d) Mothers and motherhood (including men’s mothers)

Note: Also see “Families and Gender” and “Mothers and Sons” above, and “Raising Sons” below.


Abbey, S., and A. O’Reilly. (1998). (eds.). Redefining Motherhood, Changing Identities And Patterns. Toronto: Second Storey Press.

Acker, L. (2005). The Howard Government’s Budgets: Stay-at-Home Mothers Good - Single Mothers Bad. Hecate, 31(2): 90.

Allen, J. (1990). Men and Mothers. In Meth, R. and Pasick, R. (eds). Men in Therapy. New York: The Guilford Press.

Apter, Terri. (1993). Working Women Don’t Have Wives: Professional Success in the 1990s. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Baird, M., and L. Cutcher. (2005). ‘One for the Father, One for the Mother and One for the Country’: An Examination of the Construction of Motherhood Through the Prism of Paid Maternity Leave. Hecate, 31(2): 103.

Bell, S. E. (2004). Intensive Performances of Mothering: a Sociological Perspective. Qualitative Research, 4(1): 45-75.

Benard, S. and S. J. Correll (2010). Normative Discrimination and the Motherhood Penalty. Gender & Society 24(5): 616-646.

Benn, Melissa. (1998). Madonna and Child: Towards a New Politics of Motherhood. London: Jonathan Cape.

Branigan, Elizabeth, and Shannon Keebaugh. (2005). A feminist family agenda: putting the mother back into sole parenting. Just Policy, no.38 Dec.: 6-11.

Bush, L. (2004). How Black Mothers Participate in the Development of Manhood and Masculinity: What Do We Know About Black Mothers and Their Sons? Journal of Negro Education, 73(4): 381.

Card, Claudia. (1996). Against Marriage and Motherhood. Hypatia, 11(3) Summer.

Caron, Ann F. (1994). Strong Mothers, Strong Sons: Raising Boys in the ‘90s. New York: Henry Holt and Company

Chopra R. (2001). Retrieving the Father: Gender Studies, ‘Father Love’ and the Discourse of Mothering. Women’s Studies International Forum. 24(3-4):445-455, May-Aug.

Crittenden, Ann. (2001). The Price of Motherhood: Why The Most Important Job in the World is Still the Least Valued. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

De Marneffe, Daphne. (2004). Maternal Desire: On Children, Love, and the Inner Life. New York: Little, Brown.

De Vaus, June E. (1992). Mothers Growing up: Understanding the Heartaches of Motherhood, North Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

Dinnerstein, Myra. (1992). Women Between Two Worlds: Midlife Reflections on Work and Family. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

DiQuinzio, Patrice. (1999). The Impossibility of Motherhood: Feminism, Individualism and the Problem of Mothering. Routledge.

Dixon, Penelope. (1991). Mothers and Mothering: An Annotated Feminist Bibliography. New York & London: Garland Publishers.

Drexler, Peggy. (2005). Raising Boys Without Men: How Maverick Moms Are Creating the Next Generation of Exceptional Men. Rodale Books.

Edelman, Hope. (2000). Mother of My Mother: The Intricate Bond Between Generations. Macmillan Library Reference.

Eriksson, M. (2008). Revolutionary Mothers? Interacting Power Relations, Agency, and Social Change. NORA - Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 16(2): 96 - 113.

Everingham, Christine. (1994). Motherhood and Modernity: An Investigation Into the Rational Dimension of Mothering. Open University Press.

Gerson, Kathleen. (1985). Hard Choices: How Women Decide About Work, Career, and Motherhood. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gillespie, Rosemary. (2000). When No Means No: Disbelief, Disregard, and Deviance as Discourses of Voluntary Childlessness. Women’s Studies International Forum. 23(2), March-April.

Gurian, Michael. (1994). Mothers, Lovers and Sons: How a Man’s Relationship With his Mother Affects the Rest of his Life. Boston & London: Shambhala.

Hequembourg, Amy L., and Michael P. Farrell. (1999). Lesbian Motherhood: Negotiating Marginal-Mainstream Identities. Gender & Society, 13(4), August.

Holmes, S. (2018). The Solo Mum, Feminism and the Negotiation of ‘Choice’. Women’s Studies International Forum, 69, 40-48.

Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer. (1999). Mother Nature: A History of Mothers, Infants, and Natural Selection. Pantheon.

Jacobs, J. L. (1994). Gender, race, class, and the trend toward early motherhood: A Feminist Analysis of Teen Mothers in Contemporary Society. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 22(4): 442-462.

Jette, Alexis et. al. (eds). (year?). The Politics of Motherhood.

Kirkman, Maggie, Lyn Harrison, Lynne Hillier, and Priscilla Pyett. (2001). ‘I know I’m doing a good job’: Canonical and autobiographical narratives of teenage mothers. Culture, Health & Sexuality, Volume 3 Number 3, July, pp. 279-294.

Knowles. (1990). Motherhood: A Feminist Perspective.

Kurz, Demie (year?). For Richer, For Poorer: Mothers Confront Divorce.

Lawler, Stephanie. (2000). Mothering the Self: Mothers, Daughters, Subjects. New York: Routledge.

Leahy, Carla Pascoe, and Petra Bueskens (eds.) (2019) Australian Mothering: Historical and Sociological Perspectives. Palgrave.

LeBlanc, Wendy. (1999). Naked Motherhood. Sydney: Random House.

Letherby, Gayle. (2002). Childless and bereft? Stereotypes and realities in relation to ‘voluntary’ and ‘involuntary’ childlessness and womanhood. Sociological Inquiry, 72(1), Winter.

Lewis, Jane et. al. (1998). Lone Motherhood in Twentieth-Century Britain: From Footnote to Front Page. Oxford University Press.

Lisle, Laurie. (1999). Without Child. Routledge

Ludtke, Melissa. (1997). On Our Own: Unmarried Motherhood in America. New York: Random.

Maher, J., and L. Saugeres. (2007). To Be or not to Be a Mother?: Women negotiating cultural representations of mothering. Journal of Sociology 43(1): 5-21.

Maher, Jane-Maree. (2005). Undervalued, expensive and difficult: young women talk about motherhood. Youth Studies Australia, v. 24, no. 2, June: 11-16.

Maher, JaneMaree, and Lise Saugeres. (2007). To be or not to be a mother? Women negotiating cultural representations of mothering. Journal of Sociology, March, Vol. 43, No. 1.

Maher, Janemaree. (2005). A mother by trade: Australian women reflecting mothering as activity, not identity. Australian Feminist Studies, Volume 20 Number 46, March.

Maushart, Susan. (1999). The Mask of Motherhood: How Mothering Changes Everything and Why We Pretend It Doesn’t. New York: New Press.

May, V. (2008). On Being a ‘Good’ Mother: The Moral Presentation of Self in Written Life Stories. Sociology, 42(3): 470-486.

McMahon, Martha. (1995). Engendering Motherhood: Identity and Self-Transformation in Women’s Lives. New York: Guilford Press.

McQuillan, J., A. L. Greil, K. M. Shreffler and V. Tichenor. (2008). The Importance of Motherhood Among Women in the Contemporary United States. Gender & Society, 22(4): 477-496.

Mitchell, J. C. W. (2004). Procreative Mothers (Sexual Difference) and Child-Free Sisters (Gender): Feminism and Fertility. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 11(4): 415-426.

Moulder, C. (1990). Miscarriage: Women’s Experience and Needs. London: Pandora Press.

Mulroy, Elizabeth A. (1995). The New Uprooted: Single Mothers in Urban Life. Westport, CT: Auburn House.

Nathanson, Jessica, and Laura Tuley. (2008). Mother Knows Best: Talking back to the ‘experts’. Demeter Press.
Introduction: “Knowing Best and Talking Back.
Section One: Out of our Bodies: Pregnancy and Birth.
Denise A. Copelton / Neutralization and Emotion Work in Women’s Accounts of Light Drinking in Pregnancy.
Amber Kinser / A Mosaic of Pregnancy Expertise.
Laura Major / Creative Gestation: Escaping Polarization in Pregnancy and Childbirth Poetry.
Meredith Nash / The Science of Medical ‘Seeing’: Constructing ‘Reality’ through Ultrasound.
Laurie Ousley / Welcome Laughter: Vicky Iovine’s The Girlfriend’s Guide to Pregnancy.
Susan Racine Passmore / Natural Rites: The Culture of Natural Childbirth.
Section Two: Is Breast Always Best?: Breastfeeding.
Stephanie Knaak / Deconstructing Discourse: Breastfeeding, Intensive Mothering and the Moral Construction of Choice.
Catherine Ma / If The Breast is Best, Why Are Breastfeeding Rates So Low? An In-Depth Look at Breastfeeding from Policy Makers to The Bottom Dollar.
Karen Maclean / What My Daughter Knows: Towards an Epistemology of Breastfeeding.
Section Three: Challenging Practice: Raising Our Children.
Chris Bobel / Resisting, But Not Too Much: Natural Mothering, Privilege and Cooptation.
Rachel Casiday / Making Decisions About Vaccines: Interactions Between Parents and ‘Experts’.
May Friedman / ‘Everything You Need to Know about Your Baby’: Feminism and Attachment Parenting.
Nalida Quintero / Power to mother: Attachment Parenting and The Patriarchal Model of Work.
Damien W. Riggs / Attachment Theory as a ‘Practice of Heterosexism’: Resisting the Psychologisation of Lesbian and Gay Foster Carers.
Laura Tuley / Half-time Parenting: An Answer for Academic Women.
Section Four: Mother Guilt: Being “Good” Mothers.
Janni Aragon / Instinctual Mamahood: How I Found the Mama.
Kimberly Chisholm / Against the Law.
Susan Driver / Hip Mamas, Playful Imperfections and Defiant Voices: Resisting fantasies of the ‘good mother’ in Ariel Gore’s survival guides.
Angela Hattery / Intensive Motherhood Ideology: Shaping the ways we balance and weave work and family into the 21st Century and Beyond.
Marsha Marotta / Relentless Rebuke: ‘Experts’ and the Scripting of ‘Good’ Mothers.
Jessica Nathanson / What Mothers Don’t Say out Loud: On Putting the Academic Self First.

O’Reilly, Andrea (ed.). (2008). Feminist Mothering. SUNY Press.
Introduction / Andrea O’Reilly.
1. Professional Women, Timing, and Reproductive Strategies / Michele Y. Pridmore-Brown.
2. “No, I’m Not Catholic, and Yes, They’re All Mine:” The Narratives of Feminist Mothering on the Tenure Track / Kecia Driver McBride.
3. Feminism, Motherhood, and Possibilities in the Writing of Bronwen Wallace / Shelley Martin.
4. Planned Parenthood: The Construction of Motherhood in Lesbian Mother Advice Books / Kristin G. Esterberg.
5. The Voice of the Maternal in Louise Erdrich’s Fiction and Memoirs / Aimee E. Berger.
6. African American Mothers: Victimized, Vilified, and Valorized / Shirley A. Hill.
7. Mothering as Relational Consciousness / Amber E. Kinser.
8. Feminist Family Values: Parenting in Third Wave Feminism and Empowering All Family Members / Colleen Mack-Canty and Sue Marie Wright.
9. Feminist Motherline: Embodied Knowledge/s of Feminist Mothering / Fiona Joy Green.
10. (Un)usual Suspects: Mothers, Masculinities, Monstrosities / Sarah Trimble.
11. “That Is What Feminism Is—The Acting and Living and Not Just the Told”: Modeling and Mentoring Feminism / Andrea O’Reilly.
12. Rocking the Boat: Feminism and the Ideological Grounding of the Twenty-First Century Mothers’ Movement / Judith Stadtman Tucker.
13. Women Staging Coups through Mothering: Depictions in Hispanic Contemporary Literature / Gisela Norat.
14. Maternal Activism: How Feminist Is It? / Janice Nathanson.
15. Balancing Act: Discourses of Feminism, Motherhood and Activism / Pegeen Reichert Powell.

O’Reilly, Andrea (ed). (2004). Mother Matters: Motherhood as Discourse and Practice. ARM Press.
Introduction-Andrea O’Reilly.
Labour Signs: The Semiotics of Birthing / Andrea O’Reilly.
Fountains of Love and Loveliness: In Praise of the Dripping Wet Breast / Fiona Giles.
He’s Calling her Da Da!: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of the Lesbianism as Disease / Metaphor in Child Custody Cases / Shari Kendall and Keller Magenau.
Un/titled: Constructions of Illegitimate Motherhood as Gender Insurrection / Nicole Pietsch.
Black Women and Motherhood in Contemporary Cinematic Science Fiction / Carol B. Duncan.
Paid Work, Family Work and the Discourse of the Full-Tome Mother / Gillian Ranson.
The Impossibility of ‘Natural Parenting’ for Modern Mothers: On Social Structure and the Formation of Habit / Petra Buskens.
Mama Bear as Domestic Micro manger: The Evolution of Cultural Ideas of Motherhood In Bernstein Bears Book Series 1960-2000 / Jodi.Vandenberg-Daves.
All You Need is Love: Representations of Maternal Emotion in Working Mothers Magazine, 1995-1999 / Jillian Duquaine-Watson.
Becoming a Mother / Diane Speier.
Drawing Strength from Our Mothers: Tapping the Roots of Black Women’s History / Cassie Premo Steele.
Stepping on Maternal Ground: Reflections on Becoming an Other-Mother / Pamela Downe.
Queering MaternityMielle Chandler.
Sons of Feminists: Learning from Their Talk / Joyce Castle.
Making Connections Between Parenting and Peace / Sara Ruddick.
‘I’ve Worked Very Hard and Slept Very Little’: Mothers on Tenure Track in Academia / Alice Fothergill and Kathryn Feltey.
Troublesome Practices / Mothering, Literature and Ethics / Emily Jeremiah.
Developmental Mothering in an African American Community: From Grandmothers to New Mothers Again / Priscilla Gibson

O’Reilly, Andrea (ed). (2004). Mother Outlaws: Theories and Practices of Empowered Mothering. Women’s Press.
Sections: Feminist Mothering, Lesbian Mothering, African American Mothering, Mothers and Daughters, Mothers and Sons.

O’Reilly, Andrea, and Sharon Abbey. (2000). Mothers and Daughters: Connection, Empowerment, and Transformation. Rowman and Littlefield.

O’Reilly, Andrea, Marie Porter, and Patricia Short. (2005). Motherhood: Power and Oppression. Women’s Press.

Pascoe Leahy, Carla, and Petra Bueskens. (eds.) (2020). Australian Mothering: Historical and Sociological Perspectives. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Phoenix, Ann, Anne Woollett, and Eva Lloyd. (1991). Motherhood: Meanings, Practices and Ideologies.

Pocock, Barbara. (2003). Mother Wars: The market meets sacred motherhood. Chapter 4 in The Work / Life Collision. Sydney: The Federation Press.

Porter, Lesley, and Kerry Lane. (1998). An Invitation to an Exploration of… Mothers’ Significant Role and Contribution to Their Sons’ Lives, and How This Connection Supports Stands Against Sexual Abuse. Dulwich Centre Journal, No. 4, p. 17

Reddy, M. et. al. (eds). (1994). Mother Journeys: Feminist Writing About Mothering. Minnesota: Spinsters.

Ribbens, Jane. (1994). Mothers and Their Children: A Feminist Sociology of Childrearing. London: Sage.

Richardson, Diane. (year?). Women, Motherhood and Childrearing.

Rothman, Barbara Katz. (1990). Recreating Motherhood: Ideology and Technology in a Patriarchal Society. New York: Norton.

Rowland, R., and A. Thomas. (1996). Mothering Sons: A Crucial Feminist Challenge. Feminism Psychology, 6(1): 93-99.

Sandretto, S., & Nairn, K. (2019). Do parenting advice books help or harm? Critiquing ‘common-sense’ advice for mothers raising boys. Gender and Education, 31(3), 327-343. doi:10.1080/09540253.2018.1533919

Sevon, E. (2005). Timing Motherhood: Experiencing and Narrating the Choice to become a Mother. Feminism Psychology, 15(4): 461-482.

Sidel, Ruth. (1986). Women and Children Last: The Plight of Poor Women in Affluent America. New York: Penguin.

Silva, Elizabeth B. (ed.). (1996). Good Enough Mothering? Feminist Perspectives on Lone Motherhood. London: Routledge.

Smart, Carol. (1992). Regulating Motherhood: Historical essays on marriage, motherhood and sexuality.

Smith, Jennifer L. (2003). ‘Suitable Mothers’: Lesbian and single women and the ‘unborn’ in Australian parliamentary discourse. Critical Social Policy, 23(1), pp. 63-88.

Umansky, Lauri. (1996). Motherhood Reconceived: Feminism and the Legacy of the Sixties. New York & London: New York University Press.

Uy-Tioco, C. (2007). Overseas Filipino Workers and Text Messaging: Reinventing Transnational Mothering. Continuum, 21(2): 253 - 265.

Walters, Suzanna D. (1992). Lives Together, Worlds Apart: Mothers and daughters in popular culture. Berkeley.

Weinstock, Nicholas. (1997). The Secret Love of Sons: How We Men Feel About Our Mothers, and Why We Never Tell. New York: Riverhead Books.

Williams, L. Susan. (2002). Trying on gender, gender regimes, and the process of becoming women. Gender & Society, February, 16(1), pp. 29-52.

Woodward, Kathryn. (1997). Motherhood: Identities, Meanings and Myths. In Woodward, Kathryn. (ed.). Identity and Difference. London: Sage.