(ix) Bystander intervention strategies

Guides for bystanders and/or to bystander action

Berkowitz, Alan. (2009). Response Ability: A Complete Guide to Bystander Behavior. Beck & Co.

Fenton, R. A., Mott, H. L., McCartan, K. & Rumney, P. N. S. (2014). The intervention initiative toolkit and website. Retrieved from http://www1.uwe.ac.uk/bl/research/interventioninitiative/thetoolkit.aspx

Flood, Michael. (2011). Men Speak Up: A toolkit for action in men’s daily lives. Sydney: White Ribbon Prevention Research Series, No. 4. https://www.whiteribbon.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Men_speak_up_Flood_2011-1.pdf

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Playbook for Female College Students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Playbook for Male College Students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Trainer’s Guide: For working with female college students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Trainer’s Guide: For working with male college students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Moynihan, M. M., Eckstein, R. P., Banyard, V. L., & Plante, E. G. (2010). Facilitator’s Guide For Bringing In The Bystander™: A Prevention Workshop For Establishing A Community Of Responsibility (Revised Version). Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Prevention Innovations.

New York State Department of Health. (2013). Stop Sexual Violence - A Sexual Violence Bystander Intervention Toolkit. New York: New York State Department of Health.

VicHealth. (2014). ‘Stepping in’: A bystander action toolkit to support equality and respect at work - A resource for State Sporting Associations. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth).


Useful introductions to and overviews of bystander intervention [NEW]

Banyard, Victoria L., Elizabethe G. Plante, and Mary M. Moynihan. (2004). Bystander education: Bringing a broader community perspective to sexual violence prevention. Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 1, January: 61-79.

Banyard, Victoria L., Elizabethe G. Plante, and Mary M. Moynihan. (2005). Rape Prevention Through Bystander Education: Bringing a broader perspective to sexual violence prevention. Washington: US Department of Justice.

Cares, A. C., Moynihan, M. M., & Banyard, V. L. (2014). Taking stock of bystander programmes. In Preventing Sexual Violence: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Overcoming a Rape Culture, eds N. Henry and A. Powell, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp. 170-188.

Evans, J. L., Burroughs, M. E., & Knowlden, A. P. (2019). Examining the efficacy of bystander sexual violence interventions for first- year college students: A systematic review. Aggression and violent behavior, 48, 72-82. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2019.08.016

Fenton, R. A., & Mott, H. L. (2018). The Intervention Initiative: Theoretical Underpinnings, Development and Implementation. In S. Anitha & R. Lewis (Eds.), Gender Based Violence in University Communities (pp. 169-188): Policy Press.

Katz, J. (2018). Bystander training as leadership training: Notes on the origins, philosophy, and pedagogy of the mentors in violence prevention model. Violence against women, 24(15), 1755-1776.

Katz, J., & Moore, J. (2013). Bystander Education Training for Campus Sexual Assault Prevention: An Initial Meta-Analysis. Perspectives on College Sexual Assault: Perpetrator, Victim, and Bystander (pp. 183-196).

Katz, J., & Moore, J. (2013). Bystander education training for campus sexual assault prevention: An initial meta-analysis. Violence and Victims, 28(6): 1054-1067.

Kettrey, Heather Hensman, Robert A. Marx, and Emily E. Tanner-Smith. (2019). Effects of Bystander Programs on the Prevention of Sexual Assault Among Adolescents and College Students: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 15(1-2): e1013

Mujal, G. N., Taylor, M. E., Fry, J. L., Gochez-Kerr, T. H., & Weaver, N. L. (2019). A Systematic Review of Bystander Interventions for the Prevention of Sexual Violence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 0(0), 1524838019849587. 10.1177/1524838019849587

Powell, A. (2011). Review of Bystander Approaches in Support of Preventing Violence Against Women. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth).

Powell, A. (2014). Shifting upstream: bystander intervention against sexism and discrimination against women. In Preventing Sexual Violence: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Overcoming a Rape Culture, eds N. Henry and A. Powell, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp. 189-207.

Storer, H. L., Casey, E., & Herrenkohl, T. (2016). Efficacy of Bystander Programs to Prevent Dating Abuse Among Youth and Young Adults: A Review of the Literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 17(3), 256-269. doi:10.1177/1524838015584361

Tabachnick, J. (2009). Engaging Bystanders in Sexual Violence Prevention. National Sexual Violence Resource Center: Pennsylvannia. http://www.nsvrc.org/cms/fileUpload/Projects/EngagingBystanders.pdf.


Further works

Alegria-Flores, K., Raker, K., Pleasants, R.K., Weaver, M.A, & Weinberger, M. (2015). Preventing interpersonal violence on college campuses: The effect of One Act training on bystander intervention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, [ahead-of-print]. DOI: 10.1177/0886260515587666

Ann, L. C. (2018). Commentary on Katz’s Bystander Training as Leadership Training. Violence Against Women, 1077801217753320.

Bannon, R. S., Brosi, M. W., & Foubert, J. D. (2013). Sorority women’s and fraternity men’s rape myth acceptance and bystander intervention attitudes. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 50(1), 72-87.

Banyard, V.L., Moynihan, M.M. Cares, A.C., and Warner, R. (2014). How do we know if it works? Measuring outcomes in bystander-focused abuse prevention on campuses. American Psychological Association, 4(1), 101-115.

Banyard, Victoria L. (2008). Measurement and correlates of pro-social bystander behavior: The case of interpersonal violence. Violence and Victims, 23, 85-99.

Banyard, Victoria L., and Mary M. Moynihan (2011). Variation in Bystander Behavior Related to Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence Prevention: Correlates in a Sample of College Students. Psychology of Violence, Vol 1 No 4.

Banyard, Victoria L., Mary M. Moynihan, and Elizabethe G. Plante. (2007). Sexual violence prevention through bystander education: An experimental evaluation. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(4): 463-481.

Bennett, S., Banyard, V.L., and Garnhart, L. (2014). To act or not to act, that is the question? Barriers and facilitators of bystander intervention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(3), 476-496.

Blayney, J. A., Jenzer, T., Read, J. P., Livingston, J. A., & Testa, M. (2018). Enlisting Friends to Reduce Sexual Victimization Risk: There’s an App for That… but Nobody Uses It. Journal of American College Health, 1-22.

Brinkman, B. G., Dean, A. M., Simpson, C. K., McGinley, M., & Rosén, L. A. (2015). Bystander Intervention During College Women’s Experiences of Gender Prejudice. Sex Roles, 72(11-12), 485-498.

Brown, A. L. and T. L. Messman-Moore (2010). Personal and Perceived Peer Attitudes Supporting Sexual Aggression as Predictors of Male College Students’ Willingness to Intervene Against Sexual Aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 25(3): 503-517.

Burn, S.M. (2009). A Situational Model of Sexual Assault Prevention through Bystander Intervention. Sex Roles, 60(11-12): 779-792.

Bush, H. M., Bell, S. C., & Coker, A. L. (2019). Measurement of Bystander Actions in Violence Intervention Evaluation: Opportunities and Challenges. Current Epidemiology Reports, 6(2), 208-214.

Cares, A. C., Banyard, V. L., Moynihan, M. M., Williams, L. M., Potter, S. J., & Stapleton, J. G. (2015). Changing attitudes about being a bystander to violence: Translating an in- person sexual violence prevention program to a new campus. Violence Against Women, 21(2), 165-187. doi:10.1177/1077801214564681

Carlson, M. (2008). I’d rather go along and be considered a man: masculinity and bystander intervention. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 16(1): 3(15).

Casey, E. A., and T. P. Lindhorst. (2009). Toward a multi-level, ecological approach to the primary prevention of sexual assault: Prevention in peer and community contexts. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 10(2), 91-114.

Casey, E. A., Lindhorst, T., & Storer, H. L. (2017). The Situational-Cognitive Model of Adolescent Bystander Behavior: Modeling Bystander Decision-Making in the Context of Bullying and Teen Dating Violence. Psychology of Violence, 7(1), 33.

Casey, E., and K. Ohler. (2012). Being a positive bystander: Male anti-violence allies’ experiences of ‘stepping up’. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 62-83.

Chaudoir, S. R., & Quinn, D. M. (2010). Bystander Sexism in the Intergroup Context: The Impact of Cat-Calls on Women’s Reactions Towards Men. Sex Roles, 62(9-10), 623-634.

Christy, C. A., and H. Voigt. (1994), Bystander Responses to Public Episodes of Child Abuse. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24: 824-847.

Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Clear, E. R., Brancato, C. J., & McCauley, H. L. (2020). Bystander Program Effectiveness to Reduce Violence and Violence Acceptance Within Sexual Minority Male and Female High School Students Using a Cluster RCT. Prevention Science. doi:10.1007/s11121-019-01073-7

Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Cook-Craig, P. G., DeGue, S. A., Clear, E. R., Brancato, C. J., . . . Recktenwald, E. A. (2017). RCT Testing Bystander Effectiveness to Reduce Violence. Am J Prev Med. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.020

Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Fisher, B. S., Swan, S. C., Williams, C. M., Clear, E. R., & DeGue, S. (2016). Multi-college bystander intervention evaluation for violence prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50(3), 295-302.

Coker, Ann L., Patricia G. Cook-Craig, Corrine M. Williams, Bonnie S. Fisher, Emily R. Clear, Lisandra S. Garcia, and Lea M. Hegge. (2011). Evaluation of Green Dot: An Active Bystander Intervention to Reduce Sexual Violence on College Campuses.  Violence Against Women, 17: 777-796.

Cook-Craig P.G, Coker A.L, Clear E.R, Garcia L.S, Bush H.M, Brancato C.J, Williams C.M, Fisher B.S. (2014). Challenge and opportunity in evaluating a diffusion-based active bystanding prevention program: Green Dot in high schools. Violence Against Women, ePub, 2014.

Cook-Craig P.G, Millspaugh P.H, Recktenwald E.A, Kelly N.C, Hegge L.M, Coker A.L, Pletcher T.S. (2014). From Empower to Green Dot: Successful strategies and lessons learned in developing comprehensive sexual violence primary prevention programming. Violence Against Women, ePub, 2014.

Corboz, J., Flood, M., & Dyson, S. (2016). Challenges of bystander intervention in male-dominated professional sport: lessons from the Australian Football League. Violence Against Women: an international and interdisciplinary journal, 22(33), 324-343. doi:10.1177/1077801215602343

Cowie, H., and N. Hutson. (2005). Peer support: A strategy to help bystanders challenge school bullying. Pastoral Care in Education, 23(2): 40–44.

Denny, S., Peterson, E. R., Stuart, J., Utter, J., Bullen, P., Fleming, T., . . . Milfont, T. (2015). Bystander Intervention, Bullying, and Victimization: A Multilevel Analysis of New Zealand High Schools. Journal of School Violence, 14(3), 245-272.

Domestic Violence Task Force of San Luis Obispo County. (year?). Beat the Punch Tool Kit! Domestic Violence Task Force of San Luis Obispo County.

Eagly, A. H. (2009). The his and hers of prosocial behavior: An examination of the social psychology of gender. American Psychologist, 64(8): 644–658.

Emery, C. R., Jordan, L. P., & Chui, C. (2019). Friends in need: Bystander intervention for intimate partner violence in Beijing and Seoul. Sex Roles. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-019-01087-z

Epstein, J. (2002). Breaking the code of silence: Bystanders to campus violence and the law of college and university safety. Stetson L. Rev., 32.

Exner-Cortens, D., & Cummings, N. (2017). Bystander-Based Sexual Violence Prevention with College Athletes: A Pilot Randomized Trial. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260517733279.

Exner, D. and N. Cummings (2011). Implications for sexual assault prevention: college students as prosocial bystanders. Journal of American College Health 59(7): 655-657.

Fenton, R. A., & Mott, H. L. (2015a). The intervention initiative: Student feedback February 2015. Bristol: University of the West of England. Retrieved from https://public.uwe.ac.uk/faculties/BBS/BUS/law/Law%20docs/bystander/Par… dent_Feedback_report.pdf

Fenton, R. A., & Mott, H. L. (2017). The bystander approach to violence prevention: Considerations for implementation in Europe. Psychology of Violence, 7(3), 450-458. doi:10.1037/vio0000104

Fenton, R. A., Mott, H. L., McCartan, K., & Rumney, P. N. S. (2016). A review of evidence for bystander intervention to prevent sexual and domestic violence in universities. (No. 2016011). London, UK: Public Health England. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/fi…

Fenton, R.A., & Mott, H.L. (2016) Evaluation of The Intervention Initiative, a Bystander Intervention Program to Prevent Violence Against Women in Universities (under review)

Fileborn, B. (2017). Bystander Intervention from the Victims' Perspective: Experiences, Impacts and Justice Needs of Street Harassment Victims. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, 1(2), 187-204.

Fileborn, B. (2017). Bystander intervention from the victims’ perspective: experiences, impacts and justice needs of street harassment victims. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, 1(2), 187-204. doi:10.1332/239868017X15048754886046

Fischer, Peter; Krueger, Joachim I.; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Vogrincic, Claudia; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Frey, Dieter; Heene, Moritz; Wicher, Magdalena; Kainbacher, Martina. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 137(4), Jul 2011, 517-537.

Fold, S. L., and D. T. Robinson. (1998). Secondary bystander effects on intimate violence: when norms of restraint reduce deterrence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, (15)2: 277-285.

Foubert, J.D., J. Langhinrichsen-Rohling, H. Brasfield, and B. Hill. (2010). Effects of a rape awareness program on college women: increasing bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(7): 813-827.

Franklin, C. A., Brady, P. Q., & Jurek, A. L. (2017). Responding to Gendered Violence among College Students: The Impact of Participant Characteristics on Direct Bystander Intervention Behavior. Journal of school violence, 16(2), 189-206.

Franklin, C. A., Brady, P. Q., & Jurek, A. L. (2017). Responding to gendered violence among college students: the impact of participant characteristics on direct bystander intervention behavior. Journal of school violence, 16(2), 189-206.

Gidycz, C. A., L. M. Orchowski, and A. D. Berkowitz. (2011). Preventing Sexual Aggression Among College Men: An Evaluation of a Social Norms and Bystander Approach Intervention Program. Violence Against Women, 17(6): 720-42.

Gracia, E., García, F. et al. (2009). Public Responses to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: The Influence of Perceived Severity and Personal Responsibility. The Spanish Journal of Psychology12(2): 648–656.

Grigoriou, S., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., & Theodorakis, Y. (2013). Preliminary exploration of bystander intention to stand up for a female-peer targeted in sexual harassment in Greek academia. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 14(1), 184.

Hamby, S., Weber, M. C., Grych, J., & Banyard, V. (2016). What difference do bystanders make? The association of bystander involvement with victim outcomes in a community sample. Psychology of Violence, 6(1), 91-102. doi:10.1037/a0039073

Hart, T. C., and T. D. Miethe. (2008). Exploring Bystander Presence and Intervention in Nonfatal Violent Victimization: When Does Helping Really Help? Violence and Victims, 23(5): 637–651.

Hitlan, R. T., Schneider, K. T. et al. (2006). Upsetting behavior: Reactions to personal and bystander sexual harassment experiences. Sex Roles, 55(3): 187–195.

Hust, S. J., Lei, M., Ren, C., Chang, H., McNab, A. L., Marett, E. G., & Willoughby, J. F. (2013). The Effects of Sports Media Exposure on College Students’ Rape Myth Beliefs and Intentions to Intervene in a Sexual Assault. Mass Communication and Society, 16(6), 762-786.

Hyers, L. (2007). Resisting prejudice every day: Exploring women’s assertive responses to anti-Black racism, anti-Semitism, heterosexism, and sexism. Sex Roles, 56(1), 1–12.

Jacobson, R. K., & Eaton, A. A. (2017). How Organizational Policies Influence Bystander Likelihood of Reporting Moderate and Severe Sexual Harassment at Work. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 1-26.

Janson, G. R. and R. J. Hazler (2004). Trauma reactions of bystanders and victims to repetitive abuse experiences. Violence and Victims19(2): 239–255.

Jenkins, L. N., & Nickerson, A. B. (2017). Bullying Participant Roles and Gender as Predictors of Bystander Intervention. Aggressive behavior, 43(3), 281-290.

Jenkins, L. N., Fredrick, S. S., & Nickerson, A. (2018). The Assessment of Bystander Intervention in Bullying: Examining Measurement Invariance across Gender. Journal of School Psychology, 69, 73-83.

Johnson, N. L., Walker, R. V., & Rojas-Ashe, E. E. (2019). A Social Justice Approach to Measuring Bystander Behavior: Introducing the Critically Conscious Bystander Scale. Sex Roles, 81(11), 731-747. doi:10.1007/s11199-019-01028-w

Johnson, N. L., Walker, R. V., & Rojas-Ashe, E. E. (2019). A Social Justice Approach to Measuring Bystander Behavior: Introducing the Critically Conscious Bystander Scale. Sex Roles, 81(11), 731-747. doi:10.1007/s11199-019-01028-w

Jouriles, E. N., Kleinsasser, A., Rosenfield, D., & McDonald, R. (2016). Measuring bystander behavior to prevent sexual violence: Moving beyond self reports. Psychology of Violence, 6(1), 73-81. doi:10.1037/a0038230

Jouriles, E. N., Krauss, A., Vu, N. L., Banyard, V. L., & McDonald, R. (2018). Bystander Programs Addressing Sexual Violence on College Campuses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Program Outcomes and Delivery Methods. Journal of American College Health(just-accepted).

Jouriles, E. N., McDonald, R., Rosenfield, D., Levy, N., Sargent, K., Caiozzo, C., & Grych, J. H. (2016). TakeCARE, a video bystander program to help prevent sexual violence on college campuses: Results of two randomized, controlled trials. Psychology of Violence, 6(3), 410.

Jouriles, E. N., Rosenfield, D., Yule, K., Sargent, K. S., & McDonald, R. (2016). Predicting high-school students’ bystander behavior in simulated dating violence situations. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(3), 345-351.

Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community. (2008). Special issue: Sexual Violence: Current Perspectives on Prevention and Intervention, 36(1-2);
Sharyn J. Potter, Jane G. Stapleton, Mary M. Moynihan, Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Media Campaign Illustrating the Bystander Role.

Kantor, G.K. (no date). Final Report: Evaluation of Prevent Child Abuse Vermont’s SAFE-T Program.

Katz, J. (2018a). Bystander Training as Leadership Training: Notes on the Origins, Philosophy, and Pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention Model. Violence Against Women, 0(0).

Katz, J. (2018b). Response to Commentaries on Bystander Training as Leadership Training. Violence Against Women, 0(0).

Katz, J., & Nguyen, L. J. (2016). Bystander Responses to Risk for Rape Perpetrated by a Friend, Acquaintance, or Stranger. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 25(6), 652-667. doi:10.1080/10926771.2016.1185755

Katz, J., Olin, R., Herman, C., & DuBois, M. (2013). Spotting the Signs: firstyear college students’ responses to bystanderthemed rape prevention posters. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(4), 523-529.

Kaya, A., Le, T. P., Brady, J., & Iwamoto, D. (2019). Men who intervene to prevent sexual assault: A grounded theory study on the role of masculinity in bystander intervention. Psychology of Men & Masculinities.

Kettrey, H.H. & Marx, R.A. (2019). Does the Gendered Approach of Bystander Programs Matter in the Prevention of Sexual Assault Among Adolescents and College Students? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1-17.

Kroshus, E., Paskus, T., & Bell, L. (2018). Coach Expectations About Off-Field Conduct and Bystander Intervention by Us College Football Players to Prevent Inappropriate Sexual Behavior. Journal of interpersonal violence, 33(2), 293-315.

Laner, M. R., Benin, M. H. et al. (2001). Bystander attitudes toward victims of violence: who’s worth helping? Deviant Behavior, 22(1): 23–42.

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., J. D. Foubert, Hm. M. Brasfield, B. Hill, and S. Shelley-Tremblay. (2011). The Men’s Program: Does it impact college men’s self-reported bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene? Violence Against Women, 17(6): 743-759.

Lemay, E. P., Jr., O'Brien, K. M., Kearney, M. S., Sauber, E. W., & Venaglia, R. B. (2019). Using conformity to enhance willingness to intervene in dating violence: A Theory of Planned Behavior analysis. Psychology of Violence, 9(4), 400-409. doi:10.1037/vio0000114

Leone, R. M., & Parrott, D. J. (2019). Male Role Norms, Heavy Drinking, and Bystander Behavior for Sexual Aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0886260519851222.

Leone, R. M., Haikalis, M., Parrott, D. J., & DiLillo, D. (2018). Bystander intervention to prevent sexual violence: The overlooked role of bystander alcohol intoxication. Psychology of Violence, 8(5), 639-647. doi:10.1037/vio0000155

Leone, R. M., Parrott, D. J., & Swartout, K. M. (2017). When is it ‘manly’ to intervene?: Examining the effects of a misogynistic peer norm on bystander intervention for sexual aggression. Psychology of Violence, 7(2), 286-295. doi:10.1037/vio0000055

Leone, R. M., Parrott, D. J., Swartout, K. M., & Tharp, A. T. (2016). Masculinity and bystander attitudes: Moderating effects of masculine gender role stress. Psychology of Violence, 6(1), 82-90. doi:10.1037/a0038926

Levine, M., and K. Thompson. (2004). Identity, place, and bystander intervention: Social categories and helping after natural disasters. The Journal of Social Psychology 144(3): 229–245.

Levine, M., and S. Crowther. (2008). The responsive bystander: How social group membership and group size can encourage as well as inhibit bystander intervention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(6): 1429–1439.

Levine, M., Prosser, A., Evans, D., and Reicher, S. (2005). Identity and emergency intervention: How social group membership and inclusiveness of group boundaries shape helping behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(4), 443–453.

Loh, C., Orchowski, L. M. et al. (2007). Socialization and sexual aggression in college men: The role of observational influence in detecting risk cues. Psychology Of Men And Masculinity, 8(3).

Lynch, Annette, and Michael Fleming. (2005). Bystander Approaches: Empowering Students to Model Ethical Sexual Behavior. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, September, Vol. 97, Iss. 3.

Martini, M., & De Piccoli, N. (2020). Predicting bystander intention to intervene: the role of gender-specific system justification and rape myth acceptance for men and women. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.

Matt W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R Sean Bannon, and Gabriel Yandell. (2011). Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/ Sorority Advisors, 6.2: 26-35.

McDonald, P., and M. Flood (2012). Encourage. Support. Act! Bystander Approaches to Sexual Harassment in the Workplace. Sydney: Human Rights Commission. URL: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/encourage-support-act-bystander-approaches-sexual-harassment-workplace-2012.

McDonald, P., Charlesworth, S., & Graham, T. (2016). Action or Inaction: Bystander Intervention in Workplace Sexual Harassment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(5), 548-566.

McMahon, S. (2010). Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students. J Am Coll Health; 59(1): 3-11.

McMahon, S. (2015). Call for Research on Bystander Intervention to Prevent Sexual Violence: The Role of Campus Environments. American journal of community psychology, 55(3-4), 472-489.

McMahon, S. (2015). Call for research on bystander intervention to prevent sexual violence: the role of campus environments. American journal of community psychology, 55(3-4), 472-489.

McMahon, S., and A. Dick. (2011). “Being in a room of like-minded men”: An exploratory study of men’s participation in a bystander intervention program to prevent intimate partner violence. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 19(1), 3-18.

McMahon, S., and G. L. Farmer (2009). The Bystander Approach: Strengths-Based Sexual Assault Prevention With At-Risk Groups. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment19(8): 1042–1065.

McMahon, S., J. L. Postmus, and R. A. Koenick. (2011). Conceptualizing the engaging bystander approach to sexual violence prevention on college campuses. Journal of College Student Development, 52 (1), 115-130.

McMahon, S., Lowe Hoffman, M., McMahon, S. M., Zucker, S., & Koenick, R. A. (2013). What would you do? Strategies for bystander intervention to prevent sexual violence by college students. Journal of College and Character, 14(2), 141-152.

McMahon, S., Treitler, P., Peterson, N. A., & O'Connor, J. (2019). Bystander intentions to intervene and previous sexual violence education: A latent class analysis. Psychology of Violence, 9(1), 117-126. doi:10.1037/vio0000165

Menolascino, N., & Jenkins, L. N. (2018). Predicting Bystander Intervention among Middle School Students. School psychology quarterly, 33(2), 305.

Miller E, Tancredi D.J, McCauley H.L, Decker M.R, Virata M.C, Anderson H.A, Stetkevich N, Brown E.W, Moideen F, Silverman J.G. (2012). Coaching Boys into Men?: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of a Dating Violence Prevention Program. J. Adolesc. Health, 51(5): 431-438.

Miller E, Tancredi DJ, McCauley HL, Decker MR, Virata MC, Anderson HA, O’Connor B, and Silverman JG (2013). One-year follow-up of a coach-delivered dating violence prevention program: a cluster randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 45(1): 108-12.

Miller, E., Das, M., Tancredi, D. J., McCauley, H. L., Virata, M. C. D., Nettiksimmons, J., O’Connor, B., Ghosh, S., and Verma, R. (2014). Evaluation of a gender-based violence prevention program for student athletes in Mumbai, India. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(4), 758-778.

Miller, E., Das, M., Verma, R., O’Connor, B., Ghosh, S., Jaime, M. C. D., & McCauley, H. L. (2015). Exploring the potential for changing gender norms among cricket coaches and athletes in India. Violence Against Women, 21(2), 188-205.

Miner-Rubino, K. and L. M. Cortina (2004). Working in a context of hostility toward women: Implications for employees’ well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9: 107–122.

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