f) Attitudes towards feminism or feminist identity

Note: Also see the section on general attitudes towards gender.


Abrams, Laura S. (2003). Contextual Variations in Young Women’s Gender Identity Negotiations. Psychology of Women Quarterly, Volume 27 Issue 1, March.

Anderson, Kristin J., Melinda Kanner, and Nisreen Elsayegh. (2009). Are Feminists Man Haters? “Feminists” and “nonfeminists” attitudes toward men. Psychology of Women Quarterly 33(2): 216-224.

Ayres, M. M., Friedman, C. K., & Leaper, C. (2009). Individual and situational factors related to young women’s likelihood of confronting sexism in their everyday lives. Sex Roles, 61(7-8), 449-460.

Bargad, A., and J.S. Hyde. (1991). Women’s studies: A study of feminist identity development in women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 181–201.

Bay-Cheng, L. Y. and A. N. Zucker (2007). Feminism between the sheets: sexual attitudes among feminists, nonfeminists, and egalitarians. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31(2): 157-163.

Bolzendahl, C. I., and D. J. Myers. (2004). Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974-1998. Social Forces, 83(2): 759-790.

Budgeon, Shelley. (2001). Emergent Feminist(?) Identities: Young Women and the Practice of Micropolitics. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 8(1), February

Bulbeck, Chilla. (2003). ‘I wish to become the leader of women and give them equal rights in society’: How young Australians and Asians understand feminism and the women’s movement. Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 7(1-2): 4-25.

Bulbeck, Chilla. (2004) Gender issues and the women’s movement: Attitudes of young people in USA, Australia, Canada, China, India, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, South Korea, Japan. Unpublished.

Bulbeck, Chilla. (2005). ‘Women are exploited way too often’: Feminist rhetorics at the end of equality. Australian Feminist Studies, Volume 20 Number 46, March.

Bullock, Heather E., and Julian L. Fernald. (2003). “Feminism Lite?” Feminist Identification, Speaker Appearance, and Perceptions of Feminist and Antifeminist Messengers. Psychology of Women Quarterly, Volume 27 Issue 4, December.

Carlson, Bonnie E., and Alissa Pollitz Worden (2005). Attitudes and beliefs about domestic violence: results of a public opinion survey: I. definitions of domestic violence, criminal domestic violence, and prevalence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(10), October, pp. 1197-1218.

Carlyle, M. S. (2017). Postfeminist Distortions: Complicated Discourses of Feminist Identity, Choice and Sexuality. (PhD), Arizona State University.

Charles, N., Wadia, K., Ferrer-Fons, M., & Allaste, A.-A. (2018). ‘I’m a Feminist, I’m Not Ashamed and I’m Proud’: Young People’s Activism and Feminist Identities in Estonia, Spain and the Uk. Women’s Studies International Forum, 67, 23-29.

Christine, A. S. (1999). I enjoy being a girl: Collective self-esteem, feminism, and attitudes toward women. Sex Roles, 40(3/4): 281.

Christopher, S. D. (2018). Feminist identity development among young, feminist men in college. Thesis.

Cowan, Gloria. (1992). Predictors of Feminist Self-Labeling. Sex Roles, 27: 7/8, October.

Cunningham, S. J. (2012). An investigation of the relationship between feminist traits and personal empowerment for young women. PhD, University of Akron.

Downing, N.E., and K.L. Roush. (1985). From passive acceptance to active commitment: A model of feminist identity development for women. The Counseling Pschologist 13(4): 695709.

Duncan, L. E. (2010). Women’s relationship to feminism: effects of generation and feminist self-labeling. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(4), 498-507.

Dyer, S., & Hurd, F. (2018). Changing Perceptions About Feminists and (Still Not) Claiming a Feminist Identity. Gender and Education, 30(4), 435-449.

Enns, C. Z., & Fischer, A. R. (2012). On the complexity of multiple feminist identities. The Counseling Psychologist, 40(8), 1149-1163.

Fisher, A.R., and G.E. Good. (2004). Women’s feminist consciousness, anger, and psychological distress. Journal of Counseling Psychology 51(4): 437446.

Fitz, C. C., Zucker, A. N., & Bay-Cheng, L. Y. (2012). Not All Nonlabelers Are Created Equal: Distinguishing Between Quasi-Feminists and Neoliberals. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36(3), 274-285.

Foster, M. D. (2015). Tweeting about sexism: The wellbeing benefits of a social media collective action. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54(4), 629-647.

Foster, M. D. (2019). “Use it or lose it”: How online activism moderates the protective properties of gender identity for well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 96, 163-173.

Friedman, C., & Leaper, C. (2010). Sexual-minority college women's experiences with discrimination: Relations with identity and collective action. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(2), 152-164.

Gefter, J. R., Bankoff, S. M., Valentine, S. E., Rood, B. A., & Pantalone, D. W. (2013). Feminist Beliefs Associated with Young Women’s Recovery from Male-Perpetrated Abuse. Women & Therapy, 36(3-4), 332-355.

Gerstman, E. A., and D. A. Kramer. (1997). Feminist identity development: Psychometric analyses of two feminist identity scales. Sex Roles, 36, 327–348.

Houvouras, S., & Scott Carter, J. (2008). The F word: College students’ definitions of a feminist. Sociological Forum, 23(2), 234-256.

Hunter, A. G., & Sellers, S. L. (1998). Feminist attitudes among African American women and men. Gender & Society, 12(1), 81-99.

Jasko, K., Szastok, M., GrzymalaMoszczynska, J., Maj, M., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2019). Rebel with a cause: Personal significance from political activism predicts willingness to selfsacrifice. Journal of Social Issues, 75(1), 314-349.

Jenen, J., J. Winquist, D. Arkkelin and K. Schuster (2009). Implicit Attitudes Towards Feminism. Sex Roles, 60(1): 14-20.

Kelly, M. (2015). Feminist identity, collective action, and individual resistance among contemporary U.S. feminists. Women's Studies International Forum, 48, 81-92. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2014.10.025

Leaper, C., & Arias, D. M. (2011). College women’s feminist identity: A multidimensional analysis with implications for coping with sexism. Sex Roles, 64(7-8), 475-490.

Liss, Miriam, Christy O’Connor, Elena Morosky, and Mary Crawford. (2001). What Makes a Feminist? Predictors and Correlates of Feminist Social Identity in College Women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, Volume 25 Issue 2, June.

Mallett, R. K., Ford, T. E., & Woodzicka, J. A. (2019). Ignoring sexism increases women’s tolerance of sexual harassment. Self and Identity, 1-17.

Manago, A. M., Spears Brown, C., & Leaper, C. (2009). Feminist Identity among Latina Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24(6), 750-776.

Marine, S., & Lewis, R. (2019). Mutuality without Alliance: The Roles of Community in Becoming a College Student Feminist. Gender and Education, 31(7), 886-902. 10.1080/09540253.2017.1332342

McCabe, Janice. (2005). What’s in a Label? The Relationship between Feminist Self-Identification and “Feminist” Attitudes among U. S. Women and Men. Gender & Society, August, Volume 19.

McKnight, L. (2018). A Bit of a Dirty Word: ‘Feminism’ and Female Teachers Identifying as Feminist. Journal of Gender Studies, 27(2), 220-230.

Meagher, G., and S. Wilson. (2006). After Howard’s Decade, Is Australia More Conservative? Australian Review of Public Affairs, February 23, online. .

Michelle Ceynar, R., and L. H. Shelly. (2001). Self-presentation of beliefs about gender discrimination and feminism. Sex Roles, 44(11/12): 647.

Myaskovsky, Larissa, and Michele Andrisin Wittig. (1997). Predictors of feminist social identity among college women. Sex Roles, December, Vol. 37, Iss. 11/12.

Nelson, J. A., Liss, M., Erchull, M. J., Hurt, M. M., Ramsey, L. R., Turner, D. L., & Haines, M. E. (2008). Identity in Action: Predictors of Feminist Self-Identification and Collective Action. Sex Roles, 58(9), 721-728. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9384-0

Radke, H. R., Hornsey, M. J., & Barlow, F. K. (2016). Barriers to women engaging in collective action to overcome sexism. American Psychologist, 71(9), 863.

Reid, A., & Purcell, N. (2004). Pathways to Feminist Identification. Sex Roles, 50(11), 759-769. doi:10.1023/B:SERS.0000029095.40767.3cAronson, P. (2003). Feminists or “Postfeminists”? Young women’s attitudes towards feminism and gender relations. Gender & Society, 17(6), Dec.: 903-922.

Rhodebeck, L. A. (1996). The structure of men’s and women’s feminist orientations: Feminist Identity and Feminist Opinion. Gender & Society, 10(4), 386-403.

Rich, Emma. (2005). Young women, feminist identities and neo-liberalism. Women’s Studies International Forum, 28(6): 495-508.

Richman, C. L., Kenton, L., Helfst, C., & Gaggar, N. (2004). The probability of intervention: Gender X “ISMS” effects. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 32(3), 295-302.

Roy, R. E., K. S. Weibust, and C. T. Miller (2007). Effects of stereotypes about feminists on feminist self-identification. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31(2): 146-156.

Rudolfsdottir, A. G. and R. Jolliffe (2008). ‘I Don’t Think People Really Talk about It That Much’: Young Women Discuss Feminism. Feminism & Psychology, 18(2): 268-274.

Shawn Meghan, B., A. Roger, and M. Carey. (2000). The relationship between gender social identity and support for feminism. Sex Roles, 42(11/12): 1081.

Siegel, J. A., & Calogero, R. M. (2019). Conformity to feminine norms and self-objectification in self-identified feminist and non-feminist women. Body image, 28, 115-118.

Swirsky, J.M., and D.J.  Angelone. (2014). Femi-Nazis and Bra Burning Crazies: A Qualitative Evaluation of Contemporary Beliefs about Feminism. Current Psychology, 1-17.

Thoms, V. (2006). Reading Human Sex: The Challenges of a Feminist Identity through Time and Space. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 13(4): 357-371.

Toller, P. W., E. A. Suter, and T. C. Trautman. (2004). Gender Role Identity and Attitudes Toward Feminism. Sex Roles, 51(1/2): 85.

Weis, A. S., Redford, L., Zucker, A. N., & Ratliff, K. A. (2018). Feminist Identity, Attitudes toward Feminist Prototypes, and Willingness to Intervene in Everyday Sexist Events. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 42(3), 279-290.

Williams, R., and M. A. Wittig. (1997). “ I’m Not a Feminist, but. “: Factors Contributing to the Discrepancy between Pro-Feminist Orientation and Feminist Social Identity. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 37(11-12).

Yakushko, O. (2007). Do Feminist Women Feel Better About their Lives? Examining Patterns of Feminist Identity Development and Women’s Subjective Well-being. Sex Roles, 57(3), 223-234. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9249-6

Yakushko, O. (2007). Do feminist women feel better about their lives? Examining patterns of feminist identity development and women’s subjective wellbeing. Sex Roles 57(3): 223234.

Yoder, Janice D., Ann Tobias, and Andrea F. Snell. (2011). When declaring “I am a feminist” matters: Labeling is linked to activism. Sex Roles, 64(1-2): 9-18.

Zucker, A. N., and L. Y. Bay-Cheng. (2010). Minding the Gap Between Feminist Identity and Attitudes: The Behavioral and Ideological Divide Between Feminists and Non-Labelers. Journal of Personality, 78(6), 1895-1924.

Zucker, Alyssa N. (2004). Disavowing Social Identities: What It Means When Women Say, “I’m Not A Feminist, But.” Psychology of Women Quarterly, December, Vol. 28 Issue 4.