e) Attitudes towards gender

Note: Also see this section on attitudes towards feminism and on feminist identification.


Alexander-Scott, M., Bell, E., & Holden, J. (2016). Shifting Social norms to tackle violence against women and girls (VAWG). London: VAWG Helpdesk, DFID.

Allison, R., & Risman, B. J. (2013). A double standard for “Hooking Up”: How far have we come toward gender equality?. Social science research, 42(5), 1191-1206.

Berridge, D., Penn, R., & Ganjali, M. (2009). Changing Attitudes to Gender Roles: A Longitudinal Analysis of Ordinal Response Data from the British Household Panel Study. International Sociology, 24(3), 346-367.

Blumell, L. E., & Rodriguez, N. S. (2020). Ambivalent Sexism and Gay Men in the US and UK. Sexuality & Culture, 24(1), 209-229.

Braun, Michael, Lewin-Epstein, Noah; and Stier, Haya, (1998). The Impact of Social Systems on Gender-Role Attitudes and Their Change. ZUMA report.

Braun, Michael; Lewin-Epstein, Noah; and Stier, Haya, (2000). Systematic and Cultural Determinants of Gender-Roles Attitudes. In Modern Society and Values: A Comparative Analysis Based on the ISSP Project, edited by NikTos, Peter Ph. Mohler, and Brina Malnar. Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana and ZUMA.

Bryant, A. N. (2003). Changes in attitudes toward women’s roles: Predicting gender-role traditionalism among college students. Sex Roles, 48(3/4): 131-142.

Caroli, E., & Weber-Baghdiguian, L. (2016). Self-reported health and gender: The role of social norms. Social Science & Medicine, 153, 220-229.

Ciabattari, T. (2001). Changes in Men’s Conservative Gender Ideologies: Cohort and period influences. Gender & Society, 15(4), August, pp. 574-591.

Cowie, L. J., Greaves, L. M., & Sibley, C. G. (2019). Sexuality and sexism: Differences in ambivalent sexism across gender and sexual identity. Personality and Individual Differences, 148, 85-89.

Davis, S. N., & Greenstein, T. N. (2009). Gender Ideology: Components, Predictors, and Consequences. Annual Review of Sociology, 35, 87-105.

Davis, T. M., Settles, I. H., & Jones, M. K. (2022). Standpoints and Situatedness: Examining the Perception of Benevolent Sexism in Black and White Undergraduate Women and Men. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 46(1), 8-26. doi:10.1177/03616843211043108

Dorius, S. F., & Firebaugh, G. (2010). Trends in global gender inequality. Social Forces, 88(5), 1941-1968.

Eagly, A. H., Nater, C., Miller, D. I., Kaufmann, M., & Sczesny, S. (2019). Gender Stereotypes Have Changed: A Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis of US Public Opinion Polls from 1946 to 2018. American Psychologist.

Evans, M.D.R., and K. Mason. (1996). Currents and anchors: continuity and change in gender role attitudes in Australia. In Social Differentiation and Social Inequality.

Everitt, J. (1998). Public opinion and social movements: The women’s movement and the gender gap in Canada. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 31(04), 743-765.

Feather, N.T. (2004) Value Correlates of Ambivalent Attitudes Towards Gender Relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(1), January: 3-12.

Frieze, I. H., A. Ferligoj, T. Kogovsek, T. Rener, J. Horvat and N. Sarlija (2003). Gender-Role Attitudes in University Students in the United States, Slovenia, and Croatia. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 27(3): 256-261.

Gibbons, J. L., D. A. Stiles and G. M. Shkodriani (1991). Adolescents’ attitudes toward family and gender roles: An international comparison. Sex Roles, 25(11): 625-643.

Girlguiding. (2018). We see the big picture: Girls’ Attitudes Survey 2018. [n. p.]: Girlguiding.

Haller, Max; Hoellinger, Franz; and Gomilshak, Martin (1999). Attitudes towards Gender Roles in International Comparison: New Findings from Twenty Countries. In New Qualities in the Life Course: Intercultural Aspects, edited by Rosemarie Nave-Herz and Rudolf Richter. Wuezburh: Ergon Verlag.

Hamilton, L., C. Geist, et al. (2011). Marital Name Change as a Window into Gender Attitudes. Gender & Society 25(2): 145-175.

Harris, R. J., and J. M. Firestone. (1998). Changes in predictors of gender role ideologies among women: A multivariate analysis. Sex Roles, 38(3/4): 239-252.

Hayes, B. C., McAllister, I., & Studlar, D. T. (2000). Gender, postmaterialism, and feminism in comparative perspective. International Political Science Review, 21(4), 425-439.

Hong, Z.-R. (2004). An Investigation of Taiwanese Female College Students’ Sexist Attitudes. Sex Roles, 51(7): 455-467.

Kane, Emily W. (2000). Racial and ethnic variations in gender-related attitudes. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 26.

Kehn, A., & Ruthig, J. C. (2013). Perceptions of Gender Discrimination across Six Decades: The Moderating Roles of Gender and Age. Sex Roles, 69(5), 289-296.

King, T. L., Shields, M., Milner, A., Vaughan, C., Shakespeare, T., Currier, D., & Kavanagh, A. (2019). Conformity to masculine norms: Differences between men with and without a disability. Psychology of Men & Masculinities.

King, T. L., Singh, A., & Milner, A. (2019). Associations Between Gender-Role Attitudes and Mental Health Outcomes in a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 65(1), 72-78. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.01.011

King, T., Perales, F., & Sutherland, G. (2022, Jun). Why we need population data on gender norms, and why this is important for population health. J Epidemiol Community Health, 76(6), 620-622. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2021-217900

Kite, M. E. (2001). Changing times, changing gender roles: Who do we want women and men to be? In R. K. Unger (Ed.), Handbook of the psychology of women and gender (pp. 215-227). New York: Wiley.

Kosakowska-Berezecka, N., Besta, T., Bosson, J. K., Jurek, P., Vandello, J. A., Best, D. L., . . . Žukauskienė, R. (2020) Country-level and Individual-level Predictors of Men’s Support for Gender Equality in 42 Countries. European Journal of Social Psychology, n/a(n/a). doi:10.1002/ejsp.2696

Larsen, K. S. and E. Long (1988). Attitudes toward sex-roles: Traditional or egalitarian? Sex Roles, 19(1): 1-12.

Loo, R. and K. Thorpe (1998). Attitudes Toward Women’s Roles in Society: A Replication After 20 Years. Sex Roles, 39(11): 903-912.

Maltby, John, and Lisa Day. (2001). Psychological correlates of attitudes toward men. Journal of Psychology, 135(3): pp. 335-351.

McKinney, K. (1987). Age and gender differences in college students’ attitudes toward women: A replication and extension. Sex Roles, 17(5): 353-358.

Meagher, K. D., & Shu, X. (2019). Trends in US Gender Attitudes, 1977 to 2018: Gender and Educational Disparities. Socius, 5, 2378023119851692.

Milner, A., Kavanagh, A., King, T., & Currier, D. (2018). The Influence of Masculine Norms and Occupational Factors on Mental Health: Evidence From the Baseline of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. American Journal of Men’s Health, 12(4), 696-705. doi:10.1177/1557988317752607

Milner, A., Shields, M., & King, T. (2019). The Influence of Masculine Norms and Mental Health on Health Literacy Among Men: Evidence From the Ten to Men Study. American Journal of Men’s Health, 13(5), 1557988319873532. doi:10.1177/1557988319873532

Pampel, F. (2011). Cohort change, diffusion, and support for gender egalitarianism in cross-national perspective. Demographic Research, 25, 667-694.

Pampel, F. (2011). Cohort changes in the socio-demographic determinants of gender egalitarianism. Social Forces, 89(3), 961-982.

Pepin, J. and Cotter, D. (2017). Trending towards traditionalism? Changes in youths’ gender ideology. Council on Contemporary Families Press Advisory: Gender and Millennials Online Symposium. URL: https://contemporaryfamilies.org/2-pepin-cotter-traditionalism/, retrieved 27.08.18.

Petersen, J. L. and J. S. Hyde (2011). Gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors: A review of meta-analytic results and large datasets. Journal of Sex Research 48(2-3): 149-165.

Pitt, R. N. and E. Borland (2008). Bachelorhood and men’s attitudes about gender roles. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 16(2): 140(19).

Pleck, J. H., F. L. Sonenstein and L. C. Ku (1994). Attitudes toward male roles among adolescent males: A discriminant validity analysis. Sex Roles, 30(7): 481-501. .

Quayle, M., Lindegger, G., Brittain, K., Nabee, N., & Cole, C. (2018). Women’s Ideals for Masculinity across Social Contexts: Patriarchal Agentic Masculinity Is Valued in Work, Family, and Romance but Communal Masculinity in Friendship. Sex Roles, 78(1-2), 52-66.

Scarborough, W. J., Pepin, J. R., Lambouths, D. L., Kwon, R., & Monasterio, R. (2021). The Intersection of Racial and Gender Attitudes, 1977 through 2018. American Sociological Review, 86(5), 823-855. doi:10.1177/00031224211033582

Scarborough, W. J., Sin, R., & Risman, B. (2019). Attitudes and the Stalled Gender Revolution: Egalitarianism, Traditionalism, and Ambivalence from 1977 through 2016. Gender & Society, 33(2), 173-200. 10.1177/0891243218809604

Scott Carter, J., Corra, M., & Carter, S. K. (2009). The interaction of race and gender: Changing genderrole attitudes, 1974–2006. Social Science Quarterly, 90(1), 196-211.

Sedlander, E., Bingenheimer, J. B., Long, M. W., Swain, M., & Rimal, R. N. (2022, 2022/09/01). The G-NORM Scale: Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Gender Norms Scale. Sex Roles, 87(5), 350-363. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-022-01319-9

Semahegn, A., Torpey, K., Manu, A., Assefa, N., Tesfaye, G., & Ankomah, A. (2019). Are interventions focused on gender-norms effective in preventing domestic violence against women in low and lower-middle income countries? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Reprod Health, 16(1), 1-31.

Shechory, M., & Ziv, R. (2007). Relationships between gender role attitudes, role division, and perception of equity among heterosexual, gay and lesbian couples. Sex Roles, 56(9-10), 629-638.

Sipe, S. R., Larson, L., Mckay, B. A., & Moss, J. (2016). Taking off the Blinders: A Comparative Study of University Students’ Changing Perceptions of Gender Discrimination in the Workplace From 2006 to 2013. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 15(2), 232-249. doi:10.5465/amle.2014.0139

Sjoeberg, Ola. (2004) The Role of Family Policy Institutions in Explaining Gender-Role Attitudes: A Comparative Multilevel Analysis of Thirteen Industrialized Countries. Journal of European Social Policy, 14: 107-133.

Somech, A., & Drach-Zahavy, A. (2016). Gender Role Ideology. In The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies (pp. 1-3).

Stewart, R., Wright, B., Smith, L., Roberts, S., & Russell, N. (2021). Gendered stereotypes and norms: A systematic review of interventions designed to shift attitudes and behaviour. Heliyon, 7(4), e06660.

Stewart, R., Wright, B., Smith, L., Roberts, S., & Russell, N. (2021). Gendered stereotypes and norms: A systematic review of interventions designed to shift attitudes and behaviour. Heliyon, 7(4), e06660. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06660

Thompson, E. H., C. Grisanti and J. H. Pleck (1985). Attitudes toward the male role and their correlates. Sex Roles, 13(7): 413-427.

UNFPA. (2020). How changing social norms is crucial in achieving gender equality. UNFPA.

Weber, A. M., Cislaghi, B., Meausoone, V., Abdalla, S., Mejía-Guevara, I., Loftus, P., . . . Victora, C. G. (2019). Gender norms and health: insights from global survey data. The Lancet.

Worden, Alissa Pollitz, and Bonnie E. Carlson. (2005). Attitudes and beliefs about domestic violence: results of a public opinion survey: II. beliefs about causes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(10): p1219(25).

Yu, W. H., & Lee, P. L. (2013). Decomposing Gender Beliefs: CrossNational Differences in Attitudes Toward Maternal Employment and Gender Equality at Home. Sociological Inquiry, 83(4), 591-621.


Australian attitudes towards gender

Bulbeck, Chilla. (2003). ‘I wish to become the leader of women and give them equal rights in society’: How young Australians and Asians understand feminism and the women’s movement. Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 7(1-2): 4-25.

Evans, M. D. R., & Mason, K. O. (1996). Currents and anchors: Gender role attitudes in Australia in the 1980s. In J.N. Baron, D.B. Grusky, and D.J. Treiman (eds.) Social Differentiation and Social Inequality: Essays in honour of John Pock, Oxford: Westview Press, pp. 275-302.

Evans, M., Haussegger, V., Halupka, M., & Rowe, P. (2018). From Girls to Men: social attitudes to gender equality issues in Australia. Canberra: 50/50 by 2030 Foundation, University of Canberra.

Flood, M. (2015). Men and Gender Equality. In Engaging Men in Building Gender Equality. Ed M. Flood, with R. Howson, Cambridge Scholars Press. URL: https://xyonline.net/content/men-and-gender-equality-book-chapter

Flood, M. (2018). Men and the Man Box – A commentary. In The Men’s Project & Flood, M, The Man Box: A Study on Being a Young Man in Australia. (pp. 46-53). Melbourne: Jesuit Social Services.

Monfries, M. M., & Scevak, J. J. (2001). Developmental differences in attitudes towards women’s roles in Australian Society: Critical periods for ‘feminist’ socialisation. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 1, 1-9.

The Men’s Project & Flood, M, (2018) The Man Box: A Study on Being a Young Man in Australia. Melbourne: Jesuit Social Services. URL: https://jss.org.au/articles/the-man-box-a-study-on-being-a-young-man-in-australia/

Van Egmond, M., Baxter, J., Buchler, S., & Western, M. (2010). A stalled revolution? Gender role attitudes in Australia, 1986–2005. Journal of Population Research, 27(3), 147-168.

Webster, K., Diemer, K., Honey, N., Mannix, S., Mickle, J., Morgan, J., Parkes, A., Politoff, V., Powell, A., Stubbs, J., & Ward, A. (2018). Australians’ attitudes to violence against women and gender equality. Findings from the 2017 National Community Attitudes towards Violence against Women Survey (NCAS) (Research report, 03/2018). Sydney, NSW: ANROWS.