a) Doing Research on Men and as Men

Note: This section concentrates on questions of methodology. Also see references on “Men’s Studies, men in academia”, e.g. for references on men in Women’s and Gender Studies and men studying and teaching feminist scholarship.


Affleck, W., Glass, K., & Macdonald, M. E. (2013). The Limitations of Language: Male Participants, Stoicism, and the Qualitative Research Interview. American Journal of Men’s Health, 7(2), 155-162.

Allen, Louisa. (2005). Managing Masculinity: Young Men’s Identity Work in Focus Groups. Qualitative Research, 5, 1, Feb, 35-57.

Angrosino, Michael V. (1986). Son and lover: the anthropologist as nonthreatening male. In Sex, Self, and Gender in Cross-Cultural Fieldwork. (pp. 64-83). Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Berg, Lawrence D. (1994). Masculinity, place and a binary discourse of ‘theory’ and ‘empirical investigation’ in the human geography of Aotearoa/New Zealand. Gender, Place and Culture, 1, pp. 245-260.

Berg, Lawrence D., and Robyn Longhurst. (2003). Placing masculinities and geography. Gender, Place and Culture, 10, pp. 351-360.

Berliner, David, and Douglas J. Falen. (eds.). (2008). Introduction to Special Section on Men Doing Anthropology of Women. Men and Masculinities, 11.

Blackbeard, D., & Lindegger, G. (2015). The Value of Participatory Visual Methods in Young Masculinity Research. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 165, 85-93.

Broom, A., Hand, K. & Tovey, P. (2009) The role of gender, environment and individual biography in shaping qualitative interview data. International Journal of Social Research Methodology Vol. 12 No. 1 pp. 51-67.

Butera, K. J. (2006). Manhunt: The Challenge of Enticing Men to Participate in a Study on Friendship. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(6), 1262-1282. doi:10.1177/1077800406288634

Campbell, Elaine (2003). Interviewing Men in Uniform: A feminist approach? International Journal of Social Research Methodology, Volume 6, Number 4 / October-December, pp. 285-304.

Cazés, Daniel. (1996). Metodología de género en los estudios de hombres (Gender Methodology in Studies about Men and Masculinities). In Estudios de Género en América Latina, Universidad Centroamericana, Managua, Nicaragua (Also in Revista La ventana, Guadalajara, México).

Cohan, Mark. (1997). Political Identities and Political Landscapes: Men’s Narrative Work in Relation to Women’s Issues. Sociological Quarterly, 38(2).

Cowburn, Malcolm. (2005). Confidentiality and Public Protection: Ethical dilemmas in qualitative research with adult male sex offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 11(1): 49-63.

Cowburn, Malcolm. (2005). Hegemony and discourse: reconstruing the male sex offender and sexual coercion by men. Sexualities, Evolution and Gender, 7, 3, 215-231.

Cowburn, Malcolm. (2007). Ethics, research and policy. In S. M. Hodgson and Z. Irving, Policy reconsidered: Meanings, politics and practices. Bristol, Policy Press.

Cowburn, Malcolm. (2007). Men Researching Men in Prison: The Challenges for Profeminist Research. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 46(3): 276-288.

Creighton, G. M., Brussoni, M., Oliffe, J. L., & Han, C. (2017). Picturing Masculinities: Using Photoelicitation in Men’s Health Research. American Journal of Men’s Health, 11(5), 1472-1485.

Crowley, Jocelyn Elise. (2007). Friend or Foe? Self-Expansion, Stigmatized Groups, and the Researcher-Participant Relationship. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 36(6): 603-630.

Digby, Tom. (ed). (1998). Men Doing Feminism. New York & London: Routledge.

Donaldson, Mike. (1997). Researching Ruling Class Men: Biography, Autobiography, Life History. Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 2(1), pp. 93-104.

Egeberg Holmgren, L. (2008). Performing Feminist Affinity: Interviewing Feminist Men in Sweden. Revista Atenea, 28(2), 107-120.

Egeberg Holmgren, L. (2011). Cofielding in Qualitative Interviews: Gender, Knowledge, and Interaction in a Study of (Pro) Feminist Men. Qualitative Inquiry, 17(4), 364-378.

Elliott, K., & Roberts, S. (2020). Balancing generosity and critique: reflections on interviewing young men and implications for research methodologies and ethics. Qualitative Research, 1468794120904881. doi:10.1177/1468794120904881

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal. (2014), 33(5): Special Issue: Men Doing (In)Equalities Research.
On men, organizations and intersectionality: Personal, working, political and theoretical reflections (or how organization studies met profeminism) / Jeff Hearn (pp. 414 - 428)
Relative deprivation, self-interest and social justice: why I do research on in-equality / Eddy S.W. Ng (pp. 429 - 441)
Men in context: privilege and reflexivity in academia / Alexander Styhre , Janne Tienari (pp. 442 - 450)
‘Out’ in the field. Reflecting on the dilemmas of insider status on data collection and conducting interviews with gay men / Simon Roberts (pp. 451 - 461)
Doing ‘male’ diversity research in France: a self-reflective account / Alain Klarsfeld (pp. 462 - 469)
Stop prancing about: boys, dance and the reflective glance / Mark Edward (pp. 470 - Guest editorial: Critical reflections from men in the field / Aidan McKearney.

Filiault, S. M., and M. J. N. Drummond (2009). Methods and methodologies: investigating gay men’s body image in Westernized cultures. Critical Public Health, 19(3): 307-323.

Flood, Michael. (2001). Lust, Trust and Latex: Why Young Heterosexual Men Don’t Use Condoms. PhD thesis, Women’s Studies, Australian National University, Canberra (Chapter 2, Questions of method, pp. 18-39).

Flood, Michael. (2013). Negotiating Gender in Men’s Research Among Men. In Men, Masculinities and Methodologies. Ed. B. Pini and B. Pease (Palgrave). [Available at http://www.xyonline.net/content/negotiating-gender-men%E2%80%99s-research-among-men-book-chapter-2013.]

Gaddes, E. (2019). The Potential of Feminist Participatory Action Research to Encourage the Display of Feminist Subjectivities in Young Men (Doctoral dissertation, University of Sheffield).

Gailey, Jeannine A. and Ariane Prohaska. (2011. Power and Gender Negotiations During Interviews with Men About Sex and Sexually Degrading Practices. Qualitative Research 11 (4): 365-380.

Gatrell, C. (2006). Interviewing Fathers: Feminist Dilemmas in Fieldwork. Journal of Gender Studies, 15(3): 237-251.

Giazitzoglu, A. (2018). Being and Naughtiness: An Account of Being an Ethnographic-Insider Studying White, Working Class Gym-Users. The Qualitative Report, 23(3), 696-709. Retrieved from https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol23/iss3/14

Gurney, J.N. (1985) Not one of the guys: the female researcher in a male-dominated setting. Qualita­tive Sociology, 8(1): 42–64.

Hadley, R. A. (2020). Men and me(n). Methodological Innovations, 13(2), 2059799120918336. doi:10.1177/2059799120918336

Hassan, F. M., & Gatrell, C. (2017). Muted Masculinities – Ethical and Personal Challenges for Male Qualitative Researchers Interviewing Women. The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Business and Management Research Methods: History and Traditions, 400.

Hearn, J. (2010) (Un)writing men’s (auto)biography, (un)writing men’s history: Local, national and transnational perspectives. Socialist History: Journal of the Socialist History Society, (36), pp. 29-54.

Hearn, J. (2010). Writing as Intimate Friends – How Does Writing Profeminist Research Become Methodologically Challenging? In: Emergent Writing Methodologies in Feminist Studies. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 184-198.

Hearn, Jeff, and David H.J. Morgan. (1990). The Critique of Men. In Jeff Hearn and David H.J. Morgan. (eds). Men, Masculinities and Social Theory. London: Unwin Hyman.

Hearn, Jeff, Andersson, Kjerstin and Cowburn, Malcolm. (2007). Background Paper on Guidelines for Researchers on Doing Research with Perpetrators of Sexual Violence. Project Report. Sexual Violence Research Initiative.

Hearn, Jeff. (1987). Changing Men’s Sexist Practice in the Social Sciences. In The Gender of Oppression: Men, Masculinity and the Critique of Marxism. New York: St. Martins’ Press.

Hearn, Jeff. (1989). Sociological Issues in Studying Men and Masculinities. University of Manchester, Hollsworth Fellowship, Working Paper No. 2.

Hearn, Jeff. (1994). Research in Men and Masculinities: Some Sociological Issues and Possibilities. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 30(1), April.

Hearn, Jeff. (1998). Studying and Researching Men’s Violence to Known Women. Chapter 3 in The Violences of Men: How Men Talk About and How Agencies Respond to Men’s Violence to Women. London: Sage.

Hearn, Jeff. (ed). (1993). Researching Men and Researching Men’s Violence. Bradford: University of Bradford, Research Unit on Violence, Abuse and Gender .

Holmgren, Linn Egeberg. (2011). Cofielding in Qualitative Interviews: Gender, Knowledge, and Interaction in a Study of (Pro)Feminist Men. Qualitative Inquiry, 17.

Hood, Suzanne et.al. (eds). (1998). Critical Issues in Social Research: Power and Prejudice. Open University Press (Chapters e.g. on gay men, gender and methodology).

Horn, Rebecca. (1997). Not “one of the boys”: Women researching the police. Journal of Gender Studies 6: 297-308.

Huggins, M. K. and M.-L. Glebbeek. (2003). Women Studying Violent Male Institutions:: Cross-Gendered Dynamics in Police Research on Secrecy and Danger. Theoretical Criminology, 7(3): 363-387.

Hutchinson, S., Marsiglio, William and Cohan, Mark. (2002). Interviewing Young Men About Sex and Procreation: Methodological Issues. Qualitative Health Research, 12(1): 42-60.

Huysamen, M. (2016). Constructing the ‘Respectable’ client and the ‘Good’ researcher: The Complex Dynamics of Cross-Gender Interviews with Men Who Pay for Sex. NORMA, 11(1), 19-33.

Huysamen, M. (2018). A Critical Analysis of Men's Constructions of Paying for Sex: Doing Gender, Doing Race in the Interview Context. University of Cape Town. 

Huysamen, M. (2019). Reflecting on the Interview as an Erotic Encounter. Sexualities, 0(0), DOI: 10.1177/1363460718811229.

Jachyra, P., Atkinson, M., & Gibson, B. E. (2014). Gender Performativity During Interviews with Adolescent Boys. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 6(4), 568-582.

Jackson, David. (1990). Unmasking Masculinity: A Critical Autobiography. London: Unwin Hyman.

Jepson, M., Abbott, D., & Hastie, J. (2015). “This Is Another Personal Question”: Research Interviews and Discussing Sensitive Issues with Men with Life-Limiting Conditions. International Journal of Men’s Health, 14(3).

John Hanks, S. (2019). Embodying masculinity in female dominated research settings: A male reflection of ‘doing research’ in massage parlours. Sexualities, 23(5-6), 757-774. doi:10.1177/1363460719847096

Johnson, J. E., & Rosenblum, D. (2018). Rethinking Qualitative Methodology around Masculinity. Politics & Gender, 14(2), 288-293. 10.1017/S1743923X18000181

Johnston, M. S. (2016). Men Can Change: Transformation, Agency, Ethics and Closure During Critical Dialogue in Interviews. Qualitative Research, 16(2), 131-150.

Jones, David M. (2001). “Women’s Lib,” Gender Theory, and the Politics of Home: How I became a black male feminist. Feminist Teacher; 13(3), pp. 213-224.

Jones, Mark. (1996). Men and Feminist Research. In Jane Pilcher and Amanda Coffey. (eds). Gender and Qualitative Research, Aldershot, Hants, England: Avebury.

Killick, Andrew P. The Penetrating Intellect: On Being White, Straight, and Male in Korea. In Don Kulick and Margaret Willson. (eds). Taboo: Sex, Identity and Erotic Subjectivity in Anthropological Fieldwork. London & New York: Routledge.

Lee, D. (1997). Interviewing Men: Vulnerabilities and Dilemmas. Women’s Studies International Forum, 20(4).

Lefkowich, M. (2019). When women study men: Gendered implications for qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 18, 1609406919872388.

Levinson, B.A. (1998) (How) can a man do feminist ethnography of education? Qualitative Inquiry, 4(3): 337–368.

Leyland, Joyce. (1987). On the Conflicts of Doing Feminist Research Into Masculinity. Studies in Sexual Politics, 16, pp. 38-47.

Liong, M. (2015). Like Father, Like Son: Negotiation of Masculinity in the Ethnographic Context in Hong Kong. Gender, Place & Culture, 22(7), 937-953.

Lunabba, H. T. (2018). Encounters uncovered: Implementing critical realism and domain theory in ethnographic research with young masculinities. Critical realism for welfare professions.

May, Larry. (1998). A Progressive Male Standpoint. Chapter 8 in Masculinity and Morality, Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press.

McDowell, Linda. (2001). “It’s That Linda, Again”: Ethical, practical and political issues involved in longitudinal research with young men. Ethics, Place and Environment, 4(2), pp. 87-100.

McKegany, Neil, and Michael Bloor. (1991). Spotting the Invisible Man: The Influence of Male Gender on Fieldwork Relations. British Journal of Sociology, 42(2), pp. 195-210..

Merritt, S., & Turner, L. (2013). Creating Better Research Spaces for Narratives around Male Family Relationships and Identity: Guidance from Rural Australian Men. Rural and Remote Health, 13(2462), 1-16.

Messner, Michael. (1990). Men Studying Masculinity: Some Epistemological Issues in Sport Sociology. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7(2), June.

Morgan, David. (1981). Men, Masculinity and the Process of Sociological Enquiry. In Helen Roberts. (ed.). Doing Feminist Research. London: RKP.

Morgan, David. (1987). ‘It Will Make a Man of You’: Notes on National Service, Masculinity and Autobiography. Studies in Sexual Politics, No. 17, Manchester: University of Manchester, Department of Sociology.

Morgan, David. (1990). Masculinity, Autobiography and History. Gender and History, 2(1), Spring, pp. 34-39.

Morgan, David. (1992). Discovering Men. London: Routledge.
Problems of Studying Men.
Men and Methodologies.
Studying Men in a Patriarchal Society.

Ng, Eddy S.W. (2014). Relative deprivation, self-interest and social justice: why I do research on in-equality. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 33(5), 429-441.

O’Brien, R. A. (2019). ‘Who’s that girl sitting with the boys?’: negotiating researcher identity in fieldwork with adolescent boys. Sport, Education and Society, 24(9), 954-966.

Oliffe, J. L. (2010). Bugging the Cone of Silence with Men’s Health Interviews. Men, Masculinities and Health: Critical perspectives, 67-89.

Oliffe, J., & Mróz, L. (2005). Men interviewing men about health and illness: ten lessons learned. The Journal of Men’s Health & Gender, 2(2), 257-260. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmhg.2005.03.007

Orrico, L. A. (2015). ‘Doing intimacy’ in a public market: how the gendered experience of ethnography reveals situated social dynamics. Qualitative Research, 15(4), 473-488.

Ortiz, Steven M. (2003). Muted Masculinity as an Outsider Strategy: Gender Sharing in Ethnographic Work with Wives of Professional Athletes. Symbolic Interaction, Fall, Vol. 26, Iss. 4, pp. 601-611.

Paulitz, T., Kink, S., & Prietl, B. (2016). Analytical Strategy for Dealing with Neutrality Claims and Implicit Masculinity Constructions: Methodological Challenges for Gender Studies in Science and Technology. Paper presented at the Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research.

Pease, Bob. (1996). Reforming Men: Masculine Subjectivities and the Politics and Practices of Profeminism. PhD thesis. Melbourne: Graduate School of Social Work, Faculty of Social Sciences, La Trobe University (Includes “Researching men’s lives from a pro-feminist perspective”).

Pease, Bob. (2000). Recreating Men: Postmodern Masculinity Politics. London: Sage.
2. The ‘Man Question’ in Feminism and the New Men’s Studies.
3. Postmodern Feminism and the Critical Study of Men.

Pease, Bob. (2000). Researching Profeminist Men’s Narratives: Participatory Methodologies in a Postmodern Frame. Practice and Research in Social Work: Postmodern Feminist Perspectives. London and New York: Routledge: 136-58.

Philaretou, Andreas G., and Katherine R. Allen. (2006). Researching Sensitive Topics through Autoethnographic Means. Journal of Men’s Studies, Vol. 14 Issue 1.

Pini, Barbara, and Bob Pease. (2013). Men, Masculinities and Methodologies. Palgrave Macmillan.
1. Gendering Methodologies in the Study of Men and Masculinities; Barbara Pini and Bob Pease
2. Methods and Methodologies in Critical Studies on Men and Masculinities; Jeff Hearn
3. Epistemology, Methodology and Accountability in Researching Men’s Subjectivities and Practices; Bob Pease
4. Issues of Intimacy, Masculinity, and Ethnography; Tristan Bridges
5. Negotiating Gender in Research Among Men; Michael Flood
6. ‘Getting Close’: Methods, Masculinity and Research Practice; Mairtin Mac an Ghaill and Chris Haywood and Zoe Bright
7. Researcher Self and Research Subject in Critical (Interview) Studies of Men and Masculinities: On Including Interview Performances and Situational Contexts in Feminist Gender Analysis; Linn Egeberg Holmgren
8. Conversations about Otokorashisa (Masculinity/’Manliness’): Insider/Outsider Dynamics in Masculinities Research in Japan; Romit Dasgupta
9. Counting Men: Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Men and Masculinities; Barbara Pini and Roger Patulny
10. On-Going Methodological Problematics: Masculinities and Male Rock Climbers; Victoria Robinson
11. Disability: Cripping Masculinity?; Dan Goodley and Katherine Runswick Cole
12. Peering Upwards: Researching Ruling-Class Men; Mike Donaldson and Scott Poynting
13. Getting into the Lives of Ruling Class Men: Conceptual Problems, Methodological Solutions; Sebastián P Madrid
14. Men Researching Violent Men: Epistemology, Ethics and Emotions in Qualitative Research; Malcolm Cowburn
15. Encountering Violent Men: Strange and Familiar; Lucas Gottzén
16. Involving Older Gay Men in Research: The Lure of Group Experience; Kip Jones and Lee-Ann Fenge
17. Interviewing Older Men Online; Miranda Leontowitsch
18. Doing Research with the Boys: Discussion and Analysis of Participant–led Photographic Research in the Field; Cliona Barnes.

Pini, Barbara. (2005). Interviewing Men: Gender and the collection and interpretation of qualitative data. Journal of Sociology, 41(2): 201-216.

Pinteaux, Agnes, and David J. Nightingale. (2002). The Doll’s House: Critical men, feminism and academia. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Qualitative Methods Conference: “Something for nothing”, 1 May to 30 September.

Presser, Lois. (2005). Negotiating Power and Narrative in Research: Implications for Feminist Methodology. Signs, Summer, Vol. 30, Iss. 4.

Qualitative Research Journal. (2014). Special Issue: Approaches to Researching Masculinities. 14(1).

Ramazanoglu, Caroline. (1992). What Can You Do With a Man? Feminism and the Critical Appraisal of Masculinity. Women’s Studies International Forum, 15(3).

Rasmussen, M. L., Carroll, K., Evans, A., Gray, E., Price, K., Todd, R., & Copland, S. (2020). Researching Young Men and Family Formation: Two Stories. Men and Masculinities, 1097184X19895298.

Robb, M. (2004). Exploring Fatherhood: Masculinity and intersubjectivity in the research process. Journal of Social Work Practice, 18(3): 395-406. November.

Robertson, Steve. (2006). Masculinity and Reflexivity in Health Research with Men. Auto/Biography, 14: 302-319.

Robinson, V. (2010). Researching everyday sporting masculinities: thoughts from a (critical) distance. Journal of Gender Studies 19(3): 309-313.

Russell, Cherry, Denise Touchard, and Maree Porter. (2002). What’s Rapport Got To Do With It? The practical accomplishment of fieldwork relations between young female researchers and socially marginalised older men. The Qualitative Report, 7(1), March. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR7-1/russell.html.

Sallee, Margaret W., and Frank Harris III. (2011). Gender performance in qualitative studies of masculinities. Qualitative Research, 11(4), 409-429.

Schacht, Steven P. (1997). Feminist Fieldwork in the Misogynist Setting of the Rugby Pitch: Temporarily Becoming a Sylph to Survive and Personally Grow. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 26(3): 338-363..

Schwalbe, Michael, and Michelle Wolkomir. (2001). The Masculine Self as Problem and Resource in Interview Studies of Men. Men and Masculinities, 4(1), July, pp. 90-103.

Sikweyiya, Y., R. Jewkes, and R. Morrell. (2007) Talking about Rape: Men's responses to questions about rape in a research environment in South Africa. Agenda, 74: 48-57.

Sparke, Matthew. (1996). Displacing the Field in Fieldwork: Masculinity, Metaphor and Space. In Bodyspace: Dislocating Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. Nancy Duncan, editor. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 212-233.

Sundberg, Juanita. (2003). Masculinist Epistemologies and the Politics of Fieldwork in Latin Americanist Geography. The Professional Geographer, Volume 55, Issue 2, May, pp. 180-190.

Thomas, G. M. (2017). Doing gender in a hospital setting: Reflections of a male researcher. Sociological Research Online, 22(2), 190-203.

Thurston, Richard. (1996). Are You Sitting Comfortably? Men’s Storytelling, Masculinities, Prison Culture and Violence. In Mairtin Mac an Ghaill. (ed.). Understanding Masculinities: Social Relations and Cultural Arenas. Buckingham & Philadelphia: Open University Press (pp. 139-152).

Townsend, Nicholas. (1999). Fatherhoods and Fieldwork: Intersections Between Personal and Theoretical Positions. Men and Masculinities, 2(1), July.

Vanderbeck, R. M. (2005). Masculinities and fieldwork: Widening the discussion. Gender, Place and Culture. 12 (4): 387-402.

Vogels, C. (2019). A Feminist and “Outsider” in the Field: Negotiating the Challenges of Researching Young Men. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 18, 1609406919855907.

Walby, K. (2010). Interviews as encounters: Issues of sexuality and reflexivity when men interview men about commercial same sex relations. Qualitative Research, 10(6): 639-657.

Way, Niobe. (1997). Using Feminist Research Methods to Understand the Friendships of Adolescent Boys. Journal of Social Issues, 53(4), Winter.

Websdale, N. (2001). Special topic: Men researching violence against women. In C. M. Renzetti, J. L. Edleson & R. K. Bergen (Eds.), Sourcebook on Violence Against Women (pp. 53-55). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Weeks, Jeffrey. (1996). Telling Stories About Men. (Review article) Sociological Review.

Whitehead, Stephen (ed.). (2006). Men and Masculinities: Critical Concepts in Sociology. 5 Volumes.
Volume 1.
15. H. Brod (1987) ‘A Case For Men’s Studies’, Changing Men.
16. D.H.J. Morgan (1992) ‘Problems of studying men’, Discovering Men.
17. S. Heath (1987) ‘Male Feminism’, Men in Feminism.
18. J. Hearn (2004) ‘From hegemonic masculinity to the hegemony of men’. Feminist Theory.

Wight, Daniel. (1996). Performances, Discourses and Masculine Sexuality: Seeking Authenticity. Paper to New Psychologies Conference, Tarbert, Scotland, 28 June - 1 July.

Williams, C. L. and E. J. Heikes (1993). The importance of researcher’s gender in the in-depth interview: Evidence from Two Case Studies of Male Nurses. Gender & Society, 7(2): 280-291.

Witty, K., Branney, P., Bullen, K., White, A., Evans, J., & Eardley, I. (2014). Engaging Men with Penile Cancer in Qualitative Research: Reflections from an Interview-Based Study.

Yeadon-Lee, T. (2009). Doing extra-ordinariness: trans-men’s accomplishment of 'authenticity’ in the research interview. Qualitative Research 9(3): 243-261.