(xi) Self-defence, rape resistance, and other strategies among women

Key overviews

Hollander, J. A. (2018). Women’s selfdefense and sexual assault resistance: The state of the field. Sociology Compass, 12(8), e12597.

Kerr-Wilson, A.; Gibbs, A.; McAslan Fraser E.; Ramsoomar, L.; Parke, A.; Khuwaja, HMA.; and Rachel Jewkes. (2020). A rigorous global evidence review of interventions to prevent violence against women and girls. Pretoria, South Africa: What Works to prevent violence among women and girls global Programme. (See pp. 39-41)


Further works

Anderson, RaeAnn E., and Shawn P. Cahill. (2015). Behavioral response to threat (BRTT) as a key behavior for sexual assault risk reduction intervention: A critical review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 25: 304-313.

Brecklin, L. R. (2008). Evaluation outcomes of self-defense training for women: A review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(1): 60-76.

Brecklin, L.R. & Middendorf, R.K. (2014). The group dynamics of women’s self-defense training. Violence Against Women, 20(3), pp. 326–342. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24626767.

Breitenbecher, K.H., and M. Scarce. (2001). An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Sexual Assault Education Program Focusing on Psychological Barriers to Resistance. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(5): 387-407.

Cahill, A.J. (2009). In Defense of Self-Defense. Philosophical Papers, 38(3), pp. 363–380.

Caignon, Denise, and Gail Grovers. (1987). Her Wits About her: Self-Defense Success Stories by Women. New York: Harper and Row.

Cermele, J. A. (2004). Teaching resistance to teach resistance: The use of self-defense in teaching undergraduates about gender violence. Feminist Teacher, 15(1), 1-15. .

Cermele, J., & McCaughey, M. (2015). What’s Wrong with the CDC’s Public Health Model for Rape Prevention. J Community Med Health, 5(387), 2161-0711.

Downs, W., Rindels, B., & Atkinson, C. (2007). Women’s use of physical and nonphysical self-defense strategies during incidents of partner violence. Violence Against Women, 13, 28-45.

Gidycz, C.A., M.J. Layman, C.L. Rich, M. Crothers, J. Gylys, A. Matorin, and C.D. Jacobs. (2001). An Evaluation of an Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program: Impact on Attitudes, Sexual Aggression, and Sexual Victimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(11): 1120-1138.

Gidycz, C. A., Lynn, S. J., Rich, C. L., Marioni, N. L., Loh, C., Blackwell, L. M., ... & Pashdag, J. (2001). The evaluation of a sexual assault risk reduction program: A multisite investigation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(6), 1073.

Gidycz, C. A., McNamara, J. R., & Edwards, K. M. (2006). Women's risk perception and sexual victimization: A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11(5), 441-456.

Gidycz, C. A., Van Wynsberghe, A., & Edwards, K. M. (2008). Prediction of women's utilization of resistance strategies in a sexual assault situation: A prospective study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(5), 571-588.

Gidycz, C.A., Rich, C.L., Orchowski, L., King, C., & Miller, A.K. (2006). The evaluation of a sexual assault self-defense and risk-reduction program for college women: A prospective study. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30, 173-186.

Gidycz, Christine A., and Christina M. Dardis. (2014). Feminist Self-Defense and Resistance Training for College Students: A Critical Review and Recommendations for the Future. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15(4) 322-333

Gilmore, A. K., Lewis, M. A., & George, W. H. (2015). A Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Alcohol Use and Sexual Assault Risk among College Women at High Risk for Victimization. Behaviour research and therapy, 74, 38-49.

Hall, R. (2004). It Can Happen to You: Rape Prevention in the Age of Risk Management. Hypatia, 19(3), pp. 1–19.

Heyden, S.M. et al., (1999). Fighting Back Works: The Case for Advocating and Teaching Self-Defense against Rape. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 70(5), pp.31–34. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07303084.1999.10605931.

Hines, D. A., & Palm Reed, K. M. (2015). An Experimental Evaluation of Peer versus Professional Educators of a Bystander Program for the Prevention of Sexual and Dating Violence among College Students. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 24(3), 279-298. doi:10.1080/10926771.2015.1009601

Hollander, J. A. (2009). The Roots of Resistance to Women’s Self-Defense. Violence Against Women, 15(5): 574-594.

Hollander, J. A. (2014). Does self-defense training prevent sexual violence against women?. Violence against women, 20(3), 252-269.

Hollander, J. A. (2016). The importance of self-defense training for sexual violence prevention. Feminism & Psychology, 0959353516637393.

Hollander, J. A., & Rodgers, K. (2014, June). Constructing Victims: The Erasure of Women’s Resistance to Sexual Assault. Sociological Forum, 29(2): 342-364).

Hollander, J.A. (2005). Challenging Despair: Teaching About Women’s Resistance to Violence. Violence Against Women, 11(6), pp.776–791.

Holtzman, M., & Menning, C. L. (2019). Developments in Sexual Assault Resistance Education: Combining Risk Reduction and Primary Prevention. Journal of applied social science, 13(1), 7-25.

Jordan, J. & Mossman, E. (2016). Skills for Safety: An evaluation of the value, impact and outcomes of girls’ and women’s self defence in the community, Wellington.

Jordan, J., & Mossman, E. (2017). “Back Off Buddy, This Is My Body, Not Yours”: Empowering Girls through Self-Defense. Violence Against Women, 0(0).

McCaughey, M., & Cermele, J. (2015). Changing the Hidden Curriculum of Campus Rape Prevention and Education: Women’s Self-Defense as a Key Protective Factor for a Public Health Model of Prevention. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 1524838015611674.

McCaughey, Martha. (1997). Real Knockouts: The Physical Feminism of Women’s Self-Defense. New York: New York University Press.

Newby-Clark, I. R. (2013). What I am doing to stop rape: The personal/intellectual journey of a heterosexual male investigator on a sexual assault resistance education intervention. Feminism & Psychology, 23(4), 556-560.

Noll, J. G., & Grych, J. H. (2011). Read-React-Respond: An Integrative Model for Understanding Sexual Revictimization. Psychology of Violence, 1(3), 202.

Orchowski, L. M., Gidycz, C. A., & Raffle, H. (2008). Evaluation of a sexual assault risk reduction and self-defense program: A prospective analysis of a revised protocol. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32, 204-218.

Rentschler, C.A., 1999. Women’s Self-Defense: Physical Education for Everyday Life. Women’s Studies Quarterly, 27(1/2), pp.152–161. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40003408.

Rosenberg, Karen. (2015). Sexual assault resistance program lowers rape rate in university women. AJN The American Journal of Nursing 115, no. 10: 52-53.

Rosenblum, G. D., & Taska, L. S. (2014). Self-defense training as clinical intervention for survivors of trauma. Violence Against Women, 20(3), 293-308.

Rozee, Patricia D., and Mary P. Koss. (2001). Rape: A Century of Resistance. Psychology of Women Quarterly, December, Volume 25 Issue 4.

Sarnquist C, Omondi B, Sinclair J et al. (2014). Rape prevention through empowerment of adolescent girls. Pediatrics, ePub, 2014.

Senn, C. (2010). An imperfect feminist journey: Reflections on the process to develop an effective sexual assault resistance programme for university women. Feminism & Psychology, 0959353510386094.

Senn, C. Y., Eliasziw, M., Barata, P. C., Thurston, W. E., Newby-Clark, I. R., Radtke, H. L., & Hobden, K. L. (2013). Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial). BMC women’s health, 13(1), 25.

Senn, C. Y., Gee, S. S., & Thake, J. (2011). Emancipatory Sexuality Education and Sexual Assault Resistance: Does the Former Enhance the Latter?. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(1), 72-91.

Senn, C. Y., Saunders, K., & Gee, S. (2008). Walking the tightrope: Providing sexual assault  resistance education for University women without victim blame. In S. Arcand, D. Damant,  S. Gravel, & E. Harper (Eds.), Violences faites aux femmes [Violence against women] in the collection: Problemes sociaux et interventions sociales [Social problems and social interventions] (pp. 353-372). Quebec City: Les Presses de Université du Québec.

Senn, C.Y., Eliasziw, M., Barata, P.C., Thurston, W.E., Newby-Clark, I.R., Radtke, H.L., & Hobden, K.L. (2013). Sexual assault resistance education for university women: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial). BMC Women’s Health, 13, 25. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-13-25.

Simpson Rowe, L, Jouriles E.N, McDonald R, Platt C.G, Gomez G.S. (2012). Enhancing Women’s Resistance to Sexual Coercion: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the DATE Program. J. Am. Coll. Health; 60(3): 211-218.

Sinclair, J., Sinclair, L., Otieno, E., Mulinge, M., Kapphahn, C., & Golden, N. H. (2013). A self-defense program reduces the incidence of sexual assault in Kenyan adolescent girls. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(3), 374-380.

Tark, J., & Kleck, G. (2014). Resisting rape: The effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury. Violence Against Women, 20(3), 270-292.

Thompson, M. E. (2014). Empowering self-defense training. Violence Against Women, 20(3), 351-359.

Ullman, S. E. (1997). Review and critique of empirical studies of rape avoidance. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 24(2), 177-204.

Ullman, S.E. (2007). A 10-Year Update of “Review and Critique of Empirical Studies of Rape Avoidance”. Crim Justice Behav., 34(3): 411-429.

Ullman, S.E. (2014). Reflections on researching rape resistance. Violence Against Women: 1077801214526308.

Ullman, S.E., and R.A. Knight. (1992). Fighting Back: Women’s resistance to rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 31-43.

Ullman, S.E., and R.A. Knight. (1993). The efficacy of women’s resistance strategies in rape situations. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 23-38.

Weisz, A. N., & Black, B. M. (2010). Peer Education and Leadership in Dating Violence Prevention: Strengths and Challenges. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 19(6), 641-660. doi:10.1080/10926771.2010.502089

Weitlauf, J.C. et al., 2001. Assessing Generalization in Perceived Self-Efficacy: Multidomain and Global Assessments of the Effects of Self-Defense Training for Women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(12), pp.1683–1691.

White, D., & Rees, G. (2014). Self-defense or undermining the self? Exploring the possibilities and limitations of a novel anti-rape technology. Violence Against Women, 20(3), 360-368.