d) Young Women and Feminism, Grrrl Power, the Third Wave

Note: Also see “Growing Up Female” under “Growing Up Male” below.


Abrams, Laura S. (2003). Contextual Variations in Young Women’s Gender Identity Negotiations. Psychology of Women Quarterly, Volume 27 Issue 1, March.

Adams, E., L. Del Busso, N. Foster, A. Majumdar, L. Marzano and M. Papadima. (2007). Being Young Feminists: Discussions and (Dis)Contents. Feminism Psychology, 17(3): 291-294.

Aikau, Hokulani, Karla Erickson, and Wendy LeMoore. (2003). Three Women Writing/Riding Feminism’s Third Wave. Qualitative Sociology, Volume 26, Issue 3, Sept., pp. 397-425.

Alfonso, Rita, and Jo Triglio. (1997). Surfing the Third Wave: A Dialogue Between Two Third- Wave Feminists. Hypatia, 12, June, pp. 1-10.

Arneil, Barbara. (1999). Politics and Feminism. Oxford: Blackwell.

Arnold, Lorin Basden. (2000). “What is a feminist?:” Students’ descriptions. Women and Language, Fall, Vol. 23, Iss. 2.

Aronson, P. (2003). Feminists or “Postfeminists”? Young women’s attitudes towards feminism and gender relations. Gender & Society, 17(6), Dec.: 903-922.

Aune, K., & Holyoak, R. Navigating the third wave: Contemporary UK feminist activists and ‘third-wave feminism’. Feminist Theory, 0(0), 1464700117723593. doi:10.1177/1464700117723593

Baker, J. (2008). The Ideology of Choice: Overstating progress and hiding injustice in the lives of young women. Women’s Studies International Forum, 31(1): 53-64.

Baker, J. (2008). The Ideology of Choice. Overstating Progress and Hiding Injustice in the Lives of Young Women: Findings from a Study in North Queensland, Australia. Women's Studies International Forum, 31(1), 53-64.

Baker, J. (2010). Claiming Volition and Evading Victimhood: Post-Feminist Obligations for Young Women. Feminism & Psychology, 20(2), 186-204.

Banet-Weiser, Sarah. (2004). Girls rule!: Gender, feminism, and nickelodeon. Critical Studies in Media Communication, Volume 21, Number 2, June, pp. 119-139.

Bardsey, A. (2006). Girlfight the Power: Teaching Contemporary Feminism and Pop Culture. Feminist Teacher, 16(3).

Braithwaite, A. (2002). The personal, the political, third-wave, and postfeminisms. Feminist Theory, 3(3): 335-344.

Budgeon, Shelley. (2001). Emergent Feminist(?) Identities: Young Women and the Practice of Micropolitics. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 8(1), February

Bulbeck, Chilla. (2001). Feminism by Any Other Name? Skirting the Generation Debate. Outskirts: Feminisms Along the Edge, Vol. 8, May [http://mmc.arts.uwa.edu.au/chloe/outskirts/article3.html] Accessed 13 June. (2001).

Carlip, Hillary. (1995). Girlpower. New York: Warner Books.

Chancer, Lynn. (1998). Third-wave feminisms and beyond. Chapter 9 in Reconcilable Differences: Confronting Beauty, Pornography, and the Future of Feminism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Dicker, Rory, and Alison Piepmeier. (eds). (2003). Catching a Wave: Reclaiming Feminism for the 21st Century. Northeastern University Press.
Introduction, Rory Dicker and Alison Piepmeier
Part One: Needing Feminism
1. “The ‘Big Lie’: False Feminist Death Syndrome, Profit, and the Media,” Jennifer L. Pozner
2. “In a Word, Baywatch,” Susannah B. Mintz
3. “Reviving Lolita; or, Because Junior High Is Still Hell,” Alyssa Harad
Part Two: Coming to Feminism
4. “ ‘That’s Not Fair!’: Nurturing Girls’ Natural Feminism,” Nancy Gruver
5. “Voices and Visions: A Mother and Daughter Discuss Coming to Feminism and Being Feminist,” Roxanne Harde and Erin Harde
6. “Please-Stop Thinking About Tomorrow: Building a Feminist Movement on College Campuses for Today,” Sarah Boonin
Part Three: Recognizing Feminism
7. “Who’s the Next Gloria?: The Quest for the Third Wave Superleader,” Jennifer Baumgardner and Amy Richards
8. “Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Next Generation of Television,” Michele Byers
9. “Third Wave, Third World Feminism(s): The Evolution of Arab American Feminism,” Susan Muaddi Darraj
Part Four: Redefining Feminism
10. “Feminism’s Family Problem: Feminist Generations and the Mother-Daughter Trope,” Astrid Henry
11. “Do the Ladies Run This.? Some Thoughts on Hip-Hop Feminism,” Gwendolyn D. Pough
12. “The Transfeminist Manifesto,” Emi Koyama
Part Five: Doing Feminism
13. “Hearing the Daughter Voice: The Bat Kol as Rrrabbi Grrrl,” Alana Suskin
14. “Rocking the Gender Order,” Mimi Schippers
15. “Pranks and Fake Porn: Doing Feminism My Way,” Kristina S. Wong
Afterword: A Correspondence between Katha Pollitt and Jennifer Baumgardner.

Driscoll, Catherine. (1999). Girl Culture, Revenge and Global Capitalism: Cybergirls, Riot Grrls, Spice Girls. Australian Feminist Studies, Volume 14 Number 29, April.

Else-Mitchell, Rosalind, and Naomi Flutter. (eds). (1998). Talking Up: Young Women’s Take on Feminism. Melbourne: Spinifex

European Journal of Women’s Studies, November 2004, Volume 11, No. 4;
Lisa Adkins / Passing on Feminism: From Consciousness to Reflexivity?
Belinda Giannessi / Voiceless Woman: Observe, But from the Centre
EJW Anniversary Conference: Passing on Feminism.
renee c. hoogland, Petra de Vries, and Iris van der Tuin / Feminist Theory in Intergenerational Perspective.
Gloria Wekker / Still Crazy after All Those Years: Feminism for the New Millennium.

Findlen, Barbara ed. (1995). Listen Up: Voices of the Next Generation. Seattle: Seal Press.

Fixmer, N., and J. T. Wood. (2005). The Personal is Still Political: Embodied Politics in Third Wave Feminism. Women’s Studies in Communication, 28(2): 235.

Friend, Tad. (1996). Do-Me Feminism. Esquire, February, pp. 47-56.

Garrison, Ednie Kaeh. (2000). U.S. Feminism - Grrrl Style! Youth (Sub)Cultures and the Technologies of the Third Wave. Feminist Studies. 26(1), Spring.

Gillis, S. & Munford, R. (2004) Genealogies and generations: the politics and praxis of third wave feminism. Women’s History Review, 13(2), pp. 165–182.

Gillis, Stacy, Gillian Howie and Rebecca Munford. (eds.). (2007). Third Wave Feminism: A Critical Exploration, expanded 2nd edn. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Foreword; I.Whelehan.
Introduction; S.Gillis, G.Howie & R.Munford.
‘Feminists Love a Utopia’: Collaboration, Conflict and the Futures of Feminism; L.S.Sanders.
On the Genealogy of Women: A Defence of Anti-Essentialism; A.Stone.
Kristeva and the Trans-missions of the Intertext: Signs, Mothers and Speaking in Tongues; M.Orr.
Feminist Dissonance: The Logic of Late Feminism; G.Howie & A.Tauchert.
Transgender Feminism: Queering the Woman Question; S.Stryker.
Theorizing the Intermezzo: The Contributions of Postfeminism and Third Wave Feminism; A.D.Lotz.
‘You’re not One of Those Boring Masculinists, Are You?’: The Question of Male-Embodied Feminist Criticism; Andrew Shail.
Wa(i)ving it all Away: Subject Formation and Knowledge Formation in Feminisms of Colour; M.N.Chakraborty.
‘It’s all About the Benjamins’: Economic Determinants of Third Wave Feminism in the United States; L.Heywood & J.Drake.
Imagining Feminist Futures: The Third Wave, Postfeminism and Eco/feminism; N.Moore.
A Different Chronology: Reflections on Feminism in Contemporary Poland; A.Graff.
Global Feminism, Transnational Political Economies, Third World Cultural Production; W.Woodhull.
Neither Cyborg nor Goddess: The (Im)possibilities of Cyberfeminism; S.Gillis.
Contests for the Meaning of Third Wave Feminism: Feminism and Popular Consciousness; E.K.Garrison.
‘Also I Wanted so Much to Leave for the West’: Postcolonial Feminism Rides the Third Wave; A.Valassopoulos.
(Un)fashionable Feminists: The Media and Ally McBeal; K.Gorton.
‘Kicking Ass is Comfort Food’: Buffy as Third Wave Feminist Icon; P.Pender.
‘My Guns are in the Fendi!’: The Postfeminist Female Action Hero; C.L.Stasia.
Sexing it Up? Women, Pornography and the Third Wave Feminism; M.Waters.
‘Wake Up and Smell the Lipgloss’: Gender, Generation and the (A)politics of Girl Power; R.Munford.
Interview with Luce Irigaray; G.Howie.
Interview with Elaine Showalter; S.Gillis & R.Munford.
Afterword; J.Spencer

Gillis, Stacy, Gillian Howie, and Rebecca Munford. (eds.). (2004). Third-wave feminism: a critical exploration. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Harris, Anita, and Chilla Bulbeck. (2008). Feminism, youth politics and generational change. In Anita Harris (ed.) Next Wave Cultures: Feminism, Subcultures, Activism Routledge: New York and London, pp. 243-260.

Harris, Anita. (2001). ‘Not Waving or Drowning’: Young Women, Feminism, and the Limits of the Next Wave Debate. Outskirts: Feminisms Along the Edge, Vol. 8, May. [http://www.chloe.uwa.edu.au/outskirts/archive/VOL8/article4.html] Accessed 13 June 2001.

Harris, Anita. (2001). Revisiting Bedroom Culture: New Spaces for Young Women’s Politics. Hecate. 27(1).

Harris, Anita. (2005). Discourses of Desire as Governmentality: Young Women, Sexuality and the Significance of Safe Spaces. Feminism & Psychology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 39-43, February.

Heilmann, Ann. (2011). Gender and Essentialism: Feminist debates in the Twenty-first century. Critical Quarterly, 53(4): 78-89.

Henry, Astrid. (2004). Not My Mother’s Sister: Generational Conflict and Third-Wave Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Hernández, Daisy, and Bushra Rehman. (eds.). (2002). Colonize This! Young Women of Color on Today’s Feminism. Seattle, WA: Seal Press.

Heywood, L., and J. Drake. (eds). (1997). Third Wave Agenda: Being Feminist, Doing Feminism, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Hogeland, Lisa Marie. (1994). Fear of Feminism: Why Young Women Get the Willies. Ms, November/December, pp. 18-21.

Hopkins, Susan. (2002). Girl Heroes: The New Force in Popular Culture. Sydney: Pluto Press.

Hughes, Kate. (2005). ‘I’ve been pondering whether you can be a part-feminist’: Young Australian Women’s Studies students discuss gender. Women’s Studies International Forum, Volume 28, Issue 1, January-February, pp. 37-49.

Jensen, Michelle. (2000). Riding the Third Wave. The Nation, December 11, pp. 24-32.

Journal of International Women’s Studies. (2003). Special Issue: Harvesting Our Strengths: Third Wave Feminism and Women’s Studies.Vol. 4, No. 2, April.
Harvesting Our Strengths: Third Wave Feminism and Women’s Studies / Stacy Gillis and Rebecca Munford.
Beyond Trashiness: The Sexual Language of 1970s Feminist Fiction / Meryl Altman.
Mothers of Future Kings: The Madonna Redux Phenomenon / Colleen Denney.
The ANA Sanctuary: Women’s Pro-Anorexia Narratives in Cyberspace / Karen Dias.
Feminist Futures: Trauma, The Post-9/11 World And A Fourth Feminism? / E. Ann Kaplan.
Women’s Space “Inside The Haveli”: Incarceration Or Insurrection? / Daphne Grace.
Global Feminisms, Transnational Political Economies, Third World Cultural Production / Winnie Woodhull.
From Suffagist To Apologist: The Loss Of Feminist Politics In A Politically Correct Patriarchy / Ashleigh Harris.
Lost Between The Waves? The Paradoxes Of Feminist Chronology And Activism In Contemporary Poland / Agnieszka Graff.
Is Women’s Studies Dead? / Marysia Zalewski.

Kamen, Paula. (1991). Feminist Fatale: Voices From the ‘Twentysomething’ Generation Explore the Future of the ‘Women’s Movement’. New York: Donald I. Fine.

Kamen, Paula. (2000). Her Way: Young Women Remake the Sexual Revolution. New York University Press.

Karp, Marcelle, and Debbie Stoller. (eds). (1999). The Bust Guide to the New Girl Order. New York: Penguin.

Kearney, Mary Celeste. (1998). ‘Don’t Need You’: Rethinking Identity Politics and Separatism from a Grrrl Perspective. Jonathan Epstein, ed. Youth Culture: Identity in a Postmodern World. Malden: Blackwell, pp. 148-88.

Keddie, A. (2003). Young Women and Feminisms. Redress, 12(3), pp. 15-18.

Kinser, Amber E. (2004). Negotiating Spaces For/Through Third-Wave Feminism. NWSA Journal, Volume 16, Number 3, Fall.

Labi, Nadya. (1998). Girl Power. Time, 29 June.

Laughlin, Kathleen A., Julie Gallagher, and Dorothy Sue Cobble. (2010). Is It Time to Jump Ship? Historians Rethink the Waves Metaphor. Feminist Formations, 22(1), pp. 76-135.

Liss, Miriam, Christy O’Connor, Elena Morosky, and Mary Crawford. (2001). What Makes a Feminist? Predictors and Correlates of Feminist Social Identity in College Women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, Volume 25 Issue 2, June.

Long, Jane. (2001). ‘A Certain Kind of Modern Feminism’: Memory, Feminist Futures and ‘Generational Cleavage’ in Historical Perspective. Outskirts: Feminisms Along the Edge, Vol. 8, May [http://mmc.arts.uwa.edu.au/chloe/outskirts/article2.html] Accessed 13 June. (2001).

Looser, D. (1997), “Gen X Feminists? Youthism, careerism and the Third Wave” in Looser, D. & Kaplan, E.A. (eds), Generations: Academic feminists in dialogue, University of Minneapolis Press, Minneapolis.

Mack-Canty, Colleen. (2004). Third-Wave Feminism and the Need to Reweave the Nature/Culture Duality. NWSA Journal, Volume 16, Number 3, Fall.

Maddison, Sarah, and Suzanne Franzway. (2006). Reconsidering Staking a Claim: An Inter-generational Feminist Conversation. Australian Feminist Studies, 21(50), July.

Maddison, Sarah. (2002). Bombing the patriarchy or just trying to get a cab: challenges facing the next generation of feminist activists. Outskirts: Feminisms Along the Edge, Vol. 10, November - December. [http://www.chloe.uwa.edu.au/outskirts/article3.html] Accessed 28 May 2003.

Maddison, Sarah. (2004). Young Women in the Australian Women’s Movement. International Feminist Journal of Politics, Volume 6, Number 2, June, pp. 234-256.

McRobbie, Angela. (2001). Good Girls, Bad Girls? Female Success and the New Meritocracy. British Cultural Studies: Geography, Nationality, and Identity. Eds. David Morley and Kevin Robins. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001. 361-372.

McRobbie, Angela. (2004). Post-Feminism and Popular Culture. Feminist Media Studies, 4.3: 255-264.

McRobbie, Angela. (2007). Top Girls? Young Women and the Post-Feminist Sexual Contract. Cultural Studies, 21(4/5): 718-737.

McRobbie, Angela. (2008). The Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change. Sage.
Post Feminism and Popular Culture; Bridget Jones and the New Gender Regime
Feminism Undone? The Cultural Politics of Disarticulation
Top Girls? Young Women and the New Sexual Contract
Illegible Rage: Post-Feminist Disorders
What Not to Wear; Post-Feminist Symbolic Violence
Conclusion; Inside and Outside the Feminist Academy

Mitchell, Allyson, Lisa Bryn Rundle, and Lara Karaian. (eds). (2001). Turbo Chicks: Talking Young Feminisms. Sumach Press.

Murphy, Kylie. (2001). ‘I’m Sorry - I’m Not Really Sorry’: Courtney Love and Notions of Authenticity. Hecate. 27(1)

Muscio, Inga. (1998). Cunt: A Declaration of Independence. Seattle: Seal Press.

O’Barr, Jean, and Mary Wyer. (eds). (1992). Engaging Feminisms: Students Speak Up & Speak Out. Charlottesville & London: University Press of Virginia.

Olson, L. N., Coffelt, T. A., Ray, E. B., Rudd, J., Botta, R., Ray, G., & Kopfman, J. E. (2008). “I'm All for Equal Rights, but Don't Call Me a Feminist”: Identity Dilemmas in Young Adults' Discursive Representations of Being a Feminist. Women's Studies in Communication, 31(1), 104-132.

Pomerantz, S., Raby, R., & Stefanik, A. (2013). Girls Run the World? Caught between Sexism and Postfeminism in School. Gender & Society, 27(2), 185-207.

Pomerantz, Shauna, Dawn H. Currie, and Deirdre M. Kelly. (2004). Sk8er girls: Skateboarders, girlhood and feminism in motion. Women’s Studies International Forum, Volume 27, Issues 5-6, November-December, pp. 547-557.

Purvis, Jennifer. (2004). Grrrls and Women Together in the Third Wave: Embracing the Challenges of Intergenerational Feminism(s). NWSA Journal, Volume 16, Number 3, Fall.Reger, Jo. (2012). Everywhere and Nowhere: U.S. feminist communities in the 21st century. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Rich, Emma. (2005). Young women, feminist identities and neo-liberalism. Women’s Studies International Forum, 28(6): 495-508.

Richards, Amy, and Jennifer Baumgardner. (2000). Manifesta: Young Women, Feminism, and the Future. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

Rome, A. S., O’Donohoe, S., & Dunnett, S. (2019). Rethinking feminist waves. In Handbook of Research on Gender and Marketing: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Rowe-Finkbeiner, Kristin. (2004). The F-Word: Feminism in Jeopardy: Women, Politics, and the Future. Seal Press.

Rudolfsdottir, A. G. and R. Jolliffe (2008). ‘I Don’t Think People Really Talk about It That Much’: Young Women Discuss Feminism. Feminism & Psychology, 18(2): 268-274.

Ruittenberg, Dayna (ed). (2001). Yentyl’s Revenge: The Next Wave of Jewish Feminism. Seal Press.

Scharff, C. (2016). Repudiating Feminism: Young Women in a Neoliberal World: Routledge.

Schuster, J. (2015). Why the personal remained political: Comparing second and third wave perspectives on everyday feminism. Social Movement Studies, 16(6), 647–659.

Seely, Megan. (2007). Fight Like a Girl: How to be a Fearless Feminist. NYU Press.

Sharpe, S. (2001). Going For It: Young Women Face the Future. Feminism & Psychology. 11(2), pp. 177–181.

Shugart, Helene A. (2001). Isn’t It Ironic? The Intersection of Third-Wave Feminism and Generation X. Women’s Studies in Communication, 24(2), February.

Shugart, Helene A., C.E. Waggoner, and D.L. O’Brien Hallstein. (2001). Mediating Third Wave Feminism: Appropriation as post modern media practice. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 18(2), pp. 194-210.

Siegel, Deborah. (2007). Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to Grrls Gone Wild. Palgrave Macmillan.

Snyder, R. Claire. (2008). What is Third Wave Feminism? A new directions essay. Signs, 34(1): 175-196.

Springer, Kimberly. (2002). Third Wave Black Feminism? Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 27: 1059-82.

Stuart, A., & Donaghue, N. (2012). Choosing to Conform: The Discursive Complexities of Choice in Relation to Feminine Beauty Practices. Feminism & psychology, 22(1), 98-121.

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Taylor, Anthea. (2003). What’s new about ‘the new femininity’?: Feminism, femininity and the discourse of the new. Hecate, v.29 no.2: 182-198.

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