a) General references

Keith, Thomas. (2017). Masculinities in Contemporary American Culture: An Intersectional Approach to the Complexities and Challenges of Male Identity. Routledge.

Banet-Weiser, S. (2014). We Are All Workers’: Economic Crisis, Masculinity and the American Working Class. Gendering the recession: Media and culture in an age of austerity, 81-106.

Snider, M. (2017). Being a man in the horse capital: Mexican farmworkers’ masculinities in Kentucky. Gender, Place & Culture, 24(3), 343-361. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2017.1314942

Gorham, D. (2008). Three Generations of Yankees: Masculinity, Memory, and War in an American Family, 1842-1975. Men and Masculinities, 10(5): 621-631.

Goren, Lilly J., and Linda Beail. (eds). (2015). Mad Men and Politics: Nostalgia and the Remaking of Modern America. Bloomsbury.

Belkin, Aaron. (2012). Bring Me Men: Military Masculinity and the Benign Facade of American Empire, 1898-2001. New York: Columbia University Press.

Abbott, M. E. (2002). The street was mine: white masculinity in hardboiled fiction and film noir. New York: Palgrave

Macmillan. [Abbott, M. E. (2000). “The street was mine”: White masculinity and urban space in hardboiled fiction and film noir.Unpublished Ph.D., New York University, United States— New York]

Adams, J. R. (2000). Male armor: Homosexuality, masculine anxiety and the defense of masculinity in literature of America’s twentieth century wars. Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Riverside, United States— California.

Alegre, Sara Martín (1998). Arnold Schwarzenegger, mister universe?: Hollywood masculinity and the search for the new man. Atlantis: Revista de la Asociación Española de Estudios Anglo-Norteamericanos, 20(1), 85–94.

Armengol Carrera, José María (2006). Gendering Men: Theorizing Masculinities in American Culture and Literature. Doctoral Dissertation, Universitat de Barcelona.

Arthur, E. (2004).The Organisation Strikes Back: Rhetorical Empowerment Strategies in 1950s Business Representations of White–Collar Manhood. Journal of American Studies, 38(1), 23–40.

Auster, C. J., et. al., (2000).Masculinity and femininity in contemporary American society: a reevaluation using the Bex Sex–Role Inventory. Sex Roles, 43(7/8), 499–528.

Barber, J. A. (2002). Performing masculinity: The male’s role and notions of masculine perception in American drama, 1945—1960.Unpublished Ph.D., The University of Toledo, United States— Ohio.

Barlett, P. F., & Conger, K. J. (2004). Three Visions of Masculine Success on American Farms. Men and Masculinities, 7(2), 205–227.

Barnstone, A., Manson, M. T., & Singley, C. J. (Eds.) (1997). The Calvinist roots of the modern era. Hanover, NH:

University Press of New England. Includes: Puritan legacies of masculinity: John Berryman’s Homage to Mistress Bradstreet / Ivy Schweitzer — Poetry and masculinity on the Anglo/Chicano border: Gary Soto, Robert Frost, and Robert Hass / Michael Tomasek Manson.

Barrow, A. (2005). Homeless on the range: Masculinity and the orphan myth in the American Western, 1950—1990.Unpublished Ph.D., York University, Canada.

Bartz, C. (2000). Zur Erzählstruktur der Remaskulinisierung. Studien zum Theater, Film und Fernsehen, Bd. 31. Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang.

Basso, M., McCall, L., & Garceau–Hagen, D. (Eds.) (2001). Across the Great Divide: cultures of manhood in the American West. New York: Routledge. Contents: “Tell me with whom you walk and I will tell you who you are”: honor and virtue in eighteenth–century colonial New Mexio / Ramón A. Gutiérrez —Bulls, bears, and dancing boys: race, gender, and leisure in the California Gold Rush / Susan Lee Johnson —Manly gambles: the politics of risk on the Comstock Lode, 1860–1880 / Gunther Peck —Cool to the end: public hangings and Western manhood / Durwood Ball —White men, red masks: appropriations of “Indian” manhood in imagined wests / David Anthony Tyeeme Clark and Joane Nagel — “A distinct and antagonistic race”: constructions of Chinese manhood in the exclusionist debates, 1869–1878 / Karen J. Leong —Nomads, bunkies, cross–dressers, and family men: cowboy identity and the gendering of ranch work / Dee Garceau —Domesticated bliss: ranchers and their animals / Karen R. Merrill —Man–power: Montana copper workers, state authority, and the (re)drafting of manhood during World War II / Matthew Basso —On the road: Cassady, Kerouac, and images of late western masculinity / Craig Leavitt — “All the best cowboys have Chinese eyes”: the utilization of the cowboy hero–image in contemporary Asian–American literature / Steven M. Lee — “I guess your warrior look doesn’t worry every time”: challenging Indian masculinity in the cinema / Brian Klopotek —Tex–Sex–Mex: American identities, lone stars, and the politics of racialized sexuality / José E. Limón.

Becker, Anja (2007). Nationale Identität, Männlichkeit und amerikanisches Studentenleben an deutschen Universitäten im späten 19. Jahrhundert. In Martschukat, J., & Stieglitz, O. (Eds.),Väter, Soldaten, Liebhaber: Männer und Männlichkeiten in der Geschichte Nordamerikas: ein Reader. Bielefeld: Transcript.

Beckwith, K. (2001). Gender frames and collective action: configurations of masculinity in the Pittston coal strike. Politics and society, 29(2), 297–330.

Bederman, G. (1995). Manliness & civilization: a cultural history of gender and race in the United States, 1880–1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Contents: Remaking manhood through race and “civilization” –– “The White man’s civilization on trial”: Ida B. Wells, representations of lynching, and northern middle–class manhood –– “Teaching our sons to do what we have been teaching the savages to avoid”: G. Stanley Hall, racial recapitulation, and the neurasthenic paradox –– “Not to sex–but to race!” Charlotte Perkins Gilman, civilized Anglo–Saxon womanhood, and the return of the primitive rapist –– Theodore Roosevelt: manhood, nation, and “civilization” –– Tarzan and after.

Bederman, Gail (1993). Civilization, the decline of middle–class manliness, and Ida B. Wells’s anti–lynching campaign (1892–94). In Melosh, B. (Ed.). Gender and American history since 1890. Rewriting histories. London: Routledge.

Behling, L. L. (2001). The masculine woman in America, 1890–1935. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Belton, D. (1995). Speak my name: Black men on masculinity and the American dream. Boston: Beacon Press.

Benemann, W. (2006). Male–male intimacy in early America: beyond romantic friendships. New York: HarringtonPark Press. [Contents: The freedom of the frontier –– Warme Brüder, mouches, and mollies –– Rom, sodomy, and the lash –– Gone for a soldier –– Sodomites in America’s libraries –– Racism and homosexual desire in the antebellum period –– The nation’s capital under Jefferson: four case studies –– On the streets of Philadelphia, Annapolis, and Boston –– Spirituality and sublimation –– Gender anarchy as a revolutionary threat –– Male intimacy at the fringes]

Benshoff, H. M., & Griffin, S. (2004). America on film: representing race, class, gender, and sexuality at the movies. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. Includes ch. 12: Masculinity in classical Hollywood filmmaking – Masculinity and early cinema – Masculinity and the male movie star – World War II and film noir – Case study: Dead Reckoning (1947) – Conclusion: masculinity in 1950s American film – Questions for discussion – Further reading – Further screening.

Berger, M. A., & Eakins, T. (2000). Man made: Thomas Eakins and the construction of Gilded Age manhood. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.

Berrett, J. (1997). Feeding the Organization Man: Diet and Masculinity in Postwar America. Journal of social history, 30(4), 805–826.

Berrett, J. I. (1996). The secret lives of consumer culture: Masculinity and consumption in postwar America.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, California.

Bertellini, G. (2005). Duce/Divo: masculinity, racial identity, and politics among Italian Americans in 1920s New York City. Journal of urban history, 31(5), 685–726.

Best, M. T. (2002). Secret identities: American masculinities and the superhero genre in the fifties. Unpublished Ph.D., Indiana University, Indiana.

Black, D. P. (1993). The Black male concept of manhood as portrayed in selected slave and free narratives (1794–1863). Thesis (Ph. D.)—TempleUniversity.

Black, D. P. (1997). Dismantling black manhood: an historical and literary analysis of the legacy of slavery. New York: Garland Pub.

Blackmore, D. L. (1994). Masculinity anxiety and contemporary discourses of sexuality in United States fiction between the wars.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, United States— California.

Blanchard, M. W. (1996). The soldier and the aesthete: homosexuality and popular culture in gilded age America. Journal of American studies, 30(1), 25–46.

Blankenship, Steven R. (2007). Reconfiguring memories of honor: William Raoul’s manipulation of masculinities in the New South, 1872––1918. Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgia State University.

Bly, R. (1990). Iron John: A book about men. Reading, Mass.: Addison–Wesley.

Booker, C. B. (2000). “I will wear no chain!”: A social history of African American males. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

Bou, N., & Pérez, X. (2000). El tiempo del héroe: épica y masculinidad en el cine de Hollywood. Paidós comunicación. Barcelona: Paidós.

Boyle, B. M. (2003). Prisoners of war: Formations of masculinities in Vietnam War fiction and film.Unpublished Ph.D., The OhioStateUniversity, United States— Ohio.

Bozzola, L. E. (2000). Studs and lovers: Beatty, Travolta, Gere and Hollywood masculinity after 1960. Thesis (Ph. D.), New York University, Graduate School of Arts and Science.

Brandt, S. L. (2007). Inszenierte Männlichkeit: Körperkult und “Krise der Maskulinität” im spätviktorianischen Amerika. Berlin: WVB, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin. Based on Brandt, S. L. (1997). Männerblicke: zur Konstruktion von

“Männlichkeit” in der Literatur und Kultur der amerikanischen Jahrhundertwende (1890–1914). Doctoral thesis. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Braziel, J. E. (2003). Trans–American Constructions of Black Masculinity: Dany Laferriere, le Negre, and the Late Capitalist American Racial machine–desirante. Callaloo, 26(3), 867–900.

Breu, C. (2005). Hard–boiled masculinities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press [Contents: Wearing the Black mask –– Going blood–simple in Poisonville –– The hard–boiled male travels abroad –– Not your average Joe –– Freudian knot or Gordian knot?] [Breu, C. D. (2000). Hard–boiled masculinities: Fantasizing gender in American literature and popular culture, 1920—1945. Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Santa Cruz, United States— California]

Brinck–Johnsen, K. (2004). Playing the man: Masculinity, performance, and United States foreign policy, 1901—1920. Unpublished Ph.D., University of New Hampshire, United States —New Hampshire.

Britton, James Robert (2003). Reforming America and its men: Radical social reform and the ethics of antebellum manhood. Ph.D., University of Miami.

Bronner, S. J. (Ed.) (2005). Manly traditions: the folk roots of American masculinities. Bloomington: IndianaUniversity Press. Contents: Menfolk / Simon J. Bronner —In the company of men: female accommodation and the folk culture of male groups / Gary Alan Fine — “Running the yard”: the negotiation of masculinities in African American stepping / Tom Mould —Muy macho: traditional practices in the formation of Latino masculinity in South Texas border culture / Norma E. Cantú—Performing manliness: resistance and harmony in Japanese American Taiko / Hideyo Konagaya — “I feel that I’m freer to show my feminine side”: folklore and alternative masculinities in a rave scene / Anthony P. Avery —The circuit: gay men’s techniques of ecstasy / Mickey Weems —The folklore of mother–raised boys and men / Jay Mechling —Be careful what you wish for: images of masculinity in tragedies of wish fulfillment / Greg Kelley —Manly characters in contemporary legends: a preliminary survey / W. F. H. Nicolaisen —Mountain masculinity: jokes Southern mountain men tell on themselves / W.K. McNeil —Secret erections and sexual fabrications: old men crafting manliness / Simon J. Bronner — “Letting out Jack”: sex and aggression in manly recitations / Ronald L. Baker and Simon J. Bronner —Afterword—many manly traditions: a folkloristic maelstrom / Alan Dundes.

Brown, J. A. (1999). Comic Book Masculinity and the New Black Superhero. African American Review, 33(1), 25–42.

Brown, S., & Clark, K. (2003). Melodramas of Beset Black Manhood? Meditations on African–American Masculinity as Scholarly Topos and Social Menace: An Introduction. Callaloo, 26(3), 732–737.

Bruce, D. D. (1979). Violence and culture in the antebellum South. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bruzzi, S. (2005). Bringing up daddy: fatherhood and masculinity in post–war Hollywood. London: British Film Institute. Contents: Since you went away: masculinity and change after World War II — The return of the patriarch: generation and traditionalism in the 1950s — Revolution and feminist unrest: fatherhood under attack in the 1960s and 1970s — Back to the future: nostalgia, tradition and masculinity in the 1980s — The next best thing: men in crisis and the pluralisation of fatherhood in the 1990s and 2000s.

Bryan, J. L. (2006). The American elsewhere:Adventurism and manliness in the age of expansion, 1815—1848. Dissertation, Southern MethodistUniversity.

Bundgaard, A. (2005). Muscle and manliness: the rise of sport in american boarding schools(1st ed.). Syracuse, NY: SyracuseUniversity Press.

Burke, P. (2006). Oasis of Swing: The Onyx Club, Jazz, and White Masculinity in the Early 1930s. American Music, 24(3), 320–346.

Butters, G. R., Jr. (1998). Portrayals of black masculinity in American silent film, 1896—1929. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Kansas, United States— Kansas.

Callaghan, L. (1994). Hollywood images of masculinity: Eastwood, Hoffman, Redford and Schwarzenegger. Thesis (Ph. D.)—University of Oxford.

Campbell, H., Bell, M., & Finney, M. (Eds.) (2006). Country boys: Masculinity and rural life. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press. Includes: Three visions of masculine success on American farms / Peggy F. Barlett; “White men are this nation”: right-wing militias and the restoration of rural American masculinity / Michael Kimmel and Abby L. Ferber.

Cardenas, J. O., Jr. (2000). Cousins of Caliban: Nation, masculinity, and Latino men in California, 1945 to mid–1960s. Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, United States— California.

Carnes, M. C. (1989). Secret ritual and manhood in Victorian America. New Haven: YaleUniversity Press.

Carnes, M. C., & Griffen, C. (Eds.) (1990). Meanings for manhood: constructions of masculinity in Victorian America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Contents: Boy culture: middle–class boyhood in nineteenth–century America / E. Anthony Rotundo —Middle–class men and the solace of fraternal ritual / Mark C. Carnes —The madness of separate spheres: insanity and masculinity in Victorian Alabama / John Starrett Hughes —The son of man and God the Father: the social gospel and Victorian masculinity / Susan Curtis —Abolitionists and the “language of fraternal love” / Donald Yacovone —Divorce and the legal redefinition of Victorian manhood / Robert L. Griswold —Suburban men and masculine domesticity, 1870–1915 / Margaret Marsh —Institutionalizing masculinity: the law as a masculine profession / Michael Grossberg —Acquiring manly competence: the demise of apprenticeship and the remasculinization of printers’ work / Ava Baron. Masculinity and mobility: the dilemma of Lancashire weavers and spinners in late–nineteenth–century Fall River, Massachusetts / Mary H. Blewett —Reconstructing masculinity from the evangelical revival to the waning of progressivism: a speculative synthesis / Clyde Griffen —On men’s history and women’s history / Nancy F. Cott.

Carroll, B. E. (Ed.) (2003). American masculinities: a historical encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Carroll, B. E. (1997). The religious construction of masculinity in Victorian America: the male mediumship of John Shoebridge Williams. Religion and AmericanCulture, 7, 27–60.

Caster, Peter B. (200[8]). Prisons, race, and masculinity in twentieth–century U.S. literature and film. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2008. [Caster, Peter B. (2004). The language of the prison house: Incarceration, race, and masculinity in twentieth–century United States literature.Unpublished Ph.D., The University of Texas at Austin, United States— Texas]

Catano, J. V. (2001). Ragged dicks: masculinity, steel, and the rhetoric of the self–made man. Carbondale: Southern IllinoisUniversity Press.

Chapman Peek, W. (1998). Cherchez la Femme: The Searchers, Vertigo, and Masculinity in Post–Kinsey America. Journal of American culture, 21(2), 73–88.

Chapman, M., & Hendler, G. (1999). Sentimental men: masculinity and the politics of affect in American culture. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.

Cheney, C. L. (1999). Phallic/ies and hi(s)stories: Masculinity and the Black Nationalist tradition, from slave spirituals to rap music.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, United States— Illinois.

Cheney, C. L. (2005). Brothers gonna work it out: sexual politics in the golden age of rap nationalism. New York: New YorkUniversity Press.

Chon–Smith, C. (2006). Asian American and African American masculinities: Race, citizenship, and culture in post–civil rights.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, San Diego, United States— California.

Chopra–Gant, M. (2006). Hollywood genres and postwar America: masculinity, family and nation in popular movies and film noir. London: I.B. Tauris Pub.

Christensen, M. J. (2002). Of rebellions and revolutions: Masculinity, race, and transnational modernity in late twentieth century United States and Sierra Leonean representations of the Amistad slave revolt.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, United States— California.

Clark, D. A. (2001). Creating the college man: American magazines, masculinity and business success in transition, 1880—1929.Unpublished Ph.D., Purdue University, United States— Indiana.

Clark, K. (2002). Black manhood in James Baldwin, Ernest J. Gaines, and August Wilson. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Clark, S. (2000). Cold warriors: manliness on trial in the rhetoric of the West. Carbondale: Southern IllinoisUniversity Press. [Contents: Introduction: the frontier rhetoric of the Cold War and the crisis of manliness —The un–American and the unreal: modern bodies and new frontiers —Cold War modernism and the crisis of story—Theodore Roosevelt and the postheroic arena: reading Hemingway again —Unsettling the West: the persecution of science and Bernard Malamud’s A new life—Mari Sandoz’s heartland: the abusive frontier father and the Indian warrior as counterhistory —The warrior is a stage adolescents go through: Ursula Le Guin’s thought experiments —Conclusion: the whiteness of the Cold War and the absence of women]

Clawson, M. A. (2007).Masculinity,Consumption and the Transformation of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in the Turn–of–the–Century United States. Gender & History, 19(1), 101–121.

Clement, Priscilla Ferguson & Reinier, Jacqueline S. (Eds.) (2001). Boyhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC–CLIO.

Cohan, S., & Hark, I. R. (Eds.) (1993). Screening the male: exploring masculinities in Hollywood cinema. London: Routledge. Contents: Prologue: masculinity as spectacle: reflections on men and mainstream cinema / Steve Neale — Valentino, ‘optic intoxication,’ and dance madness / Gaylyn Studlar — ‘Feminizing’ the song–and– dance man: Fred Astaire and the spectacle of masculinity in the Hollywood musical / Steven Cohan — Mama’s boy: filial hysteria in White heat / Lucy Fischer — The dialectic of female power and male hysteria in Play Misty for me / Adam Knee — ‘Don’t blame this on a girl’: female rape–revenge films / Peter Lehman — Dark desires: male masochism in the horror film / Barbara Creed — ‘More human than I am alone’: womb envy in David Cronenberg’s The fly and Dead ringers / Helen W. Robbins — Animals or Romans: looking at mas- culinity in Spartacus / Ina Rae Hark — Feminism, ‘the boyz,’ and other matters regarding the male / Robyn Wiegman — The buddy politic / Cynthia J. Fuchs. Masculinity as multiple masquerade: the ‘mature’ Stallone and the Stallone clone / Chris Holmlund — Dumb movies for dumb people: masculinity, the body, and the voice in contemporary action cinema / Yvonne Tasker — Can masculinity be terminated? / Susan Jeffords.

Cohan, S. (1997). Masked men: masculinity and the movies in the fifties. Bloomington: IndianaUniversity Press.

Corber, R. J. (1997). Homosexuality in cold war America: resistance and the crisis of masculinity. Durham: Duke University Press.

Coulombe, J. L. (2003). Mark Twain and the American West. Mark Twain and his circle series. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. Contents includes chapters: Go east, young man: class conflict and degenerate manhood in Mark Twain’s early writings – Mark Twain as western outlaw: masculine language, violence, and success in Roughing it – Moneyed ruffians: the new American hero in Life on the Mississippi.

Coulter, N. H. (1997). The construction of masculinities through images of male activity in American magazines, 1960–1985.Unpublished M.A., University of Guelph, Canada.

Cunningham, J. C. (1995). Between violence and silence: Intersections of masculinity and race in contemporary United States men’s writing.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, United States— California.

Cunningham, J. C. (2002). Race–ing masculinity: identity in contemporary U.S. men’s writing. New York: Routledge.

Cuordileone, K. A. (2005). Manhood and American political culture in the Cold War. New York: Routledge. [Cuordileone, K. A. (1995). “Politics in an age of anxiety”: Masculinity, the vital center and American political culture in the Cold War, 1949–1963. Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, United States — California]

Cuordileone, K. A. (2000).”Politics in an age of anxiety”: cold war political culture and the crisis in American masculinity, 1949–1960. The Journal of American History, 87(2), 515–545.

Curtis, Susan (1990). The son of man and God the Father: the social gospel and Victorian masculinity. In Carnes, M. C., & Griffen, C. (Eds.), Meanings for manhood: constructions of masculinity in Victorian America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 67–78. Reprinted in Leon Fink (Ed.) (1993). Major Problems in the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, pp. 390–397.

David, James Corbett (2007). The Politics of Emasculation: The Caning of Charles Sumner and Elite Ideologies of Manhood in the Mid-Nineteenth-Century United States. Gender & History, 19(2), 324–345.

Davidson, M. (2004). Guys like us: citing masculinity in Cold War poetics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [Contents: Compulsory homosociality: Charles Olson, Jack Spicer, and the gender of poetics –– From mar- gin to mainstream: postwar poetry and the politics of containment –– The lady from Shanghai: California Orientalism and “guys like us” –– “When the world strips down and rouges up”: redressing Whitman ––The changing name: writing gender in the black arts nation script –– Definitive haircuts: female masculinity in Eliz- abeth Bishop and Sylvia Plath –– Hunting among stones: poetry, pedagogy, and the Pacific rim –– Moving borders]

De Silva, J. (2004). Edgar Rice Burroughs, Tarzan and pulp fiction: the making of modern American manhood. Thesis (Ph. D.)—EmoryUniversity.

Dean, Robert D. (2001). Imperial brotherhood: gender and the making of Cold War foreign policy. Culture, politics, and the cold war. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. Contents: Introduction: culture, gender, and foreign policy reason —The foreign policy “establishment”—The reproduction of imperial manhood —Heroism, bodies, and the construction of elite masculinity — “Lavender lads” and the foreign policy establishment — The sexual inquisition and the imperial brotherhood —Lavender–baiting and the persistence of the sexual inquisition —John F. Kennedy and the domestic politics of foreign policy —Manhood, the imperial broth- erhood, and the Vietnam war —Afterword. [Dean, R. D. (1995). Manhood, reason, and American foreign policy: The social construction of masculinity and the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Unpublished Ph.D., TheUni- versity of Arizona, United States— Arizona]

Dean, Robert D. (2007). John F. Kennedy und die “Krise” der Männlichkeit im Kalten Krieg. In Martschukat, J., & Stieglitz, O. (Eds.), Väter, Soldaten, Liebhaber: Männer und Männlichkeiten in der Geschichte Nordamerikas: ein Reader. Bielefeld: Transcript.

Deardorff, D. L. (2006). Hero and anti–hero in the American football novel: changing conceptions of masculinity from the nineteenth century to the twenty–first century. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press [Deardorff, D. L., II. (1994). American masculinity and the gridiron: The development of the football narrative. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Rhode Island, United States— Rhode Island]

Deitreich, K. A. (2006). Honor, patriarchy, and disunion: Masculinity and the coming of the American Civil War. Unpublished Ph.D., West Virginia University, United States —West Virginia.

Devlin, A. (2005). Between profits and primitivism: shaping white middle–class masculinity in the United States, 1880–1917. New York: Routledge.

Diamond, A. (2001). Rethinking Culture on the Streets: Agency, Masculinity, and Style in the AmericanCity. Journal of urban history, 27(5), 669–685.

Dickinson, R. J. (1996). Anglo agonistes: English masculinities in British and American film.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Southern California, United States— California.

Ditz, T. L. (2004). The New Men’s History and the Peculiar Absence of Gendered Power: Some Remedies from Early American Gender History. Gender & History, 16(1), 1–35.

Donald, R. (2005). From “Knockout Punch”to “Home Run:” Masculinity’s “Dirty Dozen” Sports Metaphors in American Combat Films. Film & History: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Film and Television Studies, 35(1), 20–

Dorsey, B. (1996). History of manhood in America. Radical history review, 64, 19–30.

Dudink, S., Clark, A. K., & Hagemann, K. (Eds.) (2007). Representing masculinity: male citizenship in modern Western culture. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Includes: White men in arms: concepts of citizenship and masculinity in revolutionary America / Gregory T. Knouff; Citizens made and remade: sexual scandal, manhood, and self–government reform in the progressive–era United States / Kevin P. Murphy.

Dudley, J. (2004). A man’s game: masculinity and the anti–aesthetics of American literary naturalism. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Contents: Inside and outside the ring: the establishment of a masculinist aesthetic sensibility /”Subtle brotherhood” in Stephen Crane’s tales of adventure: alienation, anxiety, and the rites of manhood / “Beauty unmans me”: diminished manhood and the leisure class in Norris and Wharton / “A man only in form”: the roots of naturalism in African American literature. [Dudley, J. E. A. (2000). A manly art? Masculinity and aesthetics in American literary naturalism. Unpublished Ph.D., Tulane University, United States —Louisiana]

Dunbar, M. D. (2003). Bad boy rebounds and rare air: Masculinity in televised sport media, young adult male audiences and the search for authenticity in postmodern America. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Southern California, United States— California.

Durkin, Thomas P. (2007). The games men play: Madness and masculinity in post–World War II American fiction, 1946––1964. Ph.D. Dissertation, Marquette University.

Eagle, J. K. (2006). Making a spectacle of himself: White masculinity, melodrama, and sensation in the American cinema, 1898—1999.Unpublished Ph.D., Brown University, United States— Rhode Island.

Eberwein, R. T. (Ed.) (2005). The war film. Rutgers depth of field series. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. Includes: Masculinity on the front: John Huston’s The red badge of courage(1951) revisited / Guerric DeBona – The Reagan hero: Rambo / Susan Jeffords – Do we get to lose this time? Revising the Vietnam War film / Tania Modleski – Soldiers’ stories: women and military masculinities in Courage under fire/ Yvonne Tasker.

Eberwein, R. T. (2007). Armed forces: masculinity and sexuality in the American war film. New Brunswick, N.J.: RutgersUniversity Press. Includes Selected Bibliography.

Ek, A. (2005). Race and masculinity in contemporary American prison narratives. New York: Routledge.

Ek, A. A. (2002). Criminal identities in the war on crime: Race and masculinity in contemporary American prison narratives.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara, United States— California.

Eng, D. L. (2001). Racial castration: managing masculinity in Asian America. Durham: Duke University Press.

Estes, S. (2005). I am a man!: race, manhood, and the civil rights movement. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Etcheson, N. (1995). Manliness and the political culture of the Old Northwest, 1790–1860. Journal of the Early Republic, 15, 59–77.

Fagelson, W. F. (2004). “Nervous out of the service”: 1940s American cinema, World War II veteran readjustment, and post-war masculinity.Unpublished Ph.D., The University of Texas at Austin, United States— Texas.

Falla, J. B. (2000). Becoming outsider: The Cold War, masculinity, and the Beat Generation.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Minnesota, United States— Minnesota.

Ferber, A. L. (2000). Racial Warriors and Weekend Warriors: The Construction of Masculinity in Mythopoetic and White Supremacist Discourse. Men and Masculinities, 3, 30–56.

Filene, P. (1985).Between a rock and a soft place: a century of American manhood. The South Atlantic Quarterly, 84, 339–355.

Fine, M., Weis, L., Addelston, J., & Marusza, J. (1997). (In) Secure Times: Constructing White Working–Class Masculinities in the Late 20th Century. Gender & Society, 11(1), 52–68.

Flood, Michael; Judith Kegan Gardiner, Bob Pease, Keith Pringle (Eds.) (2007). International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities. Routledge [entries include: “Cultural Formations, North America”; “African American Masculinities”; “Asian American Masculinities”; “Redneck Masculinity”; “History, North America”]

Fluck, Winfried (1991). The Masculinization of American Realism. Amerikastudien, 36(1), 71–76.

Forter, G. (2000). Murdering masculinities: fantasies of gender and violence in the American crime novel. New York: New YorkUniversity Press [Forter, G. B. (1998). Murdering masculinities: Fantasies of gender and violence in the American crime novel.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, United States— California]

Forter, G. F. (2006). F. Scott Fitzgerald, Modernist Studies, and the Fin–de–Siècle Crisis in Masculinity. American Literature, 78(2), 293–323.

Foster, T. A. (1999). Deficient husbands: manhood, sexual incapacity, and male marital sexuality in seventeenth–century New England. The William and Mary Quarterly, 56(4), 723–744.

Foy, A. S. (2003). The dark brotherhood: Autobiography, ideology, masculinity, blackness.Unpublished Ph.D., Yale University, United States— Connecticut.

Frank, L. K. (1999). Intimate labors: Masculinity, consumption, and authenticity in five gentleman’s clubs.Unpublished Ph.D., Duke University, United States —North Carolina.

Frank, N. (2002). Producing men: work, manhood and capitalism in the early AmericanRepublic. Thesis (Ph.D.)—BrownUniversity.

Frank, S. M. (1995). Life with father: Parenthood and masculinity in the nineteenth century American North. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Michigan, United States— Michigan.

Fraterrigo, E. (2004). “Entertainment for men”: “Playboy”, masculinity, and postwar American culture. Unpublished Ph.D., Loyola University of Chicago, United States— Illinois.

Freedman, C. (2007). Post–Heterosexuality: John Wayne and the construction of American masculinity. Film International, 5(1), 16–31.

Friend, C. T., & Glover, L. (Eds.) (2004). Southern manhood: perspectives on masculinity in the Old South. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Contents: Rethinking southern masculinity: an introduction / Craig Thompson Friend and Lorri Glover —Refuge of manhood: masculinity and the militia experience in Kentucky / Harry S. Laver— “Let us manufacture men”: educating elite boys in the early national South / Lorri Glover —Try- ing to look like men: changing notions of masculinity among Choctaw elites in the early republic / Greg O’Brien —Fraternity and masculine identity: the search for respectability among white and black artisans in Petersburg, Virginia / L. Diane Barnes —Belles, benefactors, and the blacksmith’s son: Cyrus Stuart and the enigma of southern gentlemanliness / Craig Thompson Friend —Being shifty in a new country: southern humor and the masculine ideal / John Mayfield —The absent subject: African American masculinity and forced migration to the antebellum plantation frontier / Edward E. Baptist — “Stout chaps who can bear the distress”: young men in antebellum military academies / Jennifer R. Green — “Commenced to think like a man”: literacy and manhood in African American Civil War regiments / Heather Andrea Williams.

Gair, C., et. al. (1983). Manhood game: American football in critical perspective. The South Atlantic Quarterly, 82, 145–153.

Gallagher, M. P. (2000). Action figures: Spectacular masculinity in the contemporary action film and the contemporary American novel.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Oregon, United States— Oregon.

Gardaphe, F. L. (2006). From wiseguys to wise men: the gangster and Italian American masculinities. New York: Routledge.

Gates, P. (2006). Detecting men: masculinity and the Hollywood detective film. The SUNY series, cultural studies in cinema/video. Albany: State University of New York Press. Contents: Introduction: the case — The myths of masculinity — Investigating national heroes: British sleuths and American dicks — Investigating crisis: neo– noir heroes and femmes fatales — Investigating crisis: the spectacle of “musculinity” — Investigating the hero: the criminalist — Investigating the “other”: race and the detective — Investigating the “other”: women and youth — Investigating the “other”: the cult of villainy — End of the investigation: case closed. [Gates, P. (2002). Investigating the male Masculinity and the Hollywood detective film. Thesis (Ph.D.), Exexter University]

Gerstner, D. A. (2006). Manly arts: masculinity and nation in early American cinema. Durham: Duke University Press. Contents: Nineteenth–Century Formulations of Masculinity and Realism: The Body of Edwin Forrest –– The e Battle Cry of Peace and the Spectacle of Realism –– African American Realism: Oscar Micheaux, Au- tobiography, and the Ambiguity of Black Male Desire –– Manhatta: A National Self–Portrait –– The Queer Frontier: Vincente Minnelli’s Cabin in the Sky.

Gerzon, M. (1982). A choice of heroes: the changing faces of American manhood. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Gibson, J. W. (1994). Warrior dreams: paramilitary culture in post–Vietnam America(1st ed.). New York: Hill and Wang.

Gilbert, James B. (2005). Men in the middle: searching for masculinity in the 1950s. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Contents: Introduction: men in the middle –– Crisis and the history of masculinity –– Lonely men: David Riesman and character –– A feeling of crisis: the 1950s –– Sex is sex: Alfred Kinsey and the report that shook the world –– My answer: Billy Graham and male conversions –– The Ozzie show: learning compan- ionate fatherhood –– Mendacity: men, lies, and cat on a hot tin roof –– The gender of high culture –– Get- ting used to women: perspectives on masculinity crisis.

Gilbert, James B. (2007). David Riesman und die “Krise” der Männlichkeit nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. In Martschukat, J., & Stieglitz, O. (Eds.), Väter, Soldaten, Liebhaber: Männer und Männlichkeiten in der Geschichte Nord-amerikas: ein Reader. Bielefeld: Transcript.

Glenn, Myra (2007). Forging Manhood and Nationhood Together: American Sailors’ Accounts of their Exploits, Sufferings, and Resistance in the Antebellum United States. American Nineteenth Century History, 8(1), 27–49.

Glover, Lorri (2007). Southern Sons: Becoming Men in the New Nation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Contents: Introduction –– The first duties of a southern boy –– Raising “self willed” sons –– The educational aspirations of southern families –– Creating southern schools for southern sons –– The (mis)behaviors of southern collegians –– The southern code of gentlemanly conduct –– Acting the part of a gentleman –– Su- pervising suitors –– Winning a wife –– Professions and the “circle about every man” –– Slaveholding and the destiny of the Republic’s southern sons –– Epilogue.

Golden, T., & WhitneyMuseum of American Art. (1994). Black male: representations of masculinity in contemporary American art. New York: WhitneyMuseum of American Art. Distributed by Harry N. Abrams, Inc.

Grandstaff, M. R. (2004). Visions of New Men: The Heroic Soldier Narrative in American Advertisements During World War II. Advertising & Society Review, 5(2), 23–35.

Grant, J. (2004). A “Real Boy” and not a Sissy: Gender, Childhood, and Masculinity, 1890–1940. Journal of Social History, 37(4), 829–851.

Greenberg, Amy S. (2005). Manifest manhood and the Antebellum American empire. Cambridge, UK; New York,: CambridgeUniversity Press.

Greenberg, Amy S. (2007). Männlichkeiten, territoriale Expansion und die amerikanische Frontier im 19. Jahrhundert. In Martschukat, J., & Stieglitz, O. (Eds.), Väter, Soldaten, Liebhaber: Männer und Männlichkeiten in der Geschichte Nordamerikas: ein Reader. Bielefeld: Transcript.

Greenberg, Joshua R. (2003). Advocating ‘the man’: Masculinity, organized labor, and the market revolution in New York, 1800—1840.Unpublished Ph.D., The American University, United States—District of Columbia.

Gregory, C. A. (1999). Revivalism, fundamentalism, and masculinity in the United States, 1880—1930.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Kentucky, United States— Kentucky.

Greiner, D. J. (1991). Women enter the wilderness: male bonding and the American novel of the 1980s. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press.

Greven, D. (2005). Men beyond desire: manhood, sex, and violation in American literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Greven, D. (2002). Dude, Where’s My Gender? Contemporary Teen Comedies and New Forms of American Masculinity. Cineaste, 27(3), 14–21.

Griffey, R. R. (1999). Marsden Hartley’s late paintings: American masculinity and national identity in the 1930s and ‘40s.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Kansas, United States— Kansas.

Griffith, R. M. (2000). Apostles of Abstinence: Fasting and Masculinity during the Progressive Era. American Quarterly, 52(4), 599–638.

Gronstad, A. (2003). Transfigurations: Violence, death, and masculinity in American cinema.Unpublished dr.art., Universitetet i Bergen(Norway), Norway.

Hamming, J. E. (2003). Second natures: Media, masculinity and the natural world in twentieth–century American literature and film.Unpublished Ph.D., West Virginia University, United States —West Virginia.

Hannah, E. L. (2007). Manhood, citizenship, and the National Guard: Illinois, 1870–1917. Columbus: OhioState University Press. [Contents: Introduction —Illinois militia revival in the 1870s —Manhood and citizenship on display —Confused missions: the first twenty years of strike duty, 1870–90 —New training practices, drill competitions, and the rise of sharpshooting —Death, manhood, and service in the Spanish American war—Lessons learned: the ING and strike duty, 1894–1916 —The pursuit of state and federal support –Appendixes] [Hannah, E. L. (1997). Manhood, citizenship, and the formation of the National Guards, Illinois, 1870–1917. Thesis (Ph. D.)—University of Chicago, Dept. of History]

Hansen, K. (1991). “Helped put in a quilt”: Men’s work and male intimacy in nineteenth-century New England. In Lorber, J., & Farrell, S. A. (Eds.). The social construction of gender. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications.

Hansen, Karen V. (1992). “Our eyes behold each other”: masculinity and intimate friendship in antebellum New England. In Nardi, P. M. (Ed.). Men’s friendships. Research on men and masculinities series, 2. NewburyPark: Sage Publications.

Hardy, R. (2005). Theodore Roosevelt and the Masculine/Feminine Complex. New England Review, 26(4), 176–87.

Harris, C. T. B. (1994). Emasculation of the unicorn: the loss and rebuilding of masculinity in America. York Beach, Me.: Nicolas–Hays.

Harris, K. M. (2006). Boys, boyz, bois: an ethics of Black masculinity in film and popular media. New York: Routledge. [Harris, K. M. (2002). Boys, Boyz, Boies: The ethics of black masculinity in film and popular media.Unpublished Ph.D., New York University, United States— New York]

Hashmi, M. (2006). No longer the iconic American? The changing cultural and economic value of white masculinity in the global economy.Unpublished Ph.D., The University of Wisconsin– Madison, United States— Wisconsin.

Herbert, T. W. (2002). Sexual violence and American manhood. Cambridge, MA: HarvardUniversity Press. [Contents: Prologue —Frontiers of masculinity —Rape as an activity of the imagination —Becoming a natural man —Pornographic manhood —Investigations behind the veil —Rape as redemption —Democratic masculinities –Epilogue]

Higgs, Robert J. (1987). Yale and the heroic ideal, Götterdämmerung and palingenesis, 1865–1914. InMangan, J. A., & Walvin, J. (Eds.), Manliness and morality: middle–class masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1940. Manchester [Greater Manchester]: ManchesterUniversity Press.

Hine, D. C., & Jenkins, E. (1999). A question of manhood: a reader in U.S. Black men’s history and masculinity. Bloomington: IndianaUniversity Press.

Hodgdon, T. (2002). Manhood in the age of Aquarius: Masculinity in two countercultural communities, 1965—1983.Unpublished Ph.D., Arizona State University, United States— Arizona.

Hoffert, S. D. (2003). A history of gender in America: essays, documents, and articles. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Hoganson, K. L. (1998). Fighting for American manhood: how gender politics provoked the Spanish–American and Philippine–American wars. New Haven: YaleUniversity Press. Contents: The manly ideal of politics and the jingoist desire for war —Cuba and the restoration of American chivalry — “Honor comes first”: The congressional debate over war —McKinley’s backbone: The coercive power of gender in political debate —The Spanish–American War and the martial ideal of citizenship —The problem of male degeneracy and the allure of the Philippines —The national manhood metaphor and the fight over the fathers in the Philippine debate —Imperial degeneracy: The dissolution of the imperialist impulse —Conclusion: Engendering war.

hooks, B. (2004). We real cool: Black men and masculinity. New York: Routledge.

Hopkinson, N., & Moore, N. Y. (2006). Deconstructing Tyrone: a new look at black masculinity in the hip–hop generation(1st ed.). San Francisco: Cleis Press.

Horowitz, R. (Ed.) (2001). Boys and their toys?: masculinity, technology, and class in America. Hagley perspectives on business and culture. New York: Routledge. Contents: Work, play, and power / Stephen Meyer —To make men out of crude material / Paul Michel Taillon —Now that we have girls in the office / Janet F. Davidson —Rereading man’s conquest of nature / Nancy Quam–Wickham —Building better men / Jeffrey Ryan Suzik —Boys and theirtoys / Ruth Oldenziel —Masculine guidance / Todd Alexander Postol —Everyday Peter Pans / Woody Register —Masculinity, the auto racing fraternity, and the technological sublime / Ben A. Shackleford —Rights of men, rites of passage / Lisa Fine.

Hoy, P. C. (1989). Mosaics of southern masculinity; small–scale mythologies. The Sewanee Review, 97, 220–37.

Hunter, L. (2005). The celluloid cubicle: Constructions of masculinity in 1990s office movies.Unpublished Ph.D., McMaster University, Canada.

Hutton, M. S. (1994). “Virility” and “manly strength”: the cult of masculinity and the rhetoric of nationalism in American art criticism, 1901–1931. Thesis (A.M.)—WashingtonUniversity, 1994. Dept. of Art History and Archaeology.

Ibson, J. (2002). Picturing men: a century of male relationships in everyday American photography. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Jabour, A. (1998). Masculinity and adolescence in antebellum America: Robert Wirt at West Point, 1820–1821. Journal of Family History, 23(4), 393–416.

Jabour, A. (2000).Male friendship and masculinity in the early national South: William Wirt and his friends. Journal of the Early Republic, 20(1), 83–111.

James, P. (2002). From trench to trope: Narrating American masculinity after WorldWarI.Unpublished Ph.D., Yale University, United States— Connecticut.

Jarvis, C. S. (2004). The male body at war: American masculinity during World War II. DeKalb: Northern IllinoisUniversity Press[Jarvis, C. S. (2000). The male body at war: American masculinity and embodiment during World War II. Unpublished Ph.D., The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity, United States— Pennsylvania]

Jeffers, J. M. (2006). Britain colonized: Hollywood’s appropriation of British literature.New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Chapters include: American cowboy in England: Possession /... / Reterritorializing British masculinity for American consumption: Waterlandand High fidelity.

Jeffords, Susan (1988a). Debriding Vietnam: The resurrection of the white American male.Feminist studies, 14(3), 525–543.

Jeffords, Susan (1988b). Masculinity as excess in Vietnam films: The father/son dynamic of American culture. Genre, 21(4), 487–515.Reprinted in Robyn R. Warhol &Diane Price Herndl (Eds.) (1997). Feminisms: an anthology of literary theory and criticism[2nd ed.]. New Brunswick, NJ: RutgersUniversity Press, pp. 1046–1067.

Jeffords, Susan(1989). The remasculinization of America: gender and the Vietnam War. Bloomington: IndianaUniversity Press.

Jeffords, Susan (1994). Hard bodies: Hollywood masculinity in the Reagan era. New Brunswick, N.J.: RutgersUniversity Press. [Contents: Life as a man in the Reagan revolution —Hard bodies: the Reagan heroes —Fathers and sons: continuity and revolution in the Reagan years —The Bush style —The movies are looking for a few good white men —Terminal masculinity: men in the early 1990s —Masculinity and the Reagan legacy]

Jeffs, W. P. (2003). Feminism, manhood, and homosexuality: intersections in psychoanalysis and American poetry. New York: Peter Lang.

Johnson, M. K. (2002). Black masculinity and the frontier myth in American literature. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press.

Kann, M. E. (1998). A republic of men: the American founders, gendered language, and patriarchal politics. New York: New YorkUniversity Press.[Contents: The culture of manhood –– The grammar of manhood –– The bachelor and other disorderly men –– The family man and citizenship –– The better sort and leadership –– The heroic man and national destiny –– The founders’ gendered legacy]

Kann, M. E. (1996). Manhood, immortality, and politics during the American founding. Journal of Men’s Studies, 5, 79–103.

Kaplan, Amy (1990). Romancing the empire: The embodiment of American masculinity in the popular historical novel of the 1890s. American Literary History, 2, 659–690.

Kaplan, M. (1995). New York City tavern violence and the creation of a working–class male identity. Journal of the Early Republic, 15, 591–617.

Karner, T. X. (1994). Masculinity, trauma, and identity: Life narratives of Vietnam veterans with post traumatic stress disorder.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Kansas, United States— Kansas.

Kasson, J. F. (2001). Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in America. New York: Hill and Wang. [Contents: Who is the perfect man?: Eugen Sandow and a new standard for America—The manly art of escape: the metamorphoses of Ehrich Weiss — “Still a wild beast at heart”: Edgar Rice Burroughs and the dream of Tarzan]

Kelly, Tara Kathleen (2007). The hunter elite: Americans, wilderness, and the rise of the big–game hunt. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University.

Kidd, Kenneth B. (2004). Making American Boys: Boyology and the Feral Tale.Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Kilbourne, E. M. (2000). Self-made men the margins of manliness among northern industrial workers. Thesis (Ph.D.)— Emory University.

Kimmel, M. S. (1994). Consuming manhood: the feminization of American culture and the recreation of the male body, 1832–1920. Michigan Quarterly Review,33, 7–36. Also published in Goldstein, Laurence (Ed.) (1994). The Male Body. Features, Destinies, Exposures. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, pp. 12–41.

Kimmel, M. S. (1996, 2006). Manhood in America: a cultural history(1st and 2nd ed.). New York: OxfordUniversity Press. [1996 contents: The making of the self–made man in America, 1776–1865 —The unmaking of the self–made man at the turn of the Century —The new man in a new Century, 1920–1950 —The contem- porary “crisis” of masculinity]

Kimmel, M. S. (2001). Masculinities. In Clement, Priscilla Ferguson & Reinier, Jacqueline S. (Eds.), Boyhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC–CLIO, pp. 425–430.

Kimmel, M. S. (2005). The history of men: essays in the history of American and British masculinities. New York: State University of New York Press. Includes chapters: Born to run: fantasies of male escape from Rip van Winkle to Robert Bly —Consuming manhood: the feminization of American culture and the recreation of the male body, 1832–1920 —Baseball and the reconstitution of American masculinity, 1880–1920 / Men’s responses to feminism at the turn of the century —The cult of masculinity American social character and the legacy of the cowboy.

Kimmel, M. S. & Abby L. Ferber (2000).”White men are this nation:” right–wing militias and the restoration of rural American masculinity. Rural Sociology, 65(4), 582–604.

Kimmel, M. S., & Messner, M. A. (Eds.) (2007). Men’s lives(7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

King, C. (2003). Middle men: Establishing non–Anglo masculinity in Southwestern literature.Unpublished M.A., University of NorthTexas, United States— Texas.

Kippola, K. M. (2003). Out of the Forrest and into the Booth: Performance of masculinity on the American stage, 1828—1865.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park, United States— Maryland.

Kirkham, Pat (1995). Loving men: Frank Borzage, Charles Farrell and the reconstruction of masculinity in 1920s Hollywood cinema. In Kirkham, P., & Thumim, J. (Eds.). Me Jane: masculinity, movies, and women. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Klein, A. M. (1993). Of muscles and men: a seven–year anthropological study of the exotic culture of body-building offers insights into the state of masculinity in America. The Sciences, 33, 32–37.

Knouff, G. T. (1996). The common people’s revolution: Class, race, masculinity, and locale in Pennsylvania, 1775–1783. Unpublished Ph.D., Rutgers The State University of New Jersey – New Brunswick, United States —New Jersey.

Koehlinger, A. (2004).”Let us Live for Those Who Love Us”: Faith, Family, and the Contours of Manhood Among the Knights of Columbus in Late Nineteenth–Century Connecticut. Journal of Social History, 38(2), 455–69.

Kriegel, Leonard (1979). The Landscape of American Manhood. In Kriegel, On Men and Manhood New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., Publ., pp. 59–87.

Krinsky, C. J. (1998). Rebels without a closet: The construction of juvenile delinquency, masculinity, and male sexuality in American culture, 1945–1961. Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, United States— California.

Kurtz, S. P. (1999). Without women: Masculinities, gay male sexual culture and sexual behaviors in Miami, Florida.Unpublished Ph.D., Florida International University, United States— Florida.

Kusz, K. (2007). Revolt of the white athlete: Race, media and the emergence of extreme athletes in America. Intersections in communications and culture, vol. 14. New York: Peter Lang. [Contents: Introduction: the revolt of the white (male) athlete will be televised —Image is not everything: Andre Agassi, Generation X, and white masculinity —The new, new Andre Agassi: the cultural politics of white male redemption —Extreme America: interrogating the racial and gender politics of media narratives about extreme sports — ‘I want to be the minority’: the politics of youthful white masculinities in American sport and popular culture in 1990s America —White boyz in the hood: examining the cultural politics of Dogtown and Z Boys —Lance America: interrogating the politics of the national fantasy of Lance Armstrong —Conclusion: notes on some white guys in post–9/11 America]

Kusz, K. W. (2001). “I Want to be the Minority”: The Politics of Youthful White Masculinities in Sport and Popular Culture in 1990s America. Journal of sport and social issues, 25(4), 390–416.

Lachlan, A. (2007). The Texas Liberal Press and the Image of White Texas Masculinity, 1938–1963. Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 110(4), 486–512.

Larimer, N. A. (2003). Step forth like men: negotiating manhood and military service in revolutionary Pennsylvania, 1775–1790. Thesis (Ph. D.)—University of Wisconsin—Madison.

Lauchlan, Angus (2007). The Texas Liberal Press and the Image of White Texas Masculinity, 1938–1963. South-western Historical Quarterly, 110(4), 486–512.

Laver, H. S. (200[8]). Citizens more than soldiers: the Kentucky militia and society in the early republic. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. [Laver, H. S. (1998). Muskets and plowshares: Kentucky’s militia, the creation of community, and the construction of masculinity, 1790–1850.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Kentucky, United States— Kentucky]

Leak, J. B. (1999). American and European masculinity: a transatlantic dialogue. American Quarterly, 51(1), 195–202.

Leak, J. B. (2005). Racial myths and masculinity in African American literature(1st ed.). Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Lemberg, J. (2007). Post–traumatic masculinity in American fiction after Vietnam. Unpublished Ph.D., City University of New York, United States— New York.

Leverenz, D. (1989). Manhood and the American Renaissance. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. [Contents: “I” and “you” in the American Renaissance —The politics of Emerson’s man–making words —Three ideologies of manhood, four narratives of humiliation —Frederick Douglass’s self–refashioning —Two genteel women look at men: Sarah Hale and Caroline Kirkland —Impassioned women: The Wide, Wide World and Uncle Tom’s Cabin —Hard, isolate, ruthless, and Patrician: Dana and Parkman —Devious men: Hawthorne —Mrs. Hawthorne’s headache: reading The Scarlet Letter —Ahab’s queenly personality: a man is being beaten]

Lindman, J. M. (2000).Acting the manly Christian: white evangelical masculinity in Revolutionary Virginia. The William and Mary Quarterly, 57(2), 393–416.

Little, A. M. (2007). Abraham in arms: war and gender in colonial New England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Lockley, Timothy (2003). ‘The Manly Game’: Cricket and Masculinity in Savannah, Georgia, in 1859. International Journal of the History of Sport, 20(3), 77–98.

Lombard, A. S. (2003). Making manhood: growing up male in colonial New England. Cambridge, Mass: HarvardUni- versity Press. Contents: The ideal of rational manhood –– Fathers and sons from infancy through boyhood – – Youth and the passions: friendship and love before 1700 –– Youth and the challenge of the eighteenth century –– Manhood and marriage –– Manliness and the use of force –– Manhood and politics [Lombard, A. S. (1998). Playing the man: Conceptions of masculinity in Anglo–American New England, 1675 to 1765.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, United States— California]

Lombard, A. S. (2007). Vatersein und Männlichkeit im kolonialen Amerika. In Martschukat, J., & Stieglitz, O. (Eds.),Väter, Soldaten, Liebhaber: Männer und Männlichkeiten in der Geschichte Nordamerikas: ein Reader. Bielefeld: Transcript.

Lord, A. M. (2003). Models of Masculinity: Sex Education, the United States Public Health Service, and the YMCA, 1919–1924. Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, 58(2), 123–152.

Lowry, Richard S. (1991). Soggetti utopici: fanciullezza, virilità e retorica dell’ordine domestico nell’America dell’Ottocento [Utopian subjects: childhood, manhood, and the rhetoric of domestic order in 19th–century America]. Rivista di Storia Contemporanea, 20(1), 19–41.

Luce, R. A., Jr. (1967). From hero to robot: masculinity in America—stereotype and reality. Psychoanalytic Review, 54(4), 609–630.

Lunbeck, E. (1998). American Psychiatrists and the Modern Man, 1900 to 1920. Men and Masculinities, 1(1), 58–86.

MacDonald, G. D. (1997). Manly beauty and political economy: Masculinities in antebellum American culture.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Florida, United States— Florida.

Magill, D. E. (2002). Modern masculinities: Race and manhood in 1920’s United States literature and culture.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Kentucky, United States— Kentucky.

Magnuson, E. P. (2000). Reconstructing masculinity and the America dream: Cultural transformation in the mythopoetic men’s movement.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, United States— California.

Maiwald, M. H. (1998). White–collar masculinity and class anxiety in the 1920s American novel.Unpublished Ph.D., Duke University, United States —North Carolina.

Malin, B. J. (2005). American masculinity under Clinton: popular media and the nineties “crisis of masculinity”. New York: P. Lang. [Contents: Introduction —Bill Clinton and the crisis of masculinity —Little big men and soft– hearted hardbodies: homophobia as hyper– and hypo–masculinity —Classified and declassified: cultural cap- ital and class anxiety in new male sons and fathers —The exotic white other: otherworldly whiteness from Clinton to Fox Mulder —9/11 and after: masculinity, citizenship and national crisis –Conclusion] [Malin, B. J. (2000). American masculinity under Clinton: popular media and the “Crisis of Masculinity”. Thesis (Ph. D.)—University of Iowa]

Mangan, J. A., & Walvin, J. (Eds.) (1987). Manliness and morality: middle–class masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1940. Manchester [Greater Manchester]: ManchesterUniversity Press. Includes: Learning about man- hood: gender ideals and the middle–class family in nineteenth century America / E. Anthony Rotundo — Men, boys and anger in American society, 1860–1940 / Peter N. Stearns —The recapitulation theory of play: motor behaviour, moral reflexes and manly attitudes in urban America, 1880–1920 / Benjamin G. Rader — Yale and the heroic ideal, Götterdämmerung and palingenesis, 1865–1914 / Robert J. Higgs—The habit of victory: the American military and the cult of manliness / Donald J. Mrozek

Manning, K. L. (2003). No more John Waynes: Vietnam Veterans against the War and Cold War era masculinity. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Kentucky, United States— Kentucky.

Martin, S. C. (1995). Don Quixote and leatherstocking: hunting, class and masculinity in the American South, 1800–40. International journal of the history of sport, 12(3), 61–79.

Martschukat, J., & Stieglitz, O. (Eds.) (2007). Väter, Soldaten, Liebhaber: Männer und Männlichkeiten in der Geschichte Nordamerikas: ein Reader. Bielefeld: Transcript. Contents: I. Konzeptionelles / Männer und Männlichkeiten in der Geschichte Nordamerikas: Eine Einleitung (11), Jürgen Martschukat & Olaf Stieglitz / “Add Men and Stir?” Männlichkeiten in geschlechterhistorischer Lehre und Forschung (27), Bruce Dorsey / “Crisis? What Crisis?” Männlichkeit, Körper, Transdisziplinarität (43), Sabine Sielke // II. Väter in “Early America” / Vater- sein und Männlichkeit im kolonialen Amerika (65), Anne S. Lombard / Vaterfigur und Gesellschaftsordnung um 1800 (83), Jürgen Martschukat // III. Grenzgänger im 19. Jahrhundert / Männlichkeiten, territoriale Ex- pansion und die amerikanische Frontier im 19. Jahrhundert (103), Amy S. Greenberg / Grenzgänge: Hautfarbe, Geschlecht und die Macht der Kategorien im späten 19. Jahrhundert (123), Martha Hodes / Nationale Iden- tität, Männlichkeit und amerikanisches Studentenleben an deutschen Universitäten im späten 19. Jahrhundert (139), Anja Becker // IV. Transformationen der Moderne / Männer im Pelz: Entblößungen und Verhüllun- gen des natürlichen Körpers um 1900 (159), Ralph J. Poole / Sportsmänner: Interpretationen des Faust- kampfes um 1900 (183), Christoph Ribbat / Technologie als Merkmal: amerikanisch–bürgerlicher Männlicheit, 1830–1978 (201), Ruth Oldenziel // V. Das frühe 20. Jahrhundert / Film, Vorbilder und männliche Sozialisa- tion in den 1930er Jahren (221), Olaf Stieglitz / Kampfbereite Männerkörper und der Weg in den Zweiten Weltkrieg (243), Christina Jarvis // VI. Vom Zweiten Weltkrieg bis zur Jahrtausendwende / David Riesman und die “Krise” der Männlichkeit nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg (277), James Gilbert / Flugreisen und Männ- lichkeit nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg (293), Anke Ortlepp / Queere Geschichten aus der Provinz: Mississippi in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts (313), John Howard / Politik und Sexualität: John F. Kennedy und die “Krise” der Männlichkeit im Kalten Krieg (335), Robert D. Dean / Gewalt und schwarze Männlichkeit in der Black Power–Bewegung (355), Simon Wendt / Ökonomien der Männlichkeit im späten 20. Jahrhun- dert (371), Eva Boesenberg.

Matta, T. F. (1996). The voices of men: The shaping of masculinities in three subcultural contexts.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Southern California, United States— California.

Maxcy, D. J. (1994). Advertising, the gender system: Changing configurations of femininity and masculinity in early advertising in the United States.Unpublished Ph.D., University of MassachusettsAmherst, United States— Massachusetts.

Maxwell, M. (2000). Male rage, female fury: gender and violence in contemporary American fiction. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.

McCallops, J. S. (1996). To wage peace: Masculinity, femininity and American response to the First World War, 1914–1918. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Southern California, United States— California.

McCurdy, J. G. (2006).”Your Affectionate Brother”: Complementary Manhoods in the Letters of John and Timothy Pickering. Early American Studies, 4(2), 512–545.

McDonough, C. J. (1997). Staging masculinity: male identity in contemporary American drama. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. Contents: Masculinity and performance – Canonical forefathers; Eugene O’Neill: father of American drama; Tennessee Williams: masquerades of masculinity; Arthur Miller: portrait of the common man; Amiri Baraka: angry young men – Sam Shepard: the eternal patriarchal return; Dueling identities: Tooth of crime and True west; Fathers and sons: Curse of the starving class and Buried child; Women and male iden- tity: Fool for love and A lie of the mind; Afterward: States of shock – David Mamet: the search for masculine space; The search for selfhood: Edmond; Apprenticeships to manhood: Sexual perversity in Chicago and Lake- boat; Competition for identity: Glengarry Glen Ross; Men at work: American buffalo and Speed–the–plow; Fueling the fires: Oleanna; Engendering language – David Rabe: men under fire; In the shadow of war: the Vietnam trilogy; Media images of manhood: The basic training of Pavlo Hummel and Sticks and bones; In the cadre room: Streamers; Myths of male friendship I: Goose and Tomtom play dress–up; Myths of male friend- ship II: Hurlyburly – August Wilson: performing black masculinity; Black masculinity; Masculinity and the tra- dition of African American drama; Blues men: Ma Rainey’s black bottom; Family men: Fences, Joe Turner’s come and gone, and Piano lesson; Men in groups: Two trains running; Black and white masculinity – Other voices, other men: reinventing masculinity.

McLaren, A. (1999). The trials of masculinity policing sexual boundaries, 1870–1930. The Chicago series on sexuality, history, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

McNally, K. (200[8]). When Frankie went to Hollywood Frank Sinatra and American male identity. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Forthcoming.

Meadows, M. R. (2000). Re–imaging masculinity in the nineties Hollywood movies and genres. Thesis (Ph. D.)—Wayne State University.

Medovoi, L. (1995). Bad boys: Masculinity, oppositional discourse, and American youth culture in the 1950s. Unpublished Ph.D., Stanford University, United States— California.

Meininger, S. (2000). Recherches d’une nouvelle masculinité dans le cinema americain 1977–1991.Unpublished Dissertation, Université de Paris III (Sorbonne–Nouvelle), France.

Mellen, J. (1977). Big bad wolves: masculinity in the American film(1st ed.). New York: Pantheon Books.

Melosh, Barbara (1993). Manly work: public art and masculinity in Depression America. In Melosh, B. (Ed.). Gender and American history since 1890. Rewriting histories. London: Routledge.

Melosh, Barbara (Ed.) (1993). Gender and American history since 1890. Rewriting histories. London: Routledge. Includes: Christian brotherhood or sexual perversion?: homosexual identities and the construction of sexual boundaries in the World War I era / George Chauncey, Jr. —Manly work: public art and masculinity in Depression America / Barbara Melosh —Civilization, the decline of middle–class manliness, and Ida B. Wells’s anti–lynching campaign (1892–94) / Gail Bederman.

Messner, M. A. (2007).The Masculinity of the Governator: Muscle and Compassion in American Politics. Gender & Society, 21(4), 461–480.

Meyer, S. (2002). Rough Manhood: The Aggressive and Confrontational Shop Culture of U.S. Auto Workers during World War II. Journal of Social History, 36(1), 125–147.

Mickenberg, J. L. (2006). Men on the Suburban Frontier: Rethinking Midcentury Masculinity. Reviews in American History, 34(4), 529–536.

Miles, L. T. R. (2004). Basketball, racial authenticity and masculinity in African American literature and culture.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, United States— California.

Millikan, M. (2006). The muscular Christian ethos in post–Second World War American liberalism: women in outward bound 1962–1975. International journal of the history of sport, 23(5), 838–855.

Missildine, W. (2007). Drinking the Kool–Aid: Power and elite masculinities in corporate America.Unpublished Ph.D., City University of New York, United States— New York.

Mitchell, L. C. (1996). Westerns: making the man in fiction and film. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mohamed, A. R. (2002). We got next: Race, masculinity, and resistance in urban America. Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, United States— California.

Moore, W. D. (1999). Structures of masculinity: Masonic temples, material culture, and ritual gender archetypes in New York State, 1870–1930.Unpublished Ph.D., Boston University, United States— Massachusetts.

Morra, N. N. (1995). A theoretical study of violence and masculinity in contemporary North American society. Unpublished Ph.D., York University, Canada.

Motley, P. C. (2002). Manly habit: religion and manhood in late nineteenth century American literature and culture. Thesis (Ph. D.)—University of South Carolina.

Mrozek, Donald J. (1987). The habit of victory: the American military and the cult of manliness. In Mangan, J. A., & Walvin, J. (Eds.), Manliness and morality: middle–class masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1940. Manchester [Greater Manchester]: Manchester University Press.

Mullaney, W. P. (2002). Quivering Adam: Male hysteria and the construction of masculinity in early American literature. Unpublished Ph.D., Tulane University, United States— Louisiana.

Mumford, K. J. (1992). “Lost manhood” found: male sexual impotence and Victorian culture in the United States. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 3(1), 33–57. Reprinted in Fout, John C., & Tantillo, Maura Shaw (Eds.). American Sexual Politics. Sex, Gender, and Race Since the Civil War. Chicago& London: The University of Chicago Press, 1993, pp. 75–99.

Muncy, R. (1997). Trustbusting and white manhood in America, 1898–1914. American Studies, 38, 21–42.

Murphy, K. P. (200[8]). Political Manhood Red Bloods, Mollycoddles, and the politics of Progressive Era Reform. New York: Columbia University Press. [Murphy, K. P. (2001). The manly world of urban reform: political manhood and the new politics of progressivism in New York City, 1877–1916. Thesis (Ph. D.)—New YorkUniversity]

Murphy, P. F. (2001). Studs, tools, and the family jewels: metaphors men live by. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press.

Neilsen, Kim E. (2004). What’s a Patriotic Man to Do? Patriotic masculinities of the post–WWI Red Scare. Men and Masculinities, 6(3), 240–253.

Nelson, D. D. (1998). National manhood: capitalist citizenship and the imagined fraternity of white men. New Americanists. Durham: Duke University Press. [Contents: Purity control: consolidating national manhood in the early republic — “That’s not my wife, that’s an Indian squaw”: inindianation and national manhood — “Our castle still remains unshaken”: professional manhood, science, whiteness —Gynecological manhood: the worries of whiteness and the disorders of women —The melancholy of white manhood, or, democracy’s privileged spot —Afterword: The President in 2045, or, managed democracy]

Newton, J., & Kimmel, M. (1998). Manhood in America: a cultural history. Feminist studies, 24(3), 572–598.

Nilsson, J. A. (2000). Remembering him as something lost: Nostalgia and traditional masculinity in twentieth–century American fiction.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Alberta, Canada.

Nolan, A. (2007).Making Modern Men: The Scopes Trial, Masculinity and Progress in the 1920s United States. Gender & History, 19(1), 122–142.

Nylund, D. (2007). Beer, babes, and balls: masculinity and sports talk radio. Albany: StateUniversity of New York Press.

Oldenziel, Ruth (1999). Making technology masculine: men, women and modern machines in America, 1870–1945. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Oldenziel, Ruth (2007). Technologie als Merkmal: amerikanisch–bürgerlicher Männlicheit, 1830–1978. In Martschukat, J., & Stieglitz, O. (Eds.),Väter, Soldaten, Liebhaber: Männer und Männlichkeiten in der Geschichte Nord-amerikas: ein Reader. Bielefeld: Transcript.

Olsen, C. J. (2000). Political culture and secession in Mississippi: masculinity, honor, and the antiparty tradition, 1830–1860. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.

Oriard, M. (1993). Reading football: how the popular press created an American spectacle. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Osgerby, B. (2001). Playboys in paradise masculinity, youth and leisure-style in modern America. Oxford: Berg. Contents: Introduction: young men of action and acquisition — ‘This side of Paradise’: the emergence of the man of style — Lessons in ‘the art of living’: the ‘Playboy ethic’ takes shape — ‘People of plenty’: constructions of masculinity in the promised land — ‘The old ways will not do’: youth, consumption and postwar leisure-style — High-living with the ‘upbeat generation’: the cultural currency of Playboy — Bachelors in Paradise: mas- culine hedonism comes of age — ‘Turn on, tune in’: counterculture, nonconformity and the masculine con- sumer — Conclusion: cultures of narcissism.

Osgerby, B. (2003). Bachelors in Paradise: Masculinity, Lifestyle and Men’s Magazines in Post-war AmericaIn Benwell, B. (Ed.). Masculinity and men’s lifestyle magazines. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Pub./Sociological Review, pp. 51–80.

Pang, H. A. (2000). Making men: Reform schools and the shaping of masculinity, 1890—1920. Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Davis, United States— California.

Parille, Ken (2002). Managing Boys: Forming Masculinity in Nineteenth–Century United States Literature and Culture. PhD Thesis, University of Virginia

Parsons, E. F. (2000).Risky business: the uncertain boundaries of manhood in the midwestern saloon. Journal of Social History, 34(2), 283–307.

Pearson, D. W., et. al., (1999).The rodeo cowboy as an American icon: the perceived social and cultural significance. Journal of American Culture, 22(4), 17–21.

Peek, W. C. (2003). The Romance of Competence: Rethinking Masculinity in the Western. Journal of Popular Film and Television, 30(4), 206–219.

Pendergast, T. (2000). Creating the modern man: American magazines and consumer culture, 1900–1950. Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press. [Pendergast, T. D. (1998). Consuming men: Masculinity, race, and American magazines, 1900–1950.Unpublished Ph.D., Purdue University, United States— Indiana]

Penner, J. L. (2005). Pinks, pansies and punks: The rhetoric of masculinity and American literary culture from the Depression to the sexual revolution. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Southern California, United States— California.

Pettegrew, J. (1994). The origins of the masculine mystique: turn–of–the–twentieth century conceptions of American manhood in middle–class thought and culture. Thesis (Ph. D.)—University of Wisconsin—Madison.

Pettegrew, J. (2003). Deepening the history of masculinity and the sexes. Reviews in American History, 31, 135–142.

Pettegrew, J. (2007). Brutes in suits: male sensibility in America, 1890–1920. Baltimore: JohnsHopkinsUniversity Press.

Phillips, K. J. (2006). Manipulating masculinity: war and gender in modern British and American literature(1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [Introduction / Background: Sexuality and War / World War I: No Half–Men at the Front / World War II: No Lace on His Drawers / The Vietnam War: Out from Under Momma’s Apron / Conclusion / Epilogue: The Wars against Iraq: Red Alert on Girly Boys]

Pinar, W. (2001). The gender of racial politics and violence in America: lynching, prison rape, & the crisis of masculinity. New York: P. Lang.

Pleck, E. H., & Pleck, J. H. (Eds.) (1980). The American man. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice–Hall.

Poteet, W. M. (2006). Gay men in modern southern literature: ritual, initiation, & the construction of masculinity. New York: Peter Lang. [Poteet, W. M. (2005). Ritual, initiation, and the construction of masculinity by gay men in modern Southern literature. Thesis (Ph. D.)––IndianaUniversity of Pennsylvania]

Pugh, D. G. (1983). Sons of liberty: the masculine mind in nineteenth–century America. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Putney, C. (2001). Muscular Christianity: manhood and sports in Protestant America, 1880–1920. Cambridge, Mass.: HarvardUniversity Press.

Rader, Benjamin G. (1987). The recapitulation theory of play: motor behaviour, moral reflexes and manly attitudes in urban America, 1880–1920. In Mangan, J. A., & Walvin, J. (Eds.). Manliness and morality: middle–class masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1940. Manchester [Greater Manchester]: ManchesterUniversity Press.

Rainard, R. L. (1981). The origins and development of the gentlemanly ideal in the South, 1607–1865. Thesis (Ph. D.)—LouisianaStateUniversity, Baton Rouge

Raphael, R. (1988). The men from the boys: rites of passage in male America. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Register, W. (1999). Everyday Peter Pans: work, manhood, and consumption in Urban America, 1900–1930. Men and masculinities, 2(2), 197–239.

Reiss, M. (2005). Bronzed Bodies behind Barbed Wire. The journal of military history,69(2), 475–504.

Riess, Steven A. (1991). Sport and the Redefinition of American Middle Class Masculinity. International Journal of the History of Sport, 8(1), 5–27. Reprinted in Riess, S. A. (Ed.) (1997). Major problems in American sport: history documents and essays. Major problems in American history series. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Roberts, G. F. (1977). The strenuous life: the cult of manliness in the era of Theodore Roosevelt. Thesis (Ph. D.)—MichiganStateUniversity, 1970.

Robertson, S. (2001). Separating the Men from the Boys: Masculinity, Psychosexual Development, and Sex Crime in the United States, 1930s–1960s. Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, 56(1), 3–35.

Robinson, S. (1998). “Unyoung, Unpoor, Unblack”: John Updike and the Construction of Middle American Masculinity. MFS Modern Fiction Studies, 44(2), 331–363.

Robinson, S. (2000). Marked men: white masculinity in crisis. New York: ColumbiaUniversity Press.

Romero, R. T. (2004). Making war and minting Christians: Masculinity, religion, and colonialism in early New England. Unpublished Ph.D., Boston College, United States— Massachusetts.

Rosales, S. (2007). Soldados Razos: Chicano politics, identity, and masculinity in the United States military, 1940—1975.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, United States— California.

Rotundo, E. A. (1993). American manhood: transformations in masculinity from the Revolution to the modern era. New York: BasicBooks. [Contents: Community to individual: the transformation of manhood at the turn of the Nineteenth Century —Boy culture —Male youth culture —Youth and male intimacy —The development of men’s attitudes toward women —Love, sex, and courtship —Marriage —Work and identity —The male culture of the workplace —Passionate manhood: a changing standard of masculinity —Roots of change: the women without and the woman within —Manhood in the Twentieth Century] [Rotundo, E. A. (1982). Manhood in America: the northern middle class, 1770–1920. Thesis (Ph. D.)—Brandeis University]

Rotundo, E. A. (1983). Body and soul: changing ideals of American middle–class manhood, 1770–1920. Journal of Social History, 16, 23–38.

Rotundo,E. Anthony (1987).Learning about manhood: gender ideals and the middle–class family in nineteenth century America. In Mangan, J. A., & Walvin, J. (Eds.). Manliness and morality: middle–class masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1940. Manchester [Greater Manchester]: ManchesterUniversity Press.

Ruchti, Elizabeth (2007). The Performance of Normativity: Mormons and the Construction of an American Masculinity. Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality, 1(2), 137–154.

Sabo, D. F., Kupers, T. A., & London, W. J. (Eds.) (2001). Prison masculinities. Philadelphia, PA: TempleUniversity Press.

Savran, D. (1998). Taking it like a man: white masculinity, masochism, and contemporary American culture. Princeton, N.J.: PrincetonUniversity Press.

Schissler, Hanna (1992). Männerstudien in den USA.Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 18, 204-220.

Schwalbe, M. (1996). Unlocking the iron cage: the men’s movement, gender politics, and American culture. New York: OxfordUniversity Press.

Shukalo, A. M. (2005). Communing with the Gods: Bodybuilding, masculinity, and United States imperialism, 1875— 1900.Unpublished Ph.D., The University of Texasat Austin, United States— Texas.

Shuker–Haines, T. M. (1994). Home is the hunter: Representations of returning World War II veterans and the reconstruction of masculinity, 1944–1951.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Michigan, United States— Michigan.

Smalley, A. L. (2005). ‘I just like to kill things’: women, men and the gender of sport hunting in the United States, 1940–1973. Gender and history, 17(1), 183–209.

Smith, G. M., & Wilson, P. (2004). Country Cookin’ and Cross–Dressin’: Television, Southern White Masculinities, and Hierarchies of Cultural Taste. Television & New Media, 5(3), 175–195.

Smith, M. D. (Ed.) (1998). Sex and sexuality in early America.New York: New YorkUniversity Press.

Smith, M. M. (2002). For God, country, and manhood: the social construction of posttraumatic stress disorder among Vietnam veterans. Thesis (Ph. D.)—University of California, San Diego

Snyder, K. V. (1999). Bachelors, manhood, and the novel, 1850–1925. Cambridge, UK; New York: CambridgeUni- versity Press. Contents: Introduction / 1. Trouble in paradise: bachelors and bourgeois domesticity / 2. Sick- ness and the single man: sympathy, vicariousness, and the bachelor invalid in James and Brontë / 3. ‘An artist and a bachelor’: Henry James, discipleship, and mastering the life of art / 4. ‘A way of looking on’: male fem- inism and male fetishism in Conrad’s Under Western Eyes / 5. ‘The necessary melancholy of bachelors’: melan- choly, manhood and modernist narrative in Conrad, Ford and Fitzgerald / Bibliography.

Snyder, Michael (2007). Crises of Masculinity: Homosocial Desire and Homosexual Panic in the Critical Cold War Narratives of Mailer and Coover. Critique [Washington], 48(3), 250–277.

Sparks. R. (1996). Masculinity and heroism in the Hollywood blockbuster. British Journal of Criminology, 36(3), 348–360

Spierenburg, P. C. (Ed.) (1998). Men and violence: gender, honor, and rituals in modern Europe and America. [Colum- bus]: OhioStateUniversity Press. Includes: Masculinity, Violence, and Honor: An Introduction, Pieter Spieren- burg / 6. Fights/Fires: Violent Firemen in the Nineteenth–CenturyAmericanCity Amy, Sophia Greenberg / 8. White Supremacist Justice and the Rule of Law: Lynching, Honor, and the State in Ben Tillman’s South Car- olina, Stephen Kantrowitz / 9. “The Equal of Some White Men and the Superior of Others”: Masculinity and the 1916 Lynching of Anthony Crawford in Abbeville County, South Carolina, Terence Finnegan.

Starr, M. E. (1984). The Marlboro man: cigarette smoking and masculinity in America. Journal of Popular Culture, 17, 45–57.

Stearns, Peter N. (1987). Men, boys and anger in American society, 1860–1940. InMangan, J. A., & Walvin, J. (Eds.), Manliness and morality: middle–class masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1940. Manchester [Greater Manchester]: ManchesterUniversity Press.

Stein, H. F. (1984). Sittin’ tight and bustin’ loose: contradiction and conflict in midwestern masculinity and the psychohistory of America. Journal of Psychohistory, 11(4), 501–512.

Studlar, Gaylyn (2001). Cruise–ing into the millennium: performative masculinity, stardom, and the all–American boy’s body. In Pomerance, M. (Ed.). Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls: gender in film at the end of the twentieth century. The SUNY series, cultural studies in cinema/video. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Testi, A. (1995). The gender of reform politics: Theodore Roosevelt and the culture of masculinity. The Journal of American History, 81, 1509–1533.

Tom, P. V. (1998). Naked shots: the masculinization of American photography, 1945-1960. Thesis (Ph. D.)-- Washington University.

Traister, B. (2000). Academic Viagra: The Rise of American Masculinity Studies. American Quarterly, 52(2), 274–304.

Traister, B. G. (1996). Sentimental revolution: American masculinity and scenes of writing, 1790–1860. Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, United States— California.

Travis, J. (2005). Wounded hearts: masculinity, law, and literature in American culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Turbin, C. (2002). Fashioning the American man: the Arrow collar man, 1907–1931. Gender and history, 14(3), 470–491.

Van Slyke, J. R. (2001). The changing ideal of manhood in late–nineteenth century America. Thesis (M.A.)— University of Montana, 2002.

VerStrat, P. L. (2001). Broken men: Masculinity and disability in twentieth–century American fiction.Unpublished Ph.D., Washington State University, United States— Washington.

Vettel–Becker, P. (2005). Shooting from the hip: Photography, masculinity, and postwar America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Vrooman, Patrick Duane (2007). Passing masculinities at Boy Scout camp. Ph.D. Dissertation, Bowling Green State University.

Wahl–Jorgensen, K. (2000). Constructed Masculinities in Presidential Campaigns: The Case of 1992. In A. Sreberny & L. v. Zoonen (Eds.), Gender, Politics & Communication. New Jersey: Hampton Press.

Wakefield, W. E. (1997). Playing to win: Sports and the American military, 1898–1945. Albany, NY: State University of the New York Press.

Wallace, M. O. (2002). Constructing the Black masculine: Identity and ideality in African American men’s literature and culture, 1775–1995. Durham: Duke University Press.

Watkins, J. H. (1995). Locating the self: southern identity, white masculinity, and the autobiographical “I”. Thesis (Ph. D.)—University of Florida

Weber, C. (1999). Faking it: U.S. hegemony in a “post–phallic” era. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Weidinger, Martin (2006). Nationale Mythen – männliche Helden: Politik und Geschlecht im amerikanischen Western. Politik der Geschlechterverhältnisse, Vol. 31. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag. (Dissertation, Vienna, 2004)

West, L. A. (2001).Negotiating masculinities in American drinking subcultures. Journal of Men’s Studies, 9(3), 371–392.

White, M. (2005). We some killaz: Affect, representation and the performance of Black masculinity in hip–hop music. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Washington, United States— Washington.

Whorley, M. R., & Addis, M. E. (2006). Ten Years of Psychological Research on Men and Masculinity in the United States. Sex roles: a journal of research, 55(9), 649–658.

Willey, N. L. (2003). The cult of true manhood: American Renaissance women writing masculinities.Unpublished Ph.D., The University of Alabama, United States— Alabama.

Williams, J. N. (2004). “It’s a father’s dream to have his son join him on the farm”: Kinship, masculinity and the problem of generational succession on midwestern family farms. Unpublished M.A., University of Minnesota, United States— Minnesota.

Williams, P. (2003). ‘What A Bummer for the Gooks’: Representations of white American masculinity and the Vietnamese in the Vietnam War film genre 1977–87. European Journal of American Culture, 22(3), 215–234.

Wilson, S. (2004). Melville and the Architecture of Antebellum Masculinity. American Literature, 76(1), 59–87.

Winter, T. (2002). Making men, making class: The YMCA and working men, 1877–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wyatt–Brown, Bertram (1986). Honor and violence in the Old South. New York: Oxford University Press. Contents: pt. 1. Foundations: Honor in literary perspective. The nature of primal honor. Gentility. Family. Sexual honor, expectation, and shame — pt. 2. Public ethics: Hospitality, gambling, and personal combat. Policing slave society: insurrectionary scares. Tar and feathers: community disorder. Anatomy of a wife–killing.

Worden, D. W. (2006). Like a man: The production of masculinity in modern American fiction. Unpublished Ph.D., Brandeis University, United States— Massachusetts.