05. Violence in universities and among students and staff

Note: These references are focused on the prevalence of various forms of violence on campuses and/or among university students and staff and on risk factors for such violence. Also see this list of references on university- or campus-based prevention.


Anderson, J. C., Chugani, C. D., Jones, K. A., Coulter, R. W. S., Chung, T., & Miller, E. (2019). Characteristics of Precollege Sexual Violence Victimization and Associations with Sexual Violence Revictimization During College. Journal of American College Health, 1-9. 10.1080/07448481.2019.1583237

Anitha, S., Jordan, A., Jameson, J., & Davy, Z. (2020). A Balancing Act: Agency and Constraints in University Students’ Understanding of and Responses to Sexual Violence in the Night-Time Economy. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 1077801220908325. doi:10.1177/1077801220908325

Argiero, S. J., Dyrdahl, J. L., Fernandez, S. S., Whitney, L. E., & Woodring, R. J. (2010). A Cultural Perspective for Understanding How Campus Environments Perpetuate Rape-Supportive Culture. Journal of the Indiana University Student Personnel Association, 26-40.

Australian Human Rights Commission. (2017). Change the course: National report on sexual assault and sexual harassment at Australian universities. Sydney: AHRC.

Azimi, A. M., & Daigle, L. E. (2017). Promising Avenues for Prevention: Confronting Sexual Victimization on College Campuses. Preventing Crime and Violence (pp. 243-260): Springer.

B., & Rennison, C. M. (2019). Sexual Victimization and Sexual Harassment among College Students: A Comparative Analysis. Journal of Family Violence. 10.1007/s10896-019-00082-y

Baldwin-White, A. (2018). "I Shouldn't Have to Worry About Being Raped": Attitudes and Beliefs About Sexual Assault among College Students. Arizona State University.

Best, N. A. (2018). Campus Climate Matters: Predictors of the Prevalence of Sexual Violence Victimization. Azusa Pacific University.

Blauenstein, L. J. (2018). Sexual Consent: Perception of Ambiguous Sexual Encounters of LGBTQ+ and Cisgender, Heterosexual Individuals.

Boyle, K.M., & Walker, L.S. (2016). The neutralization and denial of sexual violence in college party subcultures. Deviant Behavior, [ahead-of-print]. DOI:10.1080/01639625.2016.1185862

Brennan, C. L., Swartout, K. M., Goodnight, B. L., Cook, S. L., Parrott, D. J., Thompson, M. P., . . . Leone, R. M. (2018). Evidence for Multiple Classes of Sexually Violent College Men. Psychology of Violence, 9(1).

Brewer, N., Thomas, K. A., & Higdon, J. (2018). Intimate Partner Violence, Health, Sexuality, and Academic Performance among a National Sample of Undergraduates. Journal of American College Health, 1-28.

Campbell, J. C., Sabri, B., Budhathoki, C., Kaufman, M. R., Alhusen, J., & Decker, M. R. (2017). Unwanted Sexual Acts among University Students: Correlates of Victimization and Perpetration. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260517734221.

Canan, S. N., Jozkowski, K. N., & Crawford, B. L. (2018). Sexual assault supportive attitudes: Rape myth acceptance and token resistance in Greek and non-Greek college students from two university samples in the United States. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(22), 3502-3530.

Carr, J. L., and K. M. Vandeusen. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses. Journal of Family Violence 19(5): 279-289.

Carvalho, J., & Sá, A. (2017). Male College Students Using Sexually Aggressive Strategies: Findings on the Interpersonal Relationship Profile. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260516689779.

Conley, A. H., Overstreet, C. M., Hawn, S. E., Kendler, K. S., Dick, D. M., & Amstadter, A. B. (2017). Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Assault among a College Sample. Journal of American College Health, 65(1), 41-49.

Coulter, R. W. S., Mair, C., Miller, E., Blosnich, J. R., Matthews, D. D., & McCauley, H. L. (2017). Prevalence of Past-Year Sexual Assault Victimization among Undergraduate Students: Exploring Differences by and Intersections of Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Race/Ethnicity. Prevention Science, 18(6), 726-736.

Craig, H. (2016). Sexual Assault & Students: Does Involvement in a ‘Lad Culture’ Affect British Students’ Acceptance of Sexual Assault? (Masters), University of Huddersfield.

DeKeseredy, W. (2017). Explaining campus violence against women: An examination of unhealthy masculinity and male peer support. In C. Kaukinen, M. Miller, & R. Powers (Eds.), Addressing Violence Against Women on College Campuses (pp. 45–65). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Donde, S.D., Ragsdale, S.K.A., Koss, M.P., & Zucker, A.N. (2018). If it wasn’t rape, was it sexual assault? Comparing rape and sexual assault acknowledgment in college women who have experienced rape. Violence Against Women. DOI:10.1177/1077801217743339

Duval, A., Lanning, B. A., & Patterson, M. S. (2018). A systematic review of dating violence risk factors among undergraduate college students. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 1524838018782207.

End Rape on Campus (EROC). (2018). The Red Zone Report: An investigation into sexual violence and hazing in Australian university residential colleges. Sydney: End Rape on Campus Australia.

Fedina, L., Holmes, J. L., & Backes, B. L. (2016). Campus Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review of Prevalence Research From 2000 to 2015. Trauma Violence Abuse. doi:10.1177/1524838016631129

Fenton, R., & Jones, C. (2017). An Exploratory Study on the Beliefs About Gender-Based Violence Held by Incoming Undergraduates in England. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, 1(2), 147-167.

Fisher, B. S., Daigle, L. E., & Cullen, F. T. (2009). Unsafe in the Ivory Tower: The sexual victimization of college women. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Gavey, N. J. (1991). Sexual Victimization among Auckland University Students: How Much and Who Does It? New Zealand journal of psychology, 20, 63-63.

Glace, A. M. (2018). Affirmative Consent Endorsement and Peer Norms Supporting Sexual Violence among Vulnerable Students on College Campuses.

Hackman, C. L., Pember, S. E., Wilkerson, A. H., Burton, W., & Usdan, S. L. (2017). Slut-Shaming and Victim-Blaming: A Qualitative Investigation of Undergraduate Students’ Perceptions of Sexual Violence. Sex Education, 17(6), 697-711.

Hampson, G. (2019). Campus-Based Sexual Assault: The #Metoo Movement and Students' Understanding of Issues around Consent. (Masters), Louisiana State University.  

Hartmann, A. (2015). Reworking Sexual Assault Response on University Campuses: Creating a Rights-Based Empowerment Model to Minimize Institutional Liability. Wash. UJL & Pol'y, 48, 287.

Hawn, S. E., Lind, M. J., Conley, A., Overstreet, C. M., Kendler, K. S., Dick, D. M., & Amstadter, A. B. (2018). Effects of Social Support on the Association between Precollege Sexual Assault and College-Onset Victimization. Journal of American College Health, 1-9.

Herbenick, D., Fu, T.-C., Dodge, B., & Fortenberry, J. D. (2018). The Alcohol Contexts of Consent, Wanted Sex, Sexual Pleasure, and Sexual Assault: Results from a Probability Survey of Undergraduate Students. Journal of American College Health, 00-00.

Hetzel-Riggin, M. D. (2018). An Exploratory Evaluation of Bystander Intervention Training for Resident Assistants. Violence and Gender, 5(2), 119-124.

Hirsch, J. S., & Khan, S. (2020). Sexual Citizens: A Landmark Study of Sex, Power, and Assault on Campus. WW Norton & Company.

Humphreys, T. P. (2000). Sexual Consent in Heterosexual Dating Relationships: Attitudes and Behaviours of University Students. Thesis, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Hust, S. J. T., Rodgers, K. B., & Bayly, B. (2017). Scripting Sexual Consent: Internalized Traditional Sexual Scripts and Sexual Consent Expectancies among College Students. Family Relations, 66(1), 197-210.

Iverson, S. V., & Issadore, M. N. (2018). Going Upstream: Policy as Sexual Violence Prevention and Response. New Directions for Student Services, 2018(161), 59-69.

Jackson, C., & Sundaram, V. (2020). Lad Culture in Higher Education: Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Violence. Routledge.

Jayapalan, A., Wong, L. P., & Aghamohammadi, N. (2018). A Qualitative Study to Explore Understanding and Perception of Sexual Abuse among Undergraduate Students of Different Ethnicities. Women’s Studies International Forum, 69, 26-32.

Jessie, F., & G., S.-M. J. (2016). Sexual Assault Victimization among Straight, Gay/Lesbian, and Bisexual College Students. Violence and Gender, 3(2), 107-115.

Johnson, L. M., Matthews, T. L., & Napper, S. L. (2016). Sexual Orientation and Sexual Assault Victimization among US College Students. The Social Science Journal, 53(2), 174-183.

Jordan, C. E., Combs, J. L., & Smith, G. T. (2014). An exploration of sexual victimization and academic performance among college women. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15(3), 191-200.

Journal of School Violence. (2017). Special issue: Any Safer in the Ivory Tower? An Examination of Contemporary Policies and Practices Aimed at Sexual Violence on Campus, 16(3).

Journal of School Violence. (2017). Special issue: Learning from Campus Climate Surveys: Patterns of Victimization, Disclosure, and Service Awareness, 16(2).

Keene, S.M. (2015). Risky Residences: An exploratory study of sexual violence in university halls of residence. Masters thesis. Wellington: Victoria University.

Lee, C., & Wong, J. S. (2017). A Safe Place to Learn? Examining Sexual Assault Policies at Canadian Public Universities. Studies in Higher Education, 1-14.

Louisa, G., L., S. A., Melanie, W., Kate, W., Leigh, R., Patrick, W., . . . A., M. C. (2018). Situational Contexts and Risk Factors Associated with Incapacitated and Nonincapacitated Sexual Assaults among College Women. Journal of Women's Health, 0(0), null.

Marco, M., Gracia, E., & LópezQuílez, A. (2018). The university campus environment as a protective factor for intimate partner violence against women: An exploratory study. Journal of Community Psychology, 46(7), 903-916.

Martin-Storey, A., Paquette, G., Bergeron, M., Dion, J., Daigneault, I., Hébert, M., & Ricci, S. (2018). Sexual Violence on Campus: Differences across Gender and Sexual Minority Status. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(6), 701-707.

Martin, P. Y. (2016). The rape prone culture of academic contexts: Fraternities and athletics. Gender & Society, 30(1), 30-43.

McMahon, P. P. (2008). Sexual Violence on the College Campus: A Template for Compliance with Federal Policy. Journal of American College Health, 57(3), 361-366.

McMahon, S. (2015). Call for Research on Bystander Intervention to Prevent Sexual Violence: The Role of Campus Environments. American journal of community psychology, 55(3-4), 472-489.

McMahon, S., Wood, L., Cusano, J., & Macri, L.M. (2018). Campus sexual assault: Future directions for research. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. DOI:10.1177/1079063217750864

Moylan, C. A., Javorka, M., Bybee, D., Stotzer, R. L., & Carlson, M. (2019). Campus-Level Variation in the Prevalence of Student Experiences of Sexual Assault and Intimate Partner Violence. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 10(3), 397-421.

Muehlenhard, C. L., Peterson, Z. D., Humphreys, T. P., & Jozkowski, K. N. (2017). Evaluating the One-in-Five Statistic: Women’s Risk of Sexual Assault while in College. The Journal of Sex Research, 54(4-5), 549-576. doi:10.1080/00224499.2017.1295014

Murphy, A., and Van Brunt, B. (2016). Uprooting sexual violence in higher education: A guide for practitioners and faculty. Routledge.

Nadler, K. D. (2018). Rape Myth Acceptance in Professors: Relationships between Training, Policy and Procedure Knowledge, and Gender. Grand Canyon University.

National Union of Students (UK). (2010). Hidden Marks: A study of women students’ experiences of harassment, stalking, violence and sexual assault. London.

National Union of Students. (2012). Safe Universities Blueprint: Talk About It survey results and recommendations. Retrieved from Melbourne:

Nelson, H. A. (2010). Understanding views on college sexual assault from the student perspective. Thesis, San Diego State University, Social Work.

O'Connor, J., Cusano, J., McMahon, S., & Draper, J. (2018). Students' Articulation of Subtle Rape Myths Surrounding Campus Sexual Assault. Journal of College Student Development, 59(4), 439-455.

O’Neill, I. (2017). In Our Own Words: Student experiences of sexual violence prior to and during tertiary education. Wellington: New Zealand Union of Students’ Associations.

Orchowski, L. M., & Berkowitz, A. (2015). Minority of College Rapes Committed by Serial Rapists. The Journal of Pediatrics, 167(5), 1169-1172.

Palmer, R. S., McMahon, T. J., Rounsaville, B. J., & Ball, S. A. (2010). Coercive Sexual Experiences, Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies and Consumption among Male and Female College Students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(9), 1563-1578.

Phipps, A., & Smith, G. (2012). Violence against women students in the UK: Time to take action. Gender and Education, 24(4), 357-373. doi:10.1080/09540253.2011.628928

Pinchevsky, G. M., Magnuson, A. B., Augustyn, M. Foubert, J. D., Clark-Taylor, A., & Wall, A. F. (2019). Is campus rape primarily a serial or one-time problem? Evidence from a multicampus study. Violence Against Women, 1077801219833820.

Porta, C. M., Mathiason, M. A., Lust, K., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2017). Sexual Violence among College Students: An Examination of Individual and Institutional Level Factors Associated with Perpetration. Journal of forensic nursing, 13(3), 109-117.

Potter, S., Howard, R., Murphy, S., & Moynihan, M. M. (2018). Long-Term Impacts of College Sexual Assaults on Women Survivors’ Educational and Career Attainments. Journal of American College Health, 1-12.

Salazar, L. F., Swartout, K. M., Swahn, M. H., Bellis, A. L., Carney, J., Vagi, K. J., & Lokey, C. (2018). Precollege Sexual Violence Perpetration and Associated Risk and Protective Factors among Male College Freshmen in Georgia. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(3), S51-S57.

Scholl, J. A., Cogan, C., Micol, R. L., Steward, J., Hancock, K., & Davis, J. L. (2019). Physical and sexual violence on college campuses: Considerations for international students. Journal of American College Health. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2019.1668398

Schuster, I., Krahé, B., Ilabaca Baeza, P., & Muñoz-Reyes, J. A. (2016). Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration among Male and Female College Students in Chile. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1354.

Siefkes-Andrew, A. J., & Alexopoulos, C. (2019). Framing Blame in Sexual Assault: An Analysis of Attribution in News Stories About Sexual Assault on College Campuses. Violence Against Women, 25(6), 743-762. 10.1177/1077801218801111

Snyder, J.A., Scherer, H.L., & Fisher, B.S. (2016). Interpersonal violence among college students: Does sexual orientation impact risk of victimization? Journal of School Violence, [ahead-of-print]. DOI:10.1080/15388220.2016.1190934

Streng, T. K., & Kamimura, A. (2017). Perceptions of University Policies to Prevent Sexual Assault on Campus among College Students in the USA. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 14(2), 133-142.

Sutherland, J. L., Amar, A. F., & Sutherland, M. A. (2014). Victimization and Perpetration of Sexual Violence in College-Aged Men and Women. Journal of forensic nursing, 10(3), 153-159.

Swartout, K. M., Swartout, A. G., Brennan, C. L., & White, J. W. (2015). Trajectories of Male Sexual Aggression from Adolescence through College: A Latent Class Growth Analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 41(5), 467-477.

Talbot, K. K., Neill, K. S., & Rankin, L. L. (2010). RapeAccepting Attitudes of University Undergraduate Students. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 6(4), 170-179.

Thompson, M. P., Kingree, J. B., Zinzow, H., & Swartout, K. (2015). Time-Varying Risk Factors and Sexual Aggression Perpetration among Male College Students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(6), 637-642.

Thompson, M. P., Swartout, K., & Koss, M. (2013). Trajectories and Predictors of Sexually Aggressive Behaviors During Emerging Adulthood. Psychology of Violence, 3(3), 247-259.

Van Brunt, B., Murphy, A., Pescara-Kovach, L., & Crance, G.-L. (2018). Early Identification of Grooming and Targeting in Predatory Sexual Behavior on College Campuses. Violence and Gender.

Weiss, K. G. (2013). Party School: Crime, Campus, and Community: UPNE.

Wiersma-Mosley, J. D., Jozkowski, K. N., & Martinez, T. (2017). An Empirical Investigation of Campus Demographics and Reported Rapes. Journal of American College Health, 65(7), 482-491. 10.1080/07448481.2017.1343829

Wiersma-Mosley, J. D., Willis, M., Jozkowski, K. N., & Cleveland, M. J. (2019). Do Party Schools Report Higher Rates of Violence against Women in Their Clery Data? A Latent Class Analysis. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 1077801219840436. 10.1177/1077801219840436

Wood, L., Hoefer, S., Kammer-Kerwick, M., Parra-Cardona, J. R., & Busch-Armendariz, N. (2018). Sexual Harassment at Institutions of Higher Education: Prevalence, Risk, and Extent. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0(0), 0886260518791228.