05. Violence in universities and among students and staff

Note: These references are focused on the prevalence of various forms of violence on campuses and/or among university students and staff and on risk factors for such violence. Also see this list of references on university- or campus-based prevention.


Anderson, J. C., Boakye, M. D. S., Feinstein, Z., Miller-Walfish, S., Jones, K. A., Chugani, C. D., Schmulevich, A., Jackson, R., and Miller, E. (2022). College students’ experiences of sexual violence and reasons for seeking care in campus health and counseling centers, Journal of American College Health. doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2022.2057189.

Anderson, J. C., Chugani, C. D., Jones, K. A., Coulter, R. W. S., Chung, T., & Miller, E. (2019). Characteristics of Precollege Sexual Violence Victimization and Associations with Sexual Violence Revictimization During College. Journal of American College Health, 1-9. 10.1080/07448481.2019.1583237

Anitha, S., Jordan, A., Jameson, J., & Davy, Z. (2020). A Balancing Act: Agency and Constraints in University Students’ Understanding of and Responses to Sexual Violence in the Night-Time Economy. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 1077801220908325. doi:10.1177/1077801220908325

Anolik, S. (2021). How College Men Describe their Understanding of Sexual Assault (Doctoral dissertation, James Madison University).

Argiero, S. J., Dyrdahl, J. L., Fernandez, S. S., Whitney, L. E., & Woodring, R. J. (2010). A Cultural Perspective for Understanding How Campus Environments Perpetuate Rape-Supportive Culture. Journal of the Indiana University Student Personnel Association, 26-40.

Armstrong, E. A., Hamilton, L., & Sweeney, B. (2006). Sexual assault on campus: A multilevel, integrative approach to party rape. Social problems, 53(4), 483-499.

Australian Human Rights Commission. (2017). Change the course: National report on sexual assault and sexual harassment at Australian universities. Sydney: AHRC.

Azimi, A. M., & Daigle, L. E. (2017). Promising Avenues for Prevention: Confronting Sexual Victimization on College Campuses. Preventing Crime and Violence (pp. 243-260): Springer.

B., & Rennison, C. M. (2019). Sexual Victimization and Sexual Harassment among College Students: A Comparative Analysis. Journal of Family Violence. 10.1007/s10896-019-00082-y

Baldwin-White, A. (2018). "I Shouldn’t Have to Worry About Being Raped": Attitudes and Beliefs About Sexual Assault among College Students. Arizona State University.

Barnes, Melissa L.; Adams-Clark, Alexis; Rosenthal, Marina N.; Smith, Carly P.; and Freyd, Jennifer J. (2021). Pledged into Harm: Sorority and Fraternity Members Face Increased Risk of Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment. Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence: Vol. 6: Iss. 1, Article 9.
DOI: 10.23860/dignity.2021.06.01.09
Available at: https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/dignity/vol6/iss1/9

Best, N. A. (2018). Campus Climate Matters: Predictors of the Prevalence of Sexual Violence Victimization. Azusa Pacific University.

Blauenstein, L. J. (2018). Sexual Consent: Perception of Ambiguous Sexual Encounters of LGBTQ+ and Cisgender, Heterosexual Individuals.

Bloom, B. E., Sorin, C. R., Oaks, L., & Wagman, J. A. (2021). Graduate students’ knowledge and utilization of campus sexual violence and sexual harassment resources. Journal of American College Health, 1-4. doi:10.1080/07448481.2021.1942010

Bondestam, F., & Lundqvist, M. (2020). Sexual harassment in higher education–a systematic review. European Journal of Higher Education, 1-23.

Boyle, K.M., & Walker, L.S. (2016). The neutralization and denial of sexual violence in college party subcultures. Deviant Behavior, [ahead-of-print]. DOI:10.1080/01639625.2016.1185862

Brennan, C. L., Swartout, K. M., Goodnight, B. L., Cook, S. L., Parrott, D. J., Thompson, M. P., . . . Leone, R. M. (2018). Evidence for Multiple Classes of Sexually Violent College Men. Psychology of Violence, 9(1).

Brewer, N., Thomas, K. A., & Higdon, J. (2018). Intimate Partner Violence, Health, Sexuality, and Academic Performance among a National Sample of Undergraduates. Journal of American College Health, 1-28.

Burke, L., Dawson, K., Flack, W. F., O’Higgins, S., McIvor, C., & MacNeela, P. (2023). Alcohol, drug use and experiences of sexual violence victimisation among first-year college students in Ireland. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 1-18. doi:10.1080/13552600.2023.2216221

Campbell, J. C., Sabri, B., Budhathoki, C., Kaufman, M. R., Alhusen, J., & Decker, M. R. (2017). Unwanted Sexual Acts among University Students: Correlates of Victimization and Perpetration. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260517734221.

Canan, S. N., Jozkowski, K. N., & Crawford, B. L. (2018). Sexual assault supportive attitudes: Rape myth acceptance and token resistance in Greek and non-Greek college students from two university samples in the United States. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(22), 3502-3530.

Carr, J. L., and K. M. Vandeusen. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses. Journal of Family Violence 19(5): 279-289.

Carvalho, J., & Sá, A. (2017). Male College Students Using Sexually Aggressive Strategies: Findings on the Interpersonal Relationship Profile. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260516689779.

Conley, A. H., Overstreet, C. M., Hawn, S. E., Kendler, K. S., Dick, D. M., & Amstadter, A. B. (2017). Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Assault among a College Sample. Journal of American College Health, 65(1), 41-49.

Coulter, R. W. S., Mair, C., Miller, E., Blosnich, J. R., Matthews, D. D., & McCauley, H. L. (2017). Prevalence of Past-Year Sexual Assault Victimization among Undergraduate Students: Exploring Differences by and Intersections of Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Race/Ethnicity. Prevention Science, 18(6), 726-736.

Craig, H. (2016). Sexual Assault & Students: Does Involvement in a ‘Lad Culture’ Affect British Students’ Acceptance of Sexual Assault? (Masters), University of Huddersfield.

Crittenden, C. A., Gimlin, A. M., Bennett, A., & Garland, T. S. (2021). Exploring faculty and students’ attitudes about consensual sexual relationships and sexual harassment on college campuses. Educational Policy, 35(1), 41-66.

DeKeseredy, W. (2017). Explaining campus violence against women: An examination of unhealthy masculinity and male peer support. In C. Kaukinen, M. Miller, & R. Powers (Eds.), Addressing Violence Against Women on College Campuses (pp. 45–65). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Diener O’Leary, J. (2021). Power, Privilege, and Fraternity Men’s Perceptions of Sex and Sexual Violence: A Phenomenological Study.

Donde, S.D., Ragsdale, S.K.A., Koss, M.P., & Zucker, A.N. (2018). If it wasn’t rape, was it sexual assault? Comparing rape and sexual assault acknowledgment in college women who have experienced rape. Violence Against Women. DOI:10.1177/1077801217743339

Duong, V., Pham, P., Bose, R., & Luo, J. (2020). # MeToo on Campus: Studying College Sexual Assault at Scale Using Data Reported on Social Media. arXiv preprint arXiv:2001.05970.

Duval, A., Lanning, B. A., & Patterson, M. S. (2020). A systematic review of dating violence risk factors among undergraduate college students. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 21(3), 567-585.

End Rape on Campus (EROC). (2018). The Red Zone Report: An investigation into sexual violence and hazing in Australian university residential colleges. Sydney: End Rape on Campus Australia.

Fedina, L., Holmes, J. L., & Backes, B. L. (2016). Campus Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review of Prevalence Research From 2000 to 2015. Trauma Violence Abuse. doi:10.1177/1524838016631129

Fenton, R., & Jones, C. (2017). An Exploratory Study on the Beliefs About Gender-Based Violence Held by Incoming Undergraduates in England. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, 1(2), 147-167.

Fisher, B. S., Daigle, L. E., & Cullen, F. T. (2009). Unsafe in the Ivory Tower: The sexual victimization of college women. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fleming, C. J. E., & Muscari, E. C. (2021). Undergraduates’ Disclosures of Unwanted Sexual Experiences: Who, Why, and When? Violence Against Women, 27(2), 207-221. doi:10.1177/1077801219885187

Follingstad, D. R., Chahal, J. K., Bush, H. M., Coker, A. L., Li, C. R., Wu, X., . . . Carlson, C. R. (2020). A Campus Climate/Violence Survey’s Psychometrics and Findings. Violence Against Women, 1077801220969870. doi:10.1177/1077801220969870

Gavey, N. J. (1991). Sexual Victimization among Auckland University Students: How Much and Who Does It? New Zealand journal of psychology, 20, 63-63.

Gialopsos, B. M. (2017). Sexual violence in academia: Policy, theory, and prevention considerations. Journal of school violence, 16(2), 141-147.

Giroux, S. A., Gesselman, A. N., Garcia, J. R., Luetke, M., & Rosenberg, M. (2020). The magnitude and potential impact of missing data in a sexual violence campus climate survey. Journal of American College Health, 68(5), 468-476.

Glace, A. M. (2018). Affirmative Consent Endorsement and Peer Norms Supporting Sexual Violence Among Vulnerable Students on College Campuses.

Gómez, J. M. (2022). Gender, Campus Sexual Violence, Cultural Betrayal, Institutional Betrayal, and Institutional Support in U.S. Ethnic Minority College Students: A Descriptive Study. Violence Against Women, 28(1), 93-106. doi:10.1177/1077801221998757

Hackman, C. L., Pember, S. E., Wilkerson, A. H., Burton, W., & Usdan, S. L. (2017). Slut-Shaming and Victim-Blaming: A Qualitative Investigation of Undergraduate Students’ Perceptions of Sexual Violence. Sex Education, 17(6), 697-711.

Hales, S. T., & Gannon, T. A. (2022). Understanding Sexual Aggression in UK Male University Students: An Empirical Assessment of Prevalence and Psychological Risk Factors. Sexual Abuse, 34(6), 744-770. doi:10.1177/10790632211051682

Hampson, G. (2019). Campus-Based Sexual Assault: The #Metoo Movement and Students’ Understanding of Issues around Consent. (Masters), Louisiana State University.

Harris, J. C., Cobian, K. P., & Karunaratne, N. (2020). Reimagining the Study of Campus Sexual Assault. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research: Volume 35, 1-47.

Hartmann, A. (2015). Reworking Sexual Assault Response on University Campuses: Creating a Rights-Based Empowerment Model to Minimize Institutional Liability. Wash. UJL & Pol’y, 48, 287.

Hawn, S. E., Lind, M. J., Conley, A., Overstreet, C. M., Kendler, K. S., Dick, D. M., & Amstadter, A. B. (2018). Effects of Social Support on the Association between Precollege Sexual Assault and College-Onset Victimization. Journal of American College Health, 1-9.

Hayes, B. E., O’Neal, E. N., & Hernandez, C. N. (2020). The Sexual Victimization of College Students: A Test of Routine Activity Theory. Crime & Delinquency, 0(0), 0011128720954347. doi:10.1177/0011128720954347

Henry, A. P., Perillo, A. D., Reitz-Krueger, C. L., & Perillo, J. T. (2022). Reflecting the Times? Reexamining the Effect of Alcohol Intoxication on Perceptions of Campus Sexual Assault. Violence Against Women, 28(1), 49-72. doi:10.1177/10778012211005559

Herbenick, D., Fu, T.-C., Dodge, B., & Fortenberry, J. D. (2018). The Alcohol Contexts of Consent, Wanted Sex, Sexual Pleasure, and Sexual Assault: Results from a Probability Survey of Undergraduate Students. Journal of American College Health, 00-00.

Hernández-Romero, H., Rincón, P., & Castro-Alzate, E. S. (2019). Prevalence of victimization and perpetration of sexual aggression in undergraduate students: a systematic review 2008-2018. Revista Ciencias de la Salud, 17(1), 85-107.

Hetzel-Riggin, M. D. (2018). An Exploratory Evaluation of Bystander Intervention Training for Resident Assistants. Violence and Gender, 5(2), 119-124.

Heywood, W., Myers, P., Powell, A., Meikle, G., & Nguyen, D. (2022). National Student Safety Survey: Report on the prevalence of sexual harassment and sexual assault among university students in 2021. Melbourne: The Social Research Centre.

Hills, P. J., Pleva, M., Seib, E., & Cole, T. (2021). Understanding How University Students Use Perceptions of Consent, Wantedness, and Pleasure in Labeling Rape. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 50(1), 247-262. doi:10.1007/s10508-020-01772-1

Hirsch, J. S., & Khan, S. (2020). Sexual Citizens: A Landmark Study of Sex, Power, and Assault on Campus. WW Norton & Company.

Hoxmeier, J. C., O’Connor, J., & McMahon, S. (2022). Sexual Violence Among Sorority Women: Victimization Experiences, Contexts, and Disclosure. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012221108417. doi:10.1177/10778012221108417

Humphreys, C. J., & Towl, G. J. (2020). Addressing Student Sexual Violence in Higher Education: A Good Practice Guide. Emerald Group Publishing (Chapter 2).

Humphreys, T. P. (2000). Sexual Consent in Heterosexual Dating Relationships: Attitudes and Behaviours of University Students. Thesis, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Hust, S. J. T., Rodgers, K. B., & Bayly, B. (2017). Scripting Sexual Consent: Internalized Traditional Sexual Scripts and Sexual Consent Expectancies among College Students. Family Relations, 66(1), 197-210.

Iverson, S. V., & Issadore, M. N. (2018). Going Upstream: Policy as Sexual Violence Prevention and Response. New Directions for Student Services, 2018(161), 59-69.

Jackson, C., & Sundaram, V. (2020). Lad Culture in Higher Education: Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Violence. Routledge.

Jayapalan, A., Wong, L. P., & Aghamohammadi, N. (2018). A Qualitative Study to Explore Understanding and Perception of Sexual Abuse among Undergraduate Students of Different Ethnicities. Women’s Studies International Forum, 69, 26-32.

Jeffrey, N. K., & Barata, P. C. (2021). Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Among Canadian University Students: Incidence, Context, and Perpetrators’ Perceptions. Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi:10.1007/s10508-021-02006-8

Jessie, F., & G., S.-M. J. (2016). Sexual Assault Victimization among Straight, Gay/Lesbian, and Bisexual College Students. Violence and Gender, 3(2), 107-115.

Johnson, L. M., Matthews, T. L., & Napper, S. L. (2016). Sexual Orientation and Sexual Assault Victimization among US College Students. The Social Science Journal, 53(2), 174-183.

Jordan, C. E., Combs, J. L., & Smith, G. T. (2014). An exploration of sexual victimization and academic performance among college women. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15(3), 191-200.

Journal of School Violence. (2017). Special issue: Any Safer in the Ivory Tower? An Examination of Contemporary Policies and Practices Aimed at Sexual Violence on Campus, 16(3).

Journal of School Violence. (2017). Special issue: Learning from Campus Climate Surveys: Patterns of Victimization, Disclosure, and Service Awareness, 16(2).

Karami, A., White, C. N., Ford, K., Swan, S., & Spinel, M. Y. (2020). Unwanted advances in higher education: Uncovering sexual harassment experiences in academia with text mining. Information Processing & Management, 57(2), 102167.

Keene, S.M. (2015). Risky Residences: An exploratory study of sexual violence in university halls of residence. Masters thesis. Wellington: Victoria University.

Kefale, B., Yalew, M., Damtie, Y., Arefaynie, M., & Adane, B. (2021). Predictors of sexual violence among female students in higher education institutions in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 16(2), e0247386. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247386

Kennedy, Rosanne, and Hannah McCann. (2020). Splitting from Halley: Doing Justice to Race, Unwantedness, and Testimony in Campus Sexual Assault. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 46 (1), 79-102

Kirwan, M., Lanni, D. J., Nagy, S., & Pickett, S. M. (2021). Building a Model to Predict Sexual Assault Victimization Frequency Among Undergraduate Women. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012211022777. doi:10.1177/10778012211022777

Kistler, L. C., Renzetti, C. M., Follingstad, D. R., Li, C. R., & Chahal, J. K. (2023). Students’ Perceptions of Guilt, Responsibility, and Just Punishment When Accounts of Campus Sexual Assault Conflict. Sex Roles, 88(11), 529-546. doi:10.1007/s11199-023-01371-z

Laird, A. A., & Pronin, E. (2020). Professors’ Romantic Advances Undermine Students’ Academic Interest, Confidence, and Identification. Sex Roles, 83(1), 1-15. doi:10.1007/s11199-019-01093-1

Lee, C., & Wong, J. S. (2017). A Safe Place to Learn? Examining Sexual Assault Policies at Canadian Public Universities. Studies in Higher Education, 1-14.

Lee, S., Kim, S.-H., & Jun, J. (2022). Who is responsible for campus sexual assaults? News media use, attributions of responsibility, and college students’ perceived risk and willingness to engage in preventive behaviours. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 28(2), 244-260. doi:10.1080/13552600.2021.1961887

Lindo, J. M., Siminski, P., & Swensen, I. D. (2018). College party culture and sexual assault. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 10(1), 236-65.

Lombardo, E., & Bustelo, M. (2021). Sexual and sexist harassment in Spanish universities: policy implementation and resistances against gender equality measures. Journal of Gender Studies, 1-15. doi:10.1080/09589236.2021.1924643

Louisa, G., L., S. A., Melanie, W., Kate, W., Leigh, R., Patrick, W., . . . A., M. C. (2018). Situational Contexts and Risk Factors Associated with Incapacitated and Nonincapacitated Sexual Assaults among College Women. Journal of Women’s Health, 0(0), null.

Marco, M., Gracia, E., & LópezQuílez, A. (2018). The university campus environment as a protective factor for intimate partner violence against women: An exploratory study. Journal of Community Psychology, 46(7), 903-916.

Marcus, Robert F., and Bruce Swett. (2003). Multiple-precursor scenarios: predicting and reducing campus violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(5), May.

Marganski, A. J., Melander, L. A., & DeKeseredy, W. S. (2022). Single, Repeat, and Poly Intimate Partner Violence Victimization among Women at a College Campus: Extending Research Through the Inclusion of Technology-Facilitated Violence and Examining Key Social Determinants for Intimate Partner Violence Prevention. Violence Against Women, 28(12-13), 3013-3036. doi:10.1177/10778012211037376

Marine, S. B., & Nicolazzo, Z. (2020). Campus sexual violence prevention educators’ use of gender in their work: A critical exploration. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 35(21-22), 5005-5027.

Martin-Storey, A., Paquette, G., Bergeron, M., Dion, J., Daigneault, I., Hébert, M., & Ricci, S. (2018). Sexual Violence on Campus: Differences across Gender and Sexual Minority Status. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(6), 701-707.

Martin, P. Y. (2016). The rape prone culture of academic contexts: Fraternities and athletics. Gender & Society, 30(1), 30-43.

Martin, S. L., Fisher, B. S., Stoner, M. C., Rizo, C. F., & Wojcik, M. L. (2020). Sexual assault of college students: victimization and perpetration prevalence involving cisgender men, cisgender women and gender minorities. Journal of American College Health, 1-7.

McCarry, M., & Jones, C. (2021). The equality paradox: sexual harassment and gender inequality in a UK university. Journal of Gender Studies, 1-13. doi:10.1080/09589236.2021.2007471

McMahon, P. P. (2008). Sexual Violence on the College Campus: A Template for Compliance with Federal Policy. Journal of American College Health, 57(3), 361-366.

McMahon, S. (2015). Call for Research on Bystander Intervention to Prevent Sexual Violence: The Role of Campus Environments. American journal of community psychology, 55(3-4), 472-489.

McMahon, S., Wood, L., Cusano, J., & Macri, L.M. (2018). Campus sexual assault: Future directions for research. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. DOI:10.1177/1079063217750864

Mendes, K., Horeck, T., & Ringrose, J. (2022). Sexual violence in contemporary educational contexts. Gender and Education, 34(2), 129-133. doi:10.1080/09540253.2022.2032537

Moylan, C. A., Javorka, M., Bybee, D., Stotzer, R. L., & Carlson, M. (2019). Campus-Level Variation in the Prevalence of Student Experiences of Sexual Assault and Intimate Partner Violence. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 10(3), 397-421.

Muehlenhard, C. L., Peterson, Z. D., Humphreys, T. P., & Jozkowski, K. N. (2017). Evaluating the One-in-Five Statistic: Women’s Risk of Sexual Assault while in College. The Journal of Sex Research, 54(4-5), 549-576. doi:10.1080/00224499.2017.1295014

Murphy, A., and Van Brunt, B. (2016). Uprooting sexual violence in higher education: A guide for practitioners and faculty. Routledge.

Nadler, K. D. (2018). Rape Myth Acceptance in Professors: Relationships between Training, Policy and Procedure Knowledge, and Gender. Grand Canyon University.

National Union of Students (UK). (2010). Hidden Marks: A study of women students’ experiences of harassment, stalking, violence and sexual assault. London.

National Union of Students. (2012). Safe Universities Blueprint: Talk About It survey results and recommendations. Retrieved from Melbourne:

Nelson, H. A. (2010). Understanding views on college sexual assault from the student perspective. Thesis, San Diego State University, Social Work.

Nisbet, L., Halse, G., van Esbroek, E., Heywood, W., Powell, A. & Myers, P. (2022). National Student Safety Survey: Qualitative research on experiences of sexual harassment and sexual assault among university students in 2021. Melbourne: The Social Research Centre.

O’Connor, J., Cusano, J., McMahon, S., & Draper, J. (2018). Students’ Articulation of Subtle Rape Myths Surrounding Campus Sexual Assault. Journal of College Student Development, 59(4), 439-455.

O’Connor, J., Ganson, K. T., Ladonice, S., and Cardenas, I. (2022). Patterns of Violence Victimization and Disclosure Among Transgender/Gender Nonconforming and Cisgender Latinx College Students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 0(0), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221127217.

O’Connor, J., McMahon, S., Cusano, J., Seabrook, R., & Gracey, L. (2021). Predictors of campus sexual violence perpetration: A systematic review of research, sampling, and study design. Aggression and violent behavior, 101607.

O'Neal, E. N., Hayes, B. E., & Azimi, A. M. (2021). Distinguishing Between On-Campus and Off-Campus Sexual Victimization: A Brief Report. Violence and Gender, 8(1), 53-57. doi:10.1089/vio.2020.0029

O’Neill, I. (2017). In Our Own Words: Student experiences of sexual violence prior to and during tertiary education. Wellington: New Zealand Union of Students’ Associations.

Orchowski, L. M., & Berkowitz, A. (2015). Minority of College Rapes Committed by Serial Rapists. The Journal of Pediatrics, 167(5), 1169-1172.

Palmer, J. E., McMahon, S., & Fissel, E. (2021). Correlates of Incoming Male College Students’ Proclivity to Perpetrate Sexual Assault. Violence Against Women, 27(3-4), 507-528. doi:10.1177/1077801220905663

Palmer, R. S., McMahon, T. J., Rounsaville, B. J., & Ball, S. A. (2010). Coercive Sexual Experiences, Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies and Consumption among Male and Female College Students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(9), 1563-1578.

Parsons, T. A. (2020). I Didn’t Know it was Harassment: Pervasive & Unrecognized Discrimination on the College Campus.

Phipps, A., & Smith, G. (2012). Violence against women students in the UK: Time to take action. Gender and Education, 24(4), 357-373. doi:10.1080/09540253.2011.628928

Piccirillo, R. (2019). The Sexual Assault Epidemic in Education: A Comparative Look at the United States and Australia. Suffolk Transnat’l L. Rev., 42, 201.

Pinchevsky, G. M., Magnuson, A. B., Augustyn, M. Foubert, J. D., Clark-Taylor, A., & Wall, A. F. (2019). Is campus rape primarily a serial or one-time problem? Evidence from a multicampus study. Violence Against Women, 1077801219833820.

Porta, C. M., Mathiason, M. A., Lust, K., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2017). Sexual Violence among College Students: An Examination of Individual and Institutional Level Factors Associated with Perpetration. Journal of forensic nursing, 13(3), 109-117.

Potter, S., Howard, R., Murphy, S., & Moynihan, M. M. (2018). Long-Term Impacts of College Sexual Assaults on Women Survivors’ Educational and Career Attainments. Journal of American College Health, 1-12.

Prior, S., & de Heer, B. A. (2022). Campus Sexual Violence: A State of Institutionalized Sexual Terrorism. Taylor & Francis.

Ray, T. N., Lanni, D. J., Parkhill, M. R., Duong, T.-V., Pickett, S. M., & Burgess-Proctor, A. K. (2021). Interpersonal Violence Victimization Among Youth Entering College: A Preliminary Analysis Examining the Differences Between LGBTQ and Non-LGBTQ Youth. Violence and Gender, 0(0), null. doi:10.1089/vio.2020.0076

Reynolds, M., Anyadike-Danes, N., Lagdon, S., Aventin, Á., & Armour, C. (2023). Prevalence of unwanted sexual experiences and their associations on university students in the United States, United Kingdom, and Ireland: a systematic review. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 1-32. doi:10.1080/13552600.2023.2243992

Rios, O., Font-Palomar, M., Flecha, A., & Valls, R. (2022). Violence Against LGBTIQ+ People at Universities: The Need to Uncover a Silent Reality. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 0(0), 15248380221111471. doi:10.1177/15248380221111471

Salazar, L. F., Swartout, K. M., Swahn, M. H., Bellis, A. L., Carney, J., Vagi, K. J., & Lokey, C. (2018). Precollege Sexual Violence Perpetration and Associated Risk and Protective Factors among Male College Freshmen in Georgia. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(3), S51-S57.

Scholl, J. A., Cogan, C., Micol, R. L., Steward, J., Hancock, K., & Davis, J. L. (2019). Physical and sexual violence on college campuses: Considerations for international students. Journal of American College Health. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2019.1668398

Schuster, I., Krahé, B., & Toplu-Demirtaş, E. (2016). Prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in a sample of female and male college students in Turkey. The Journal of Sex Research, 53(9), 1139-1152.

Schuster, I., Krahé, B., Ilabaca Baeza, P., & Muñoz-Reyes, J. A. (2016). Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration among Male and Female College Students in Chile. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1354.

Siefkes-Andrew, A. J., & Alexopoulos, C. (2019). Framing Blame in Sexual Assault: An Analysis of Attribution in News Stories About Sexual Assault on College Campuses. Violence Against Women, 25(6), 743-762. 10.1177/1077801218801111

Sinozich, S., & Langton, L. (2014). Rape and sexual assault victimization among college-age females, 1995-2013. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Siyez, D. M., Belkıs, Ö., & Esen, E. (2023). How aware are college students of sexual harassment and assault in Turkey? Journal of Sexual Aggression, 1-18. doi:10.1080/13552600.2023.2176936

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