b) African American men and masculinities

Abbott, M. E. (2000). “The street was mine”: White masculinity and urban space in hardboiled fiction and film noir.Unpublished Ph.D., New York University, United States— New York.

Abdel–Shehid, G. (2000). Who da’ man: Black masculinities and sport in Canada. Unpublished Ph.D., York University, Canada.

Alexander, B. K. (2006). Performing Black masculinity: race, culture, and queer identity. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

Allen, J. S. (2003). Counterpoints: Black masculinities, sexuality, and self–making in contemporary Cuba. Unpublished Ph.D., Columbia University, United States— New York.

Archer, L. (2001). Muslim Brothers, Black Lads, Traditional Asians’: British Muslim Young Men’s Constructions of Race, Religion and Masculinity. Feminism & Psychology, 11(1), 79–105.

Auger, P. (2000). Native sons in no man’s land: rewriting Afro–American manhood in the novels of Baldwin, Walker, Wideman, and Gaines.Garland studies on African American history and culture. New York: Garland Pub.

Banet–Weiser, S. (1999). Hoop Dreams: Professional Basketball and the Politics of Race and Gender. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 23(4), 403–420.

Baptist, Edward E. (2004). The absent subject: African American masculinity and forced migration to the antebellum plantation frontier. In Friend, C. T., & Glover, L. (Eds.). Southern manhood: perspectives on masculinity in the Old South. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Beavers, Herman. (1997). ‘The Cool Pose’: Intersectionality, Masculinity, and Quiescence in the Comedy and Films of Richard Pryor and Eddie Murphy. In Harry Stecopoulos, & Michael Uebel (Eds.).Race and the Subject of Masculinities. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Beckles, H. (1996). Black masculinity in Caribbean slavery. [St. Augustine: Center for Gender & Development StudiesUniversity of the West Indies.

Belkin, M. (2004). Variability in African American men’s norms of masculinity. Thesis (Ph. D.)—New YorkUniversity, School of Education.

Belton, Don, ed. Speak My Name: Black Men On Masculinity and the American Dream. Boston, MA: Beacon Press,  1995. Contents: Introduction: speak my name / Don Belton —Part one. How does it feel to be a problem?  How does it feel to be a problem? / Trey Ellis —Confessions of a nice Negro, or why I shaved my head /  Robin D.G. Kelley —The night I was nobody / John Edgar Wideman —On violence / David Nicholson  —Why must a Black writer write about sex? (excerpt) / Dany Laferriere —Albert Murray on stage: an in-  terview / Louis Edwards —Part two. Playing hardball. Mr. Brown and the sweet science / Randall Kenan —  Playing hardball (from Colored people) / Henry Louis Gates, Jr. —On the distinction of “Jr.” / Houston A.  Baker, Jr. —A mighty good man / Dennis A. Williams —Shades / William Henry Lewis —A turn for the  worse / Bruce Morrow —Part three. Go home to your wife. Go home to your wife / Cecil Brown —My  mother and Mitch / Clarence Major —A liar in love / Quinn Eli —The sexual diversion: the Black  man/Black woman debate in context / Derrick Bell —Music, darkrooms, and Cuba / Richard Perry —Part  four. Our lives together. Cool brother (from Out of the madness) / Jerrold Ladd —Palm wine / Reginald  McKnight —The Black family / Amiri Baraka —Fade to Black: once upon a time in multiracial America /  Joe Wood —Where we live: a conversation with Essex Hemphill and Isaac Julien / Don Belton —Part five.  Heroes. Voodoo for Charles / Don Belton —The Black man: hero / Walter Mosley —Pain and glory: some  thoughts on my father / Quincy Troupe —Race, rage, and intellectual development: a personal journey / Haki  R. Madhubuti —Rickydoc: the Black man as hero / Arthur Flowers.

Berger, Roger A. (1997).“The Black Dick”: Race, Sexuality, and Discourse in the L.A. Novels of Walter Mosley. African American Review, 31(2), 281–294.

Bernier, C. M. (2003). “Emblems of barbarism”: black masculinity and representations of Toussaint l’Ouverture in Frederick Douglass’s unpublished manuscripts. American Nineteenth Century History,4, 97–120.

Berry, Venise T., & Harold Looney (1996). “Rap Music, Black Men, and the Police.” In Berry, Venise T. & Carmen L. Manning–Miller (Eds.). Mediated Messages and African–American Culture: Contemporary Issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Black, D. P. (1997). Dismantling black manhood: an historical and literary analysis of the legacy of slavery. New York: Garland Pub. [Black, D. P. (1993). The black male concept of manhood as portrayed in selected slave and free narratives, 1794–1863. Thesis (Ph. D.)—TempleUniversity]

Black, S. W. (Ed.) (2006). Soul soldiers: African Americans and the Vietnam era. Pittsburgh, PA: SenatorJohnHeinz PittsburghRegional HistoryCenter.

Blackmore, D. L. (1994). Masculinity anxiety and contemporary discourses of sexuality in United States fiction between the wars.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, United States —California.

Blome, J. M. (2004). The makings of a man: Masculinity ideology and its relationship to sexual activity, violent behavior, and academic underachievement among economically disadvantaged, African–American, adolescent males. Unpublished Ph.D., Columbia University, United States —New York.

Blount, Marcellus & George P. Cunningham (1996). Representing Black Men. New York: Routledge.

Bolster, W. J. (1990).“To feel like a man”: Black seamen in the northern states, 1800–1860. The Journal of American History, 76, 1173–99.

Bolster, W. Jeffrey (1996) “Every inch a man”: gender in the lives of African American seamen, 1800– 1860. In Creighton, M. S., & Norling, L. (Eds.). Iron men, wooden women: gender and seafaring in the Atlantic world, 1700–1920. Gender relations in the American experience. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Booker, Christopher B. (2000). “I Will Wear No Chain!”: a Social History of African–American Males. Westport, CT: Praeger. [Contents: Slavery and the development of black masculinity, 1619–1860 —The context of black masculine development during the antebellum era —The development of African American masculinity among free black males, 1619–1861 —The Civil War and the black male —African American males and the challenge of emancipation, 1865–1895 —Booker T. Washington, accommodationism, and black masculinity—Black males, race riots, and the scourge of lynching —Marcus Garvey and the new negro man —The emergence of the urban black male: increasing black power, 1945–1972 —African American males in contemporary society, 1972–present]

Bowleg, L. (2004). Love, Sex, and Masculinity in Sociocultural Context: HIV Concerns and Condom Use among African American Men in Heterosexual Relationships. Men & Masculinities, 7(2), 166–186.

Boyd, Todd (1996). A Small Introduction to the “G” Funk Era: Gangsta Rap and Black Masculinity in Contemporary Los Angeles. In Dear, Michael J., H. Eric Schockman, & Greg Hise (Eds.). Rethinking Los Angeles.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.



Boyd, Todd (1997). “The Day the Niggaz Took Over: Basketball, Commodity Culture, and Black Masculinity.”

In Baker, Aaron, & Todd Boyd (Eds.). Out of Bounds: Sports, Media, and the Politics of Identity. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Braziel, J. E. (2003). Trans–American Constructions of Black Masculinity: Dany Laferriere, le Negre, and the Late Capitalist American Racial machine–desirante. Callaloo, 26(3), 867–900.

Breu, C. (2005). Hard–boiled masculinities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. [Breu, C. D. (2000). Hard–boiled masculinities: Fantasizing gender in American literature and popular culture, 1920—1945.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Santa Cruz, United States —California]

Brown, J. A. (1999). Comic Book Masculinity and the New Black Superhero. African American Review, 33(1), 25–42.

Brown, S., & Clark, K. (2003). Melodramas of Beset Black Manhood? Meditations on African–American Masculinity as Scholarly Topos and Social Menace: An Introduction. Callaloo,26(3), 732–737.

Bucholtz, M. (1999). You da man: Narrating the racial other in the production of white masculinity. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(4), 443–60

Bush, L. V. (1998). Manhood, masculinity, and Black men: Toward an understanding of how Black mothers raise their sons to become men.Unpublished Ph.D., The Claremont Graduate University, United States —California.

Butters Jr., Gerald R. (2000). “Portrayals of Black Masculinity in Oscar Micheaux’s The Homesteader.”Literature–Film Quarterly,28, 54–59.

Butters, G. R. (2002). Black manhood on the silent screen. Culture America. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.  [Contents: Racialized masculinity and the politics of difference —The preformed image: watermelon, razors,  and chicken thievery, 1896–1915 —Black cinematic ruptures and Ole Uncle Tom —African–American cin-  ema and The birth of a nation —The defense of Black manhood on the screen —Oscar Micheaux: from  homestead to lynch mob —Within our gates —Blackface, white independent all–Black productions, and the  coming of sound: the late silent era, 1915–1931] [Butters, G. R., Jr. (1998). Portrayals of black masculinity in  American silent film, 1896—1929.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Kansas, United States —Kansas]

Byrd, R. P., & Guy–Sheftall, B. (Eds.) (2001). Traps: African American men on gender and sexuality. Bloomington,  IN: Indiana University Press. Contents: The rights of women / Frederick Douglass —Give women fair play  / Frederick Douglass / —I am a radical woman suffrage man / Frederick Douglass —The Black woman of  the south / Alexander Crummell —The damnation of women / W. E. B. Du Bois — “When and where [we]  enter” / Gary L. Lemons —In the days of my youth /Benjamin E. Mays —Feminism and equality / Bayard  Rustin —Women’s rights are human rights / Kalamu Ya Salaam —Groundings with my sisters / Manning  Marable —Breaking silences / Calvin Hernton —On becoming anti–rapist / Haki R. Madhubui —The  sexual diversion / Derrick Bell —A Black man’s place in Black feminist criticism / Michael Awkward —Men  / Nathan McCall —Mission statement of Black men for the eradication of sexism, Morehouse College —  Here be dragons / James Baldwin —In the limelight / Arthur J. Robinson, jr. —The sexist in me / Kevin  Powell —A phenomenology of the Black body / Charles Johnson —Thirteen ways of looking at a Black man  / Henry Louis Gates, jr. —Mike’s brilliant career / Gerald Early —It’s raining men / Robert F. Reid–Pharr  — Dear Minister Farrakhan / Men Stopping Violence —Black men in the movies / Edward Guerrero —A  letter from Huey to the revolutionary brothers and sisters about the women’s liberation and gay liberation  movements / Huey P. Newton —Brother to brother / Joseph Beam —Black macho revisited / Marlon  Riggs —Does your mama know about me? / Essex Hemphill —Black sexuality / Cornel West —When  you divide body and soul, problems multiply / Michael Eric Dyson — “Ain’t nothin’ like the real thing” /  Kendall Thomas—Epilogue / Reflections of Black manhood.

Cannon, U. T. (2004). Against the grain: Black masculine narrative insurgency in contemporary fiction. Thesis (Ph. D.)—University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Carby, H. V. (1998). Race men. The W.E.B. Du Bois lectures. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. [Contents: Introduction – The Souls of Black Men – The Body and Soul of Modernism – Tuning the American Soul – Body Lines and Color Lines – Playin’ the Changes – Lethal Weapons and City Games]

Carrington, Ben. (1998). Sport, Masculinity, and Black Cultural Resistance. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 22, 275–298.

Carroll, B. E. (Ed.) (2003). American masculinities: a historical encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Entries include: Afro–American manhood, pp. 15–20.

Caster, P. B. (2004). The language of the prison house: Incarceration, race, and masculinity in twentieth–century United States literature.Unpublished Ph.D., The University of Texas at Austin, United States —Texas.

Chan, Kenneth. (1998) The Construction of Black Male Identity in Black Action Films of the Nineties. Cinema Journal,37, 35–48.

Chapman, R., & Rutherford, J. (1988). Male order: unwrapping masculinity. London: Lawrence & Wishart.

Cheney, C. L. (1999). Phallic/ies and hi(s)stories: Masculinity and the Black Nationalist tradition, from slave spirituals to rap music.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, United States —Illinois.

Cheney, C. (2000). Representin’ God: Masculinity and the Use of the Bible in Rap Music. In Wimbush, V. L., & Rodman, R. C. (Eds.). African Americans and the Bible: sacred texts and social textures.New York: Continuum, pp. 804–818.

Cheney, C. L. (2005). Brothers gonna work it out: sexual politics in the golden age of rap nationalism. New York: New  York University Press. [Contents: From the revolutionary war to the “revolutionary generation”: some intro-  ductory thoughts on rap music, black nationalism, and the golden age of rap nationalism—“We men ain’t  we?”: mas(k)unlinity and the gendered politics of black nationalism—Brothers gonna work it out: the popu-  lar/political culture of rap music—Ladies first?: defining manhood in the golden age of rap nationalism—  Representin’ God: masculinity and the use of the Bible in rap nationalism—Be true to the game: final  reflections on the politics and practices of the hip–hop nation]

Chon–Smith, C. (2006). Asian American and African American masculinities: Race, citizenship, and culture in post–civil rights.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, San Diego, United States —California.

Christensen, M. J. (2002). Of rebellions and revolutions: Masculinity, race, and transnational modernity in late twentieth–century United States and Sierra Leonean representations of the Amistad slave revolt.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, United States —California.

Clark, K. (2002). Black manhood in James Baldwin, Ernest J. Gaines, and August Wilson. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Clark, K. (Ed.) (2001). Contemporary Black men’s fiction and drama. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Contents:  Rescuing the Black homosexual lambs: Randall Kenan and the reconstruction of Southern gay masculinity /  Sheila Smith McKoy —This disease called strength: the masculine manifestation in Raymond Andrews’s Ap-  palachee red / Trudier Harris —Looking Homewood: the evolution of John Edgar Wideman’s folk imagi-  nation / RaymondE. Janifer —Commodity culture and the conflation of time in Ishmael Reed’s Flight to  Canada / A.T. Spaulding —Clarence Major’s All–night visitors: Calibanic discourse and Black male expres-  sion / James W. Coleman — “I was my father’s father, and he my child”: the process of Black fatherhood and  literary evolution in Charles Johnson’s fiction / William R. Nash —Prodigal agency: allegory and voice in  Ernest J. Gaines’s A lesson before dying / Herman Beavers —Without a cosmology: the psychospiritual con-  dition of African–American men in Brent Wade’s Company man and Melvin Dixon’s Trouble the water /  Melvin B. Rahming —Are love and literature political? Black homopoetics in the 1990s / Kenyatta Dorey  Graves —Healing the scars of masculinity: reflections on baseball, gunshots, and war wounds in August Wil-  son’s Fences / Keith Clark.

Clark, Keith (1999). Re–(W)righting Black Male Subjectivity: The Communal Poetics of Ernest Gaines’s “A Gathering of Old Men”. Callaloo, 22(1), 195–207.

Clark, Keith Spencer (1993). Reforming the Black Male Self: a Study of Subject Formation in Selected Works by James Baldwin, Ernest Gaines, and August Wilson. Ph.D. Thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Coleman, Kendric (2005). Power, money, and sex(uality): The black masculine paradigm. PhD. Dissertation, Louisiana State University. [Topics include: Richard Wright, Claude Brown, Nathan McCall, James Earl Hardy]

Collins, Patricia Hill (2004). Booty call: Sex, Violence, and Images of Black Masculinity. In Collins, Patricia Hill. Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender, and the New Racism. New York: Routledge.

Connor, M. E., & White, J. L. (Eds.) (2006). Black fathers: an invisible presence in America. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence  Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Contents: Fatherhood in contemporary Black America: invisible but present /  Michael E. Connor and Joseph L. White —Father–son relationships: the father’s voice / Freeman A.  Hrabowski, Kenneth I. Maton, and Geoffrey L. Grief —Generative fathering: challenges to Black masculin-  ity and identity / Leon D. Caldwell and Joseph L. White —My dad, my main man / Michael E. Connor —  Intangible assets / Claytie Davis III and Percy L. Abram III —Images of Black fathers from the community  / Kenneth W. Bentley —David Leroy Hopkins: the face of conscious manhood / Thomas A. Parham —Bill  Cosby: America’s father / Anne Chan —A father’s call: father–son relationship survival of critical life transi-  tions / Ivory Achebe Toldson and Ivory Lee Toldson —The fatherless father: on becoming dad / Leon D. Cald-  well and Le’Roy Reese —A letter to my dad / Nnamdi Pole —Shane Price: father to four generations /  Julie Landsman —A visible future: the African American Men Project and the restoration of community /  Gary L. Cunningham —Fatherhood training: the Concordia project / Clarence Jones —Walking the walk:  community programs that work / Michael E. Connor.

Connor, Marlene K. (1995). What is Cool?: Understanding Black Manhood in America. New York: Crown Publishers.

Cooper, Frank Rudy (2006).“Against Bipolar Black Masculinity: Intersectionality, Assimilation, Identity Performance, and Hierarchy,”U.C. Davis Law Review,39, 853–906.

Crosby, Nandi S. (2002). Re/constructing Black Masculinity in Prison. Journal of Men’s Studies,11, 91–107.

Dalleo, P. R. (2004). From anti–colonial to postcolonial: Authority and masculinity in the Caribbean literary field. Unpublished Ph.D., State University of New York at Stony Brook, United States —New York.

Davis, J. E. (2006). Research at the Margin: Mapping Masculinity and Mobility of African–American High School Dropouts. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE),19(3), 289–304.

Dines, Gail (1998).“King Kong and the White Woman: Hustler Magazine and the Demonization of Black Masculinity.”Violence Against Women,4, 291–307.

Duck, W. O. (2004). A study of African American men’s beliefs about masculinity and the impact of these beliefs on health. Unpublished Ph.D., Wayne State University, United States —Michigan.

Duneier, Mitchell (1992).Black Men: Transcending Roles and Images. In Duneier, Mitchell (Ed.), Slim’s Table: Race, Respectability, and Masculinity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Dyson, Michael Eric(1994).The Politics of Black Masculinity and the Ghetto in Black Film. In Becker, Carol (Ed.). The Subversive Imagination: Artists, Society, and Responsibility. New York: Routledge.

Edmondson, B. (2006). African American Manhood in the Making of Caribbean (Inter)Nationalism. Small Axe, 10(2), 261–268.

Ek, A. (2005). Race and masculinity in contemporary American prison narratives. New York: Routledge.

Estes, Steve. (2000). “’I am a Man!’: Race, Masculinity, and the 1968 Memphis Sanitation Strike.”Labor History, 41, 153–70.

Estes, Steve. (2005). I am a man!: race, manhood, and the civil rights movement. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. [Contents: Introduction: am I not a man and a brother? —Man the guns —A question of honor—Freedom summer and the Mississippi movement —God’s angry men —The Moynihan report —I am a man!: the Memphis sanitation strike — “The baddest motherfuckers ever to set foot inside of history”— Conclusion: “the heartz of men”]

Evans Braziel, J. (2003). Trans–American constructions of black masculinity: Dany Laferrière, ‘le Nègre’, and the late capitalist American racial ‘machine–désirante’. Callaloo, 26(3) , 867–900.

Ferber, A. (2007). The Construction of Black Masculinity. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 31(1), 11–24.

Ferguson, Ann Arnett. (2000). Bad boys: public schools in the making of Black masculinity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. [Ferguson, A. A. (1995). Bad boys: School and the social construction of Black masculinity.Unpublished Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, United States —California]

Ferguson, Ann Arnett. (2004). Bad boys: public schools in the making of Black masculinity. In Spade, J. Z., & Valentine, C. G. (Eds.). The kaleidoscope of gender: prisms, patterns, and possibilities. The Wadsworth sociology reader series. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Ferguson, R. A. (2006). African American Masculinity and the Study of Social Formations. American Quarterly, 58(1), 213–219.

Field, D. (2004). Looking for Jimmy Baldwin: Sex, Privacy, and Black Nationalist Fervor. Callaloo, 27(2), 457–480.

Flood, Michael; Judith Kegan Gardiner, Bob Pease & Keith Pringle (Eds.) (2007). International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities. Routledge [entries include: “African American Masculinities”]

Ford, K. A. (2006). Masculinity, femininity, appearance ideals, and the Black body: Developing a positive raced and gendered bodily sense of self.Unpublished Ph.D., University of Michigan, United States —Michigan.

Foy, A. S. (2003). The dark brotherhood: Autobiography, ideology, masculinity, blackness.Unpublished Ph.D., Yale University, United States —Connecticut.

Franklin, A. J. (2004). From brotherhood to manhood: how Black men rescue their relationships and dreams from the invisibility syndrome. New York: Wiley.

Franklin, C. W., II. (1986). Conceptual and Logical Issues in Theory and Research Related to Black Masculinity. Western Journal of Black Studies, 10(4), 161–66.

Gabbard, Krin (2004). Borrowing Black Masculinity: Dirty Harry finds his Gentle Side. In Gabbard, Krin. Black Magic: White Hollywood and African American Culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Gallers, A. (2000). Enslavement and masculinity in Afro–Hispanic narrative. Unpublished Ph.D., Yale University, United States —Connecticut.

Gates, Philippa. (2004), “Always a Partner in Crime: Black Masculinity in the Hollywood Detective Film.”Journal of Popular Film and Television,32, 20–29.

Geiger, J. (1999). Unmaking the Male Body: The Politics of Masculinity in The Long Dream. African American Review, 33(2), 197–207.

Gerhardt, J. M. (2002). The flight of our fathers: Toni Morrison’s treatment of the black male. Honors thesis –Freed–Hardeman University. Henderson, Tennessee.

Gerstner, David A. (1999). ‘Other and Different Scenes’: Oscar Micheaux’s Bodies and the Cinematic Cut. Wide Angle,21, 6–19.

Gerstner, David A. (2006).Manly Arts: Masculinity and Nation in Early American Cinema. Durham: Duke University Press.

Gibbs, J. T. (Ed.) (1988). Young, black, and male in America: an endangered species. Dover, Mass: Auburn House Pub. Contents: Young black males in America : endangered, embittered, and embattled / Jewelle Taylor Gibbs — Education and achievement of young black males / Rodney J. Reed — Employment and unemployment of young black males / Tom E. Larson — Delinquency among black male youth / Richard Dembo — Young black males and substance use / Ann F. Brunswick — Teenage fatherhood : issues confronting young black males / Michael E. Connor — Health and mental health of young black males / Jewelle Taylor Gibbs — The new morbidity : homicide, suicide, accidents, and life–threatening behaviors / Jewelle Taylor Gibbs — The impact of public policy on the status of young black males / Barbara Solomon — Conclusions and recommendations / Jewelle Taylor Gibbs.

Gillman, S. K., & Weinbaum, A. E. (2007). Next to the color line: gender, sexuality, and W.E.B. Du Bois. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Golden, T., & Whitney Museum of American Art. (Ed.) (1994). Black male: representations of masculinity in contemporary American art. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art: Distributed by Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Contents: My brother / Thelma Golden —The Black screen: American film and media arts in the museum / John G. Hanhardt — “Can you be BLACK and look at this?”: reading the Rodney King video(s)/ Elizabeth Alexander —He is truly free who is free from the need to be free: a survey and consideration of Black male genius / Greg Tate —Black masculinity, labor, and social change / Valerie Smith —Feminism inside: toward a Black body politic / bell hooks —Walk–on parts and speaking subjects: screen representations of Black gay men / Phillip Brian Harper —Rap music and the demonization of young Black males / Tricia Rose—The gangsta and the diva / Andrew Ross —The game / Clyde Taylor —Black masculinity and visual culture / Herman Gray —The Black man on our screens and the empty space in representation / Ed Guerrero—True confessions / Kobena Mercer and Isaac Julien.

Golden, Thelma (1995). Black Masculinity: a Long, Hard Look behind the Fierce Cool. Essence,26, 96–98.

Goldsmith, Meredith (2002). Of Masks, Mimicry, Misogyny, and Miscegenation: Forging Black South African Masclinity in Bloke Modisane’s Blame Me on History. The Journal of Men’s Studies 10(3), 291–307 .

Goleman, M. J. (2006). To become men: Resistance, revolt, and masculinity in antebellum rural slave communities. Unpublished M.A., Mississippi State University, United States —Mississippi.

Goodey, Jo. (1998). “Understanding Racism and Masculinity: Drawing on Research with Boys Aged Eight to Sixteen.”International Journal of the Sociology of Law,26, 393–418.

Graham, H. (2001).Black, and Navy too: how Vietnam era African–American sailors asserted manhood through black power militancy. Journal of Men’s Studies, 9(2), 227–41.

Grant, N. (2004). Masculinist impulses: Toomer, Hurston, Black writing, and modernity. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.

Gray, H. (1995). Black Masculinity and Visual Culture. Callaloo, 18(2), 401–405.

Green, Herb (1996). Turning the Myths of Black Masculinity Inside/out. In Thompson, Becky, & Sangeeta Tyagi (Eds.). Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity. New York: Routledge.

Greenberg, J. R. (2003). Advocating ‘the man’: Masculinity, organized labor, and the market revolution in New York, 1800—1840.Unpublished Ph.D., The American University, United States —District of Columbia.

Guerrero, L. A. (2001). Shadow citizens: articulations of black manhood and contestations of American identity in the works of 20th century black male writers. Thesis (Ph. D.)—University of California, Santa Cruz

Halberstam, Judith. (1997). Mackdaddy, Superfly, Rapper: Gender, Race, and Masculinity in the Drag Queen Scene. Social Text,52/53, 104–131.

Hall, Mary Allen (1996). Images of African–American Males in Realistic Fiction Picture Books, 1971–1990. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Florida.

Hall, Ronald E. (1993). Clowns, Buffoons, and Gladiators: Media Portrayals of African–American Men. Journal of Men’s Studies,1, 239–251.

Hall, Ronald E. (1995/96). Dark Skin and the Cultural Ideal of Masculinity. Journal of African American Men,1, 37–61.

Hampton, Gregory J. (2002). Black Men Fenced in and a Plausible Black Masculinity. CLA Journal 46(December), 194–206.

Hare, Nathan (1971). The Frustrated Masculinity of the Negro Male. In Staples, Robert (Ed.),The Black Family: Essays and Studies. New York: Wadsworth.

Harper, Phillip Brian (1996). Are We Not Men? Masculine Anxiety and the Problem of African–American Identity. New York: Oxford University Press.

Harper, S. R. (2004). The Measure of a Man: Conceptualizations of Masculinity among High–Achieving African American Male College Students. Berkeley Journal of Sociology, 48, 89.

Harris, I. (1994). The Responses of African American Men to Dominant Norms of Masculinity within the United States. Sex Roles,31(11–12), 703–719.

Harris, J. R. (2003). The performance of Black masculinity in contemporary Black drama. Unpublished Ph.D., The Ohio State University, United States —Ohio.

Harris, K. M. (1992). Camera tricks: new Black cinema and the recoding of Black masculinity. Thesis (M.A. in English)—University of California, Berkeley.

Harris, K. M. (2006). Boys, boyz, bois: an ethics of Black masculinity in film and popular media. New York: Routledge. [Harris, K. M. (2002). Boys, Boyz, Boies: The ethics of black masculinity in film and popular media.Unpublished Ph.D., New York University, United States —New York]

Harris, Shanette M. (1995). “Psychosocial Development and Black Male Masculinity: Implications for Counseling Economically Disadvantaged African American Male Adolescents.”Journal of Counseling and Development, 73, 279–288.

Hatt, Michael. (1992). ‘Making a Man of Him’: Masculinity and the Black Body in Mid–Nineteenth Century American Sculpture. Oxford Art Journal, 15(1), 21–35.

Hawkeswood, W. G., & Costley, A. W. (1996). One of the children: gay black men in Harlem. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hawkins, Billy (1998). The dominant images of Black men in America: the representation of O. J. Simpson. In Sailes, G. A. (Ed.), African Americans in sport: contemporary themes. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.

Henry, Matthew (2004). “He Is a ‘Bad Mother *$%@!#’: Shaft and Contemporary Black Masculinity.”African American Review, 38, 114–119.

Hernton, Calvin C. (1992). Sex and Racism in America. New York: Anchor.

Hickey, Ann Marie (2006). The sexual savage: race science and the medicalization of black masculinity. In Rosenfeld, D., & Faircloth, C. A. (Eds.). Medicalized masculinities. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Hill Collins, P. (2004). Black sexual politics: African Americans, gender, and the new racism. New York: Routledge.

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Hine, D. C., & Jenkins, E. (Eds.) (2001). A question of manhood. Volume 2, The 19th century, from emancipation to Jim Crow. Blacks in the diaspora. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Contents: Introduction / Earnes- tine Jenkins & Darlene Clark Hine; Part One: Constructing Citizenship: The Evolution of Black Male Lead- ership; 1. “ Your Old Father Abe Lincoln is Dead and Damned” : Black Soldiers and the Memphis Race Riot after 1866 / Kevin Hardwick; 2. Black Politicians in Reconstruction Charleston, South Caroline: A Collec- tive Study / William Hine; 3. The Freedman’s Bureau and Local Black Leadership / Richard Lowe; 4. For Jus- tice and a Fee: James Milton Turner and the Cherokee Freedmen / Gary Kremer; Part Two: “ To Own Our Own Labor” : Black Men, Economic Self–Sufficiency, and Working Class Consciousness; 5. Black Policemen in New Orleans during Reconstruction / Dennis Rousey; 6. Negro Labor in the Western Cattle Industry, 1866–1900 / Kenneth W. Porter; 7. The Politics of Black Land Tenure, 1877–1915 / Manning Marable; 8. “ Like Banquo’s Ghost, It Will Not Down” : The Race Question and the American Railroad Brotherhoods, 1880–1920 / Eric Arnesen; 9. A Constant Struggle between Interest and Humanity: Convict Labor in the Coal Mines of the Old South / Alex Lichtenstein; Part Three: Black Men, the Professions, and Fraternal Or- ganisations; 10. A High and Honorable Calling: Black Lawyers in South Caroline, 1868–1915 / R. J. Oldfield; 11. Entering a White Profession: Black Physicians in the New South, 1880–1920 / Todd Savitt; 12. The Courtship Letters of an African American Couple: Race, Gender, Class, and the Cult of True Womanhood / Vicki Howard; 13. The African Derivation of Black Fraternal Orders in the United States / Betty Kuyk; Part Four: Proving Black Manhood: The Allure of Sport and the Military in the Late 19th Century; 14. “ Peter Jack- son and the Elusive Heavyweight Championship” : A Black Athlete’s Struggle against the Late Nineteenth Cen- tury Color Line / David K. Wiggins; 15. The Black Bicycle Corps / Marvin Fletcher; 16. African Americans and the War against Spain / Piero Gleijeses; Part Five: End of the Century Archetypes: Symbolic Construc- tions in Black Manhood and Masculinity; 17. The Anatomy of Lynching / Robyn Wiegman; 18. The Heroic Appeal of John Henry / Brett Williams; 19. Stack Lee: The Man, the Music, and the Myth / George Eberhart; 20. Where Honor Is Due: Frederick Douglas as Representative / Wilson Moses.

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