(ii) Gender and formal politics

Note: Also see the sections on “Feminist activism, gender and policy, gender mainstreaming, etc.” for materials e.g. on women’s movements, activism, and gender mainstreaming in institutions and public policy, and the section on “Feminist politics and policy in Australia”.


Antić, M., & Radačić, I. (2020). The evolving understanding of gender in international law and ‘gender ideology’ pushback 25 years since the Beijing conference on women. Women's Studies International Forum, 83, 102421. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2020.102421

Arneil, Barbara. (1999). Politics and Feminism. Oxford: Blackwell.

Bacchi, Carol, and Joan Eveline. (2010). Mainstreaming Politics: Gendering Practices and Feminist Theory. University of Adelaide Press.

Bacchi, Carol, and Toni Schofield. (eds.) (2005) Policy and Society, Special Issue Reinventing Gender Equality and the Political, 24(4).Bacchi, Carol. (1996). The Politics of Affirmative Action: ‘Women’, Equality and Category Politics. Sage.

Bacchi, Carol. (2009). Analysing Policy: What’s the problem represented to be? Pearson Education.

Baehr, A. R. (2004). Feminist Politics and Feminist Pluralism: Can We Do Feminist Political Theory Without Theories of Gender? Journal of Political Philosophy, 12(4): 411-436.

Beveridge, Fiona, Sue Nott, and Kylie Stephen. (eds.). (2000). Making Women Count: Integrating gender into law and policy-making. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Setting the Scene: The Why, What and How of Promoting Equality between the Sexes / Fiona Beveridge, Sue Nott, and Kylie Stephen.
Same Song-Different Tunes: A Lesson in Harmony Singing? / Fiona Beveridge.
Catalysts for Change? The Effectiveness of State Agencies in Promoting Equality / Kylie Stephen.
Accentuating the Positive: Alternative Strategies for Promoting Gender Equality / Sue Nott.
Moving Forward with Mainstreaming / Fiona Beveridge, Sue Nott, and Kylie Stephen.

Bjarnegård, E. (2013). Gender, informal institutions and political recruitment: Explaining male dominance in parliamentary representation. Springer.

Bjarnegård, Elin and Meryl Kenny. (2017). Who, where, and how? Filling the gaps in theory-building on gendered dynamics in political recruitment. In Waylen, Georgina: Gender and Informal Institutions. Rowman & Littlefield.

Bourgault du Coudray, C. (2016). A ‘Disappointing’ leader: The Postmaternalism of Public Feminist Commentary on Julia Gillard. Continuum, 30(3), 274-283.

Brooks, D. J. (2013). He Runs, She Runs: Why Gender Stereotypes Do Not Harm Women Candidates. Princeton University Press.

Carlin, R. E., Carreras, M., & Love, G. J. (year?). Presidents’ Sex and Popularity: Baselines, Dynamics and Policy Performance. British Journal of Political Science, 1-21. 10.1017/S0007123418000364

Carroll, S. J., & Fox, R. L. (2018). Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics: Cambridge University Press.

Chappell, L. (2002). Gendering Government: Feminist Engagement with the State in Aus­tralia and Canada. Vancouver, BC, and Toronto, ON: UBC Press.

Charles, Nickie. (2000). Feminism, the State, and Social Policy. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan.

Collins, V. (2016). State Crime, Women and Gender. London: Routledge.

Connell, R.W. (1990). The State, Gender and Sexual Politics. Theory and Society, 19

Deckman, M. M., & Swers, M. L. (2019). Women and politics: Paths to power and political influence. Rowman & Littlefield.

Dillaway, H. E., & Pare, E. R. (2013). A Campaign for Good Motherhood? Exploring Media Discourse on Sarah Palin, Hillary Clinton, and Michelle Obama During the 2008 Presidential Election Campaign Notions of Family: Intersectional Perspectives (pp. 209-239): Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Graff, A., Kapur, R., & Walters, S. D. (2019). Introduction: Gender and the Rise of the Global Right. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 44(3), 541-560.

Grebelsky-Lichtman, T., & Bdolach, L. (2017). Talk Like a Man, Walk Like a Woman: An Advanced Political Communication Framework for Female Politicians. The Journal of Legislative Studies, 23(3), 275-300.

Grebelsky-Lichtman, T., & Katz, R. (2019). When a Man Debates a Woman: Trump Vs. Clinton in the First Mixed Gender Presidential Debates. Journal of Gender Studies, 1-21.

Hancock, Linda. (ed.). (1999). Women, Public Policy and the State. South Yarrra, VIC: Centre for Public Policy.

Hansen, Susan B. (year?). The Politics of Sex: Public Opinion, Parties, and Presidential Elections. Routledge.

Holland, J., & Wright, K. A. (2017). The Double Delegitimatisation of Julia Gillard: Gender, the Media, and Australian Political Culture. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 63(4), 588-602.

Johnson, C. (2013). From Obama to Abbott: Gender Identity and the Politics of Emotion. Australian Feminist Studies, 28(75), 14-29.

Kantola, J., and H. M. Dahl. (2005). Gender and the state. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 7(1): 49 - 70.

Keeble, E. (2016). Politics and Sex: Exploring the Connections between Gender, Sexuality, and the State: Canadian Scholars’ Press.

Kennedy, A. R., Bishu, S. G., & Heckler, N. (2019). Feminism, Masculinity, and Active Representation: A Gender Analysis of Representative Bureaucracy. Administration & Society, 0095399719888470.

Kováts, E. Questioning Consensuses: Right-Wing Populism, Anti-Populism, and the Threat of ‘Gender Ideology’. Sociological Research Online, 0(0), 1360780418764735.

Kraus, L. N. (2017). “You Know, Words Do Matter”: Self-Presentation and Media Framing of the Rhetoric of Male Vs. Female Politicians in the 2008 Clinton-Obama Presidential Debates: Illinois State University.

Lawrence, R. G., & Rose, M. (2010). Hillary Clinton’s Race for the White House: Gender Politics and the Media on the Campaign Trail: Lynne Rienner Publishers Boulder, CO.

Lee, J., & Lim, Y.-s. (2016). Gendered Campaign Tweets: The Cases of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. Public Relations Review, 42(5), 849-855.

Lovenduski, Joni. (2015). Feminist Political Theory and Political Science. In Wright, James D. (ed.). International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences. 2nd edition.

Lovenduski, Joni. (ed.). (2001). Feminism and Politics. Ashgate Publishing Company.

Magnusson, E. (2000). Party-political rhetoric on gender equality in Sweden: The uses of uniformity and heterogeneity. Nora, Nordic Journal of Women’s Studies, 8(2): 78 - 92.

Matthews, M. C. (2019). Developments in gender and US politics: A call for intersectionality. Sociology Compass, 13(7), e12716.

Mazur, Amy G. (2002). Theorizing Feminist Policy. Oxford University Press.

Mazur, Amy. (ed.). (2001). State Feminism, Women’s Movements, and Job Training: Making Democracies Work in the Global Economy. New York and London: Routledge.

McAlister, J. F. (2016). Making Feminist, Queer, Latinx, and# Blackvotesmatter. Women’s Studies in Communication, 39(4), 353-356.

McDermott, R. (2020). The role of gender in political violence. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 34, 1-5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2019.09.003

McGinley, A. C., & Cooper, F. R. (2013). How Masculinities Distribute Power: The Influence of Ann Scales. Denv. UL Rev., 91, 187.

Meeks, L. (2018). Appealing to the 52%: Exploring Clinton and Trump’s Appeals to Women Voters During the 2016 Us Presidential Election. International Journal of Communication, 12, 19.

Outshoorn, Joyce, and Johanna Kantola. (eds.). (2007). Changing State Feminism: Women’s Policy Agencies Confront Shifting Institutional Terrain. Palgrave Macmillan.
Introduction; J.Kantola & J.Outshoorn
Australia: The Fall of the Femocrat; M.Sawer
What Happened to the Model Student? Austrian State Feminism since the 1990s; B.Sauer
State Feminism and Women’s Movements in Belgium: Complex Patterns in a Multi-Level System; K.Celis & P.Meier
State Feminism Finnish Style: Strong Policies Clash with Implementation Problems; A.M.Holli & J.Kantola
Women’s Policy Agencies, Women’s Movements and a Shifting Political Context: Toward a Gendered Republic in France?; A.Mazur
Gender Governance in Post-Unification Germany: Between Institutionalization, Deregulation and Privatization; S.Lang
Unfinished Business: Equality Policy and the Changing Context of State Feminism in Great Britain; J.Lovenduski
Women’s Policy Machinery in Italy between European Pressure and Domestic Constraints; M.Guadagnini & A.Donà
Dutch Decay: The Dismantling of the Women’s Policy Network in the Netherlands; J.Outshoorn & J.Oldersma
The Evolution of Spanish State Feminism: A Fragmented Landscape; M.Bustelo & C.Ortbals
Swedish State Feminism: Continuity and Change; C.Bergqvist, T.O.Blandy & D.Sainsbury
Women’s Policy Agencies and Climate Change in the US: The Era of Republican Dominance; D.E.McBride
Assessing Changes in State Feminism over the Last Decade; J.Outshoorn & J.Kantola

Paxton, P. M., Hughes, M. M., & Barnes, T. (2020). Women, politics, and power: A global perspective. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Peterson, V. S. (2018). Revisiting Gendered States: Feminist Imaginings of the State in International Relations: Oxford University Press.

Phillips, Anne. (ed.). (1998). Feminism and Politics. Oxford University Press.

Porter, Elizabeth. (2002). Feminist Analysis. In Government, Politics, Power and Policy in Australia. (7th edition). Eds John Summers, Dennis Woodward, and Andrew Parkin. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Longman.

Rai, Shirin M. (ed.). (2003). Mainstreaming Gender, Democratizing The State? Institutional Mechanisms For The Advancement Of Women. Manchester University Press.
Introduction / Shirin M. Rai.
Pt. I. Conceptual Frameworks.
1. Institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women: mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state? / Shirin M. Rai.
2. Gender mainstreaming: conceptual links tinstitutional machineries / Kathleen Staudt.
Pt. II. Comparative Analysis.
3. National women’s machinery: state-based institutions tadvocate for gender equality / Anne Marie Goetz.
4. National women’s machineries: structures and spaces / Nuket Kardam and Selma Acuner.
Pt. III. Case Studies.
5. The role of the women’s movement in institutionalizing a gender focus in public policy: the Ecuadorian experience / Silvia Vega Ugalde.
6. The National Commission on the Role of Filipina Women, the women’s movement and gender mainstreaming in the Philippines / Jurgette Honculada and Rosalinda Pineda Ofrene.
7. National machinery for gender equality in Sweden and other Nordic countries / Birgitta Aseskog.
8. Gender awareness and the national machineries in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe / Zuzana Jezerska.
9. The government of the United Kingdom: the Women’s National Commission / Wendy Stokes.
10. The national machinery for gender equality in Uganda: institutionalized gesture politics? / Joy C. Kwesiga.
11. The National Commission for Women: the Indian experience / Shirin M. Rai.
12. The life and times of women’s policy machinery in Australia / Marian Sawer.
Conclusion: looking forward / Shirin M. Rai.

Sanghvi, M. (2019). Gender in the 2016 US Presidential Primaries. In Gender and Political Marketing in the United States and the 2016 Presidential Election (pp. 101-158): Springer.

Sawer, M., & Baker, K. (Eds.). (2018). Gender Innovation in Political Science: New Norms, New Knowledge. Springer.

Shepherd, Laura. J. (2014?). Gender Matters in Global Politics: A Feminist Introduction to International Relations. 2nd Edition. Routledge.

Spierings, N., & Zaslove, A. (2015). Gendering the vote for populist radical-right parties. Patterns of Prejudice, 49(1-2): 135-162.

Staudt, Kathleen A. (1998). Policy, Politics & Gender: Women Gaining Ground. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press.
Introduction: Crossing Boundaries and Acknowledging Support -- Pt. I. Understanding Contextual Settings. 1. Beginning Reflections on Language, Power, and Ethics. 2. Postwar Development: International Institutions Marginalize Women. 3. Women Engaging Public Affairs: Institutions Matter -- Pt. II. Analyzing Substantive Policies with a Gender Lens. 4. Education for Life and Capacitation. 5. Women’s Work: Central to Economies. 6. Population, Overconsumption, and Reproductive Health. 7. Public Safety, Peace, and Violence against Women -- Pt. III. Applying Context and Policy Analysis to Action. 8. Bringing Politics Back in: Institutional Contexts for Mainstreaming. 9. Institutional Strategies: Analyzing Political Contexts. 10. Engaging and Changing the Political Mainstream -- App. The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

Stetson, D.M., and A. Mazur. (eds.). (1995). Comparative State Feminism. London: Sage.

Stetson, Dorothy McBride. (ed.). (2001). Abortion Politics, Women’s Movements and the Democratic State: A Comparative Study of State Feminism .Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swank, E. (2018). Who Voted for Hillary Clinton? Sexual Identities, Gender, and Family Influences. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 14(1-2), 21-42.

Trimble, L. (2016). Julia Gillard and the Gender Wars. Politics & Gender, 12(2), 296-316.

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. (2005). Gender Equality: Striving for justice in an unequal world. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

Valentino, N. A., Wayne, C., & Oceno, M. (2018). Mobilizing Sexism: The Interaction of Emotion and Gender Attitudes in the 2016 Us Presidential Election. Public Opinion Quarterly, 82(suppl_1), 213-235.

van der Vleuten, Anna. (2007). The Price of Gender Equality: Member states and governance in the European Union. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Verloo, M. (2005). Displacement and Empowerment: Reflections on the Concept and Practice of the Council of Europe Approach to Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Equality. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, 12(3): 344-365.

Watson, S. (1995) Reclaiming Social Policy. pp. 164-71 in B. Caine and R. Pringle (eds) Transitions: New Australian Feminisms. St Leonards, Australia: Allen and Unwin.

Watson, Sophie, and Leslie Doyal. (eds). (1999). Engendering Social Policy. Philadelphia, Penn.: Open University Press
Introduction / Sophie Watson -- 1. The Changing Worlds of Work and Families / Hilary Land -- 2. Sex, Gender and Health: a New Approach / Lesley Doyal -- 3. City A/genders / Sophie Watson -- 4. ‘She’s There for me’: Caring in a rural Community / Imogen Taylor -- 5. Child Protection Policy and Practice: Women in the front Line / Elaine Farmer and Margaret Boushel -- 6. The Criminalization of Female Poverty / Christina Pantazis -- 7. Domestic Violence Policy in the 1990s / Gill Hague -- 8. Fatherhood, Children and Violence: Placing the UK in an International Context / Marianne Hester and Lynne Harne -- 9. Mainstreaming Equality / Teresa Rees -- 10. ‘Dangerous and Different’: Reconstructions of Madness in the 1990s and the Role of Mental Health Policy / Sarah Payne.

Williams, B. (2020). It’s a man’s world at the top: gendered media representations of Julia Gillard and Helen Clark. Feminist Media Studies, 1-20. doi:10.1080/14680777.2020.1842482

Yates, E. A., & Hughes, M. M. (2017). Cultural Explanations for Men’s Dominance of National Leadership Worldwide. In Women Presidents and Prime Ministers in Post-Transition Democracies (pp. 101-122). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Young, B., Bakker, I, & Elson, D. (eds.) (2011). Questioning Financial Governance from a Feminist Perspective. London: Routledge.

Young, L. (2000). Feminists in Party Politics. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Young, Stacey. (1997). Changing The Wor(l)d: Discourse, Politics and the Feminist Movement. Routledge.

Yount, K. M., & Sharma, K. (2020). The US vice presidential debate: a Black woman’s resistance to white masculine dominance and white fragility to assert equal voice on public policy. Journal of Gender Studies, 1-7. doi:10.1080/09589236.2020.1867521

Zulli, D. (2019). The Changing Norms of Gendered News Coverage: Hillary Clinton in the New York Times, 1969–2016. Politics & Gender, 15(3), 599-621.




European Journal of Politics and Gender (EJPG)

Journal of Women, Politics and Policy

Politics & Gender

Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society