculinity and desire in courtship stories told by young Papua New Guinean men. American Ethnologist, 31(2).

Lowrie, Claire. (2013). White “men” and their Chinese “boys”: sexuality, masculinity and colonial power in Darwin and Singapore, 1880s-1930s. History Australia, vol. 10, no. 1, April, pp. 35-57.

MacAloon, J. J., Kidd, B., Abe, I., Foster, R. J., Alter, J. S., Mangan, J. A., et al. (2006). SPECIAL ISSUE: Muscular Christianity in colonial and post–colonial worlds. International journal of the history of sport, 23(5), 687–875.

Marshall, M. (1979). Weekend Warriors: Alcohol in a Micronesian Culture. Palo Alto: Mayfield Press.

Meigs, A. S. (1977). Sexual ideology and pollution among the Hua of Papua New Guinea. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania.

Michael, W. (2006). Kamula Accounts of Ramband the State of Papua New Guinea. Oceania, 76(1): 61.

Murray, S. O., & Pilling, A. R. (Eds.) (1992). Oceanic homosexualities. New York: Garland Pub. Includes: Homosexuality in cross–cultural perspective; Age–stratified homosexuality: an introduction / Stephen O. Murray — Homosexuality among the Tiwi of North Australia / Arnold R. Pilling —Semen depletion and the sense of maleness / Gilbert H. Herdt —Looking back at the Gahuku / Kenneth E. Read —Same–sex friendships in Hawaiian lore: constructing the Canon / Robert J. Morris —The Hwarang of ancient Korea; Male homo- sexuality in Japan before the Meiji restoration;Austronesian gender–defined homosexuality: an introcuction / Stephen O. Murray —The Polynesian Mahu / Raleigh Watts —Early reports of Cebuano, Tinguian, and Sambal “Berdache” / Stephen O. Murray —The Cebuano bayot and lakin–on / Donn V. Hart —Bayot and callboy: homosexual–heterosexual relations in the Philippines / Frederick L. Whitam —Early report of Mala- gasy “Berdaches”; Profession–defined homosexuality: an introduction / Stephen O. Murray —The Iban Man- ang in the Sibu district of the third division of Sarawak: an alternate route to normality / Vinson H. Sutlive, Jr. —Late–nineteenth–century reports of Manangs in Northern Borneo; Vladimir Bogoraz’s account of Chukchi transformed Shamans; Vladimir Iokalson’s reports of northeastern Siberian transformed Shamans; Czaplicka’s interpretation of Kamchadal slavery and of Siberian transformed Shamans as a third gender; The traditional Kodiak and Aleutian islanders’ non–sacralized, trans–generational, trans–gender role; Egalitarian re- lationships: introduction;Homosexuality in Japan since the Meiji restoration / Stephen O. Murray —The discreet charm of gay life in Japan in the early 1980’s / Merv Haddad —Gay self–respect in Indonesia: the life history of a Chinese man from central Java / Walter L. Williams — Peter Jackson’s account of emergent gay homosexuality in contemporary Thailand

O’Brien, P. (2006). The Pacific muse: exotic femininity and the colonial Pacific. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Park, Julie et al. (2002). Late Twentieth–Century Auckland Perspective on Samoan Masculinities. In Worth,

Poole, F. J. P. (1984). The ais am: an introduction to male initiation ritual among the Bimin–Kuskusmin of the West Sepik District, Papua New Guinea. Thesis (Ph. D.)—Cornell University, 1976. 2 vols.

Poole, F. J. P., & Herdt, G. H. (1982). Sexual antagonism, gender and social change in Papua New Guinea. Adelaide: University of Adelaide.

Presterudstuen, G. (2010). The Mimicry of Men: Rugby and Masculinities in Post-colonial Fiji. Global Studies Journal, vol 3, no 2, pp 237 - 247.

Ralston, Caroline (1988). Polyandry, ‘pollution,’ ‘prostitution,’: the problems of eurocentrism and androcentrism in Polynesian studies. In Barbara Caine, E.A. Grosz, & Marie de Lepervanche (Eds.), Crossing Boundaries: Feminisms and the Critique of Knowledges. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, pp. 71–80.

Sai, Anastasia (2007). Tamot: Masculinities in Transition in Papua New Guinea. PhD Dissertation, Victoria University.

Schmid, J., & Schmid, C. K. (1992). Söhne des Krokodils: Männerhausrituale und Initiation in Yensan, Zentral–Iatmul, East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. Basler Beiträge zur Ethnologie, Vol. 36. Basel: Ethnologisches Seminar der Universität und Museum für Völkerkunde.

Schmidt, J. (2016). Being ‘like a woman’: Fa’afāfine and Samoan masculinity. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 17(3-4), 287-304.

Silverman, Eric. (2001). Masculinity, Motherhood, and Mockery: Psychoanalyzing Culture and the Iatmul Naven Rite in New Guinea. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Stephen, M. (2003). Male mothers and cannibal women: a Kleinian interpretation of male initiation in theNew Guinea highlands. Psychoanalytic review, 90(5), 615–653.

Teaiwa, Teresia K. (2005). Articulated Cultures: Militarism and Masculinities inFiji during the Mid–1990s. Fijian Studies, 3(2), 201–222.

Tengan, T. P. K., & Markham, J. M. (2009). Performing Polynesian Masculinities in American Football: From ‘Rainbows to Warriors’. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 26(16), 2412-2431.

Tengan, Ty P. Kawika (2003a). Hale Mua: (En)gendering Hawaiian men. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawai’i, United States– Hawaii.

Tengan, Ty P. Kawika (2003b). (En)Gendering Colonialism: Masculinities in Hawai’i and Aotearoa. Cultural Values: Journal for Cultural Research, 6(2), 239–256.

Tuzin, Donald F. (1997). The Cassowary’s Revenge: The Life and Death of Masculinity in a New Guinea Society. University of Chicago Press.

Völger, G., & Welck, K. v.(Eds.) (1990). Männerbande, Männerbünde: zur Rolle des Mannes im Kulturvergleich. Köln: Rautenstrauch–Joest–Museum. Vol. 2. [contributions 81–84 pertain to ‘Südsee’: 81 Burkhard Fenner / Die tubuan und ihre Kinder–Der dukäuk–Geheimbund in Nordmelanesien. 82 Barbara Bohle / Ritualisierte Homosexualität — Krieg – Misogynie – Beziehungen im und um den Männerbund: Beispiele aus Neuguinea. 83 Wolfgang Kempf / Zwischen Niedergang und Revitalisierung– Männerbund und Dorfgeschichte bei den Ngaing in Papua Neuguinea. 84 Andreas Lommel / Männerbünde in Australien]

Vroegh K. (1972). Masculinity and femininity as perceived by Hawaiians. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 35(1), 119–125.

Wigglesworth, Ann; Niner, Sara; Arunachalam, Dharmalingam; dos Santos, Abel Boavida; and Tilman, Mateus (2015). Attitudes and Perceptions of Young Men towards Gender Equality and Violence in Timor-Leste. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 16(2), 312-329. Available at: http://vc.bridgew.edu/jiws/vol16/iss2/20.

Wilde, C. (2004). Acts of faith: Muscular christianity and masculinity among the Gogodala of Papua New Guinea. Oceania, 75(1), September: 32-48.

Wilde, Charles (2004b). From Racing to Rugby: All Work and No Play for Gogodala Men of Western Province, Papua New Guinea. The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 15(3), 286–302.

Wilde, Charles (2007). ‘Turning Sex into a Game’: Gogodala Men’s Response to the AIDS Epidemic and Condom Promotion in Rural Papua New Guinea. Oceania, 77(1), 58–71.

Wood, M. (2006). Kamula accounts of Rambo and the state of Papua New Guinea. Oceania, 76(1), 61–82.