(iii) Male teachers and male childcare workers

Note: Also see “Work and class” for references on men in feminised occupations and on domestic work and child-rearing.


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Bailey, Lucy. (1996). The feminisation of a school? Women teachers in a boys’ school. Gender and Education, 8(2), pp. 171-184.

Berlyn, Claire, Sarah Wise, and Grace Soriano. (2008). Engaging fathers in child and family services: participation, perceptions and good practice. Australian Government Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA), Occasional Paper 22.

Brandth, Berit, and Elin Kvande. (1998). Masculinity and Child Care: The Reconstruction of Fathering. Sociological Review, 46(2), May, pp. 293-313.

Brownhill, S. (2014). ‘Build Me a Male Role Model!’ A Critical Exploration of the Perceived Qualities/Characteristics of Men in the Early Years (0–8) in England. Gender and Education, 26(3), 246-261.

Cameron, Claire. (2001). Promise or problem? A review of the literature on men working in early childhood services. Gender, Work and Organisation, 8(4): pp. 430-453.

Carrington B., P. Tymms, and C. Merrell. (2005). Forget gender: whether a teacher is male or female doesn’t matter. Teacher, 165, pp. 32-34; December.

Cognard-Black, A.J. (2004). Will they stay, or will they go? Sex-atypical work among token men who teach. Sociol. Q. 45: 113–39.

Cunningham, Bruce. (1998-1999). Men in Child Care. Child Care Information Exchange, Part 1 & 2. Sept/Oct - January/February.

Cushman, P. (2008). So what exactly do you want? What principals mean when they say ‘male role model’. Gender and Education, 20(2): 123 - 136.

Davis, I., & Hay, S. (2018). Primary Masculinities: How Male Teachers Are Regarded as Employees within Primary Education – a Global Systematic Literature Review. Sex Education, 18(3), 280-292.

Drudy, Sheelagh, Maeve Martin, John O’Flynn, and Mairide Woods. (2005). Men and the Classroom: Gender Imbalances in Teaching. Routledge.

Fagan, J. (1996). Principles for developing male involvement in early childhood settings: A personal experience. Young Children, 51, pp. 64-71.

Farquhar, Sarah. (1997). Are Male Teachers Really Necessary? Paper to the New Zealand Association of Research in Education Conference, December, Auckland N.Z.

Faulstich-Wieland, H. (2013). Should Male Primary School Teachers Be There Principally as Role Models for Boys? Universal Journal of Educational Research, 1(2), 65-73.

Fletcher, Richard, Natalie Close, Anet Babakhani, and Robert Churchward. (2008). Men And Children’s Centres: A Systematic Explanatory Review. Fathers and Families Research Program, Family Action Centre, Faculty of Health, The University of Newcastle.

Francis, Becky, and Christine Skelton. (2001). Men teachers and the construction of heterosexual masculinity in the classroom. Sex Education, 1(1).

Francis, Becky. (2008). Teaching manfully? Exploring gendered subjectivities and power via analysis of men teachers’ gender performance. Gender and Education, 20(2): 109 - 122.

Garner, Philip, and Peter Clough. (2008). Fathers And Sons: In and about education. Trentham Books.

Ghate, D., C. Shaw and N. Haxel. (2000). Fathers and Family Centres. York, UK: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Ghedini, P.O., T. Chandler, M. Whalley and P. Moss. (1995). Fathers, Nurseries and Childcare. European Commission Network on Childcare.

Goodman, J., and T. Kelly. (1988). Out of the mainstream: Issues confronting the male profeminist elementary school teacher. Interchange, 19(2): 1-14.

Gosse, D., M. Parr and J. Allison. (2008). Researching the halted paths of male primary school teacher candidates. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 16(1): 57(12).

Haase, M. (2008). ‘I don’t do the mothering role that lots of female teachers do’: male teachers, gender, power and social organisation. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 29(6): 597 - 608.

Hansen P., and J.A. Mulholland. (2005). Caring and elementary teaching - The concerns of male beginning teachers. Journal Of Teacher Education, 56(2): 119-131, March-April.

Head, John. (2000). Feminism and male teachers (Review of Men Engaging Feminisms). Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 8(2).

Holmes, Ron. (1998). Breaking the Mould: Men in Early Childhood Services. Community Quarterly, No. 46, June

Huber, L., I. Vollum, and J. Stroud. (2000). Encouraging Men to Enter the Field of Child Care: What Can Be Done? Early Child Development and Care, Volume 165.

James, Abigail Norfleet. (2007). Teaching the Male Brain: How Boys Think, Feel, and Learn in School. Corwin.

Jones, Alison. (2003). Touching Children: Policy, social anxiety and the ‘safe’ teacher. Journal of Curriculum Theorising, 19(2), Summer.

King, J. (1998). Uncommon Caring: Learning from Men Who Teach Young Children. New York, Teachers College Press.

King, James R. (1998). Uncommon Caring: Learning from men who teach young children. New York: Teachers College Press.

Knights, Ben. (2007). Masculinities in Text and Teaching. Blackwell.
Preface - Masculinities in Text and Teaching; B. Knights - Training to be an English Teacher: Negotiating Gendered Subjectivities and the Gendered Curriculum as Inter-Linked Cultural Processes; W. Martin- Queer Teaching/Teaching Queer: Renaissance Masculinities and the Seminar; M. Dooley - Charlotte Dacre’s Nymphomaniacs and Demon Lovers: Teaching Female Masculinities; R. Chatterjee - Masculinity and Modernism: Teaching D. H. Lawrence; R. Burden - Gender and Narrative Form; R. Page - Bois will be Bois: Masculinity and Pedagogy in the Gay and Lesbian Studies Classroom; D. Allen - Curricula Constructions of Race and Gender: Reading African-American Masculinity; R. Carroll - Lifelong Learning in the Lifelong Poem; C. Thurgar-Dawson - Autobiographical Narratives in the Teaching of Masculinities; J. Beynon - Atrocity and Transitivity; C. Yelland - Taking Possession of Knowledge: The Masculine Academic in Don De Lillo’s White Noise; R. Helyer - High Visibility: Teaching Ladlit; A. Ferrebe.

Lahelma, Elina. (2000). Lack of male teachers: A problem for students or teachers? Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 8(2).

Lemkau, J.P. (1984). Men in Female Dominated Professions: Distinguishing Personality and Background Factors. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 24: 110-120.

Levine, James A. et. al. (1993). Getting Men Involved: Strategies for Early Childhood Programs. New York: Scholastic Press.

Lewis, Ed et. al. (1999). Men in Primary Teaching: An Endangered Species?. Paper to Australian Association for Research in Education Conference. Melbourne, 1 December

Lupton, B. (2006). Explaining Men’s Entry into Female-Concentrated Occupations: Issues of Masculinity and Social Class. Gender, Work and Organization, 13(2): 103-128.

Martin, Andrew, and Herb Marsh. (2005). Motivating boys and motivating girls: Does teacher gender really make a difference? Australian Journal of Education, v. 49, no. 3, Nov.: 320-334.

Martino, W., and G. Rezai-Rashti. (2012). Gender, Race, and the Politics of Role Modelling: The Influence of Male Teachers. New York: Routledge.

Martino, Wayne, and Blye Frank. (2006). The tyranny of surveillance: male teachers and the policing of masculinities in a single sex school. Gender and Education, 18(1): 17-33.

Martirosyan, M. (2008). Lack of Adult Male Role Models in Secondary Schools of Armenia and Its Impact on Armenian Male Teenagers’ Conceptualizations of Masculinities. Journal of Education and Human Development, 2(1).

McGrath, K. F. (2019). Masculinity and Risk: Is Teaching “Too Risky” for Men in Australia?. Men and Masculinities, 1097184X19865317.

McGrath, K. F. (2020). When female leaders outnumber men: the decline of male school principals in Australia. Journal of Gender Studies, 29(5), 604-612.

McGrath, K. F., & Van Bergen, P. (2017). Are male teachers headed for extinction? The 50-year decline of male teachers in Australia. Economics of Education Review, 60, 159-167.

McGrath, K. F., Moosa, S., Van Bergen, P., & Bhana, D. (2020). The Plight of the Male Teacher: An Interdisciplinary and Multileveled Theoretical Framework for Researching a Shortage of Male Teachers. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 28(2), 149-164.

McGrath, K., & Sinclair, M. (2013). More male primary-school teachers? Social benefits for boys and girls. Gender and Education, 25(5), 531-547.

Mills, M., M. Haase and E. Charlton. (2008). Being the ‘right’ kind of male teacher : the disciplining of John. Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 16(1): 71-84.

Mills, Martin, Wayne Martino, and Bob Lingard. (2004). Attracting, recruiting and retaining male teachers: Policy issues in the male teacher debate. British Journal of Sociology of Education, Volume 25, Number 3, pp. 355-369.

Mills, Martin. (2000). Issues in Implementing Boys’ Programme in Schools: Male Teachers and Empowerment. Gender and Education, Volume 12, Number 2, June.

Moosa, S., & Bhana, D. (2017). Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling. Educational Review, 69(3), 366-387.

Nelson, Bryan G. and Bruce Sheppard. (eds.) (year?). Men in Child Care and Education: A Handbook for Administrators and Educators. Men in Child Care Project, 2420 31st Avenue S., Minneapolis, MN 55406-1470, 1992.

Nentwich, J. C., Poppen, W., Schälin, S., & Vogt, F. (2013). The Same and the Other: Male Childcare Workers Managing Identity Dissonance. International Review of Sociology, 23(2), 326-345.

Nordberg, M. (2002). Constructing Masculinity in Women’s Worlds: Men working as pre-school teachers and hairdressers. NORA: Nordic Journal of Women’s Studies, 1 March, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 26-37.

Owen, Charlie et. al. (eds). (1998). Men as Workers in Services for Young Children: Issues of a Mixed Gender Workforce. Institute of Education. University of London: Bedford Way Papers.

Oyler, Celia, Gregory T. Jennings, and Philip Lozada. (2001). Silenced Gender: The Construction of a Male Primary Educator. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(3): 367-79; April.

Rezai-Rashti, G. M. and W. J. Martino (2010). Black Male Teachers as Role Models: Resisting the Homogenizing Impulse of Gender and Racial Affiliation. American Educational Research Journal 47(1): 37-64.

Rice, Craig J., and Deborah Peters Goessling. (2005). Recruiting and Retaining Male Special Education Teachers. Remedial and Special Education, Nov/Dec., Vol. 26 Iss. 6.

River, D. (2016). Social Identity and Gender Inequities for Male Elementary Teachers.

Rofes, Eric. (2000). Bound and Gagged: Sexual Silences, Gender Conformity and the Gay Male Teacher. Sexualities, Volume 3 Issue 4, November.

Rolfe, Heather. (2006). Where are the Men? Gender Segregation in the Childcare and Early Years Sector. National Institute Economic Review, Vol. 195, No. 1, January: 103-117.

Roulston, Kathy, and Martin Mills. (2000). Male Teachers in Feminised Areas: Marching to the Beat of the Men’s Movement drums?. Oxford Review of Education. 26(2): 221-237, June.

Sargent, Paul. (2000). Real Men or Real Teachers? Contradictions in the Lives of Men Elementary Teachers. Men and Masculinities, 2(4), April.

Sargent, Paul. (2002). Under the Glass: Conversations with Men in Early Childhood Education. Young Children. November (National Association for the Education of Young Children).

Sargent, Paul. (2004). Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Men Caught in the Gender Bind of Early Childhood Education. Journal of Men’s Studies, Spring, 12(3).

Sargent, Paul. (2005). The gendering of men in early childhood education. Sex Roles, 52 (3-4): pp. 251-259, February.

Scourfield, Jonathan B. (2001). Constructing Men in Child Protection Work. Men and Masculinities, 4(1), July.

Sevier, B., & Ashcraft, C. (2009). Be Careful What You Ask For: Exploring the Confusion around and Usefulness of the Male Teacher as Male Role Model Discourse. Men and Masculinities, 11(5), 533-557.

Simpson, R. (2005). Men in Non-Traditional Occupations: Career Entry, Career Orientation and Experience of Role Strain. Gender, Work and Organization, 12(4): 363-380.

Skelton, A. (2000). ‘Camping it Up to make Them Laugh?’ Gay Men Teaching in Higher Education. Teaching in Higher Education, 5(2): 181-193.

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Skelton, Christine. (2001). Male Teachers and Primary Schools. Chapter 6 in Schooling the Boys: Masculinities and Primary Education. Buckingham & Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Skelton, Christine. (2009). Failing to Get Men into Primary Teaching: A Feminist Critique. Journal of Education Policy, v24 n1, p39-54 Jan.

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Sullivan, V., Coles, L., Xu, Y., Perales, F., & Thorpe, K. (2020). Beliefs and attributions: Insider accounts of men’s place in early childhood education and care. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 21(2), 126-137. doi:10.1177/1463949120929462

Sumsion, Jennifer. (1999). ‘A feeling of not being welcome’: Subtle discrimination in early childhood education. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 24(3), pp. 42-46.

Sumsion, Jennifer. (1999). Critical Reflections on the Experiences of a Male Early Childhood Worker. Gender and Education, v11 n4, December, pp. 455-68.

Sumsion, Jennifer. (2000). Oppositional Discourses: Deconstructing responses to investigations of male early childhood educators. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, Volume 1 Number 2, pp. 259-275.

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