(ix) Bystander intervention strategies

Guides for bystanders and/or to bystander action

Berkowitz, Alan. (2009). Response Ability: A Complete Guide to Bystander Behavior. Beck & Co.

Fenton, R. A., Mott, H. L., McCartan, K. & Rumney, P. N. S. (2014). The intervention initiative toolkit and website. Retrieved from http://www1.uwe.ac.uk/bl/research/interventioninitiative/thetoolkit.aspx

Flood, Michael. (2011). Men Speak Up: A toolkit for action in men’s daily lives. Sydney: White Ribbon Prevention Research Series, No. 4.

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Playbook for Female College Students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Playbook for Male College Students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Trainer’s Guide: For working with female college students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Katz, Jackson. (2004). MVP Trainer’s Guide: For working with male college students. Mentors in Violence Prevention.

Moynihan, M. M., Eckstein, R. P., Banyard, V. L., & Plante, E. G. (2010). Facilitator’s Guide For Bringing In The Bystander™: A Prevention Workshop For Establishing A Community Of Responsibility (Revised Version). Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Prevention Innovations.

New York State Department of Health. (2013). Stop Sexual Violence - A Sexual Violence Bystander Intervention Toolkit. New York: New York State Department of Health.

VicHealth. (2014). ‘Stepping in’: A bystander action toolkit to support equality and respect at work - A resource for State Sporting Associations. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth).


Useful introductions to and overviews of bystander intervention [NEW]

Banyard, Victoria L., Elizabethe G. Plante, and Mary M. Moynihan. (2004). Bystander education: Bringing a broader community perspective to sexual violence prevention. Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 1, January: 61-79.

Banyard, Victoria L., Elizabethe G. Plante, and Mary M. Moynihan. (2005). Rape Prevention Through Bystander Education: Bringing a broader perspective to sexual violence prevention. Washington: US Department of Justice.

Bell, S. C., Coker, A. L., & Clear, E. R. (2019). Bystander program effectiveness: A review of the evidence in educational settings (2007–2018). Handbook of sexual assault and sexual assault prevention, 433-450. Brush, L. D., & Miller, E. (2022). Re-Envisioning Bystander Programs for Campus Sexual Violence Prevention. Journal of Family Violence, 1-12. 

Cares, A. C., Moynihan, M. M., & Banyard, V. L. (2014). Taking stock of bystander programmes. In Preventing Sexual Violence: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Overcoming a Rape Culture, eds N. Henry and A. Powell, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp. 170-188.

Evans, J. L., Burroughs, M. E., & Knowlden, A. P. (2019). Examining the efficacy of bystander sexual violence interventions for first- year college students: A systematic review. Aggression and violent behavior, 48, 72-82. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2019.08.016

Fenton, R. A., & Mott, H. L. (2018). The Intervention Initiative: Theoretical Underpinnings, Development and Implementation. In S. Anitha & R. Lewis (Eds.), Gender Based Violence in University Communities (pp. 169-188): Policy Press.

Gaffney, Hannah, Darrick Jolliffe, and Howard White. (2023). Bystander Interventions to Prevent Sexual Assault: Toolkit technical report. Youth Endowment Fund, UK.

Hofman, J., Nightingale, M., Ellegaard, C., Pontedeira, C., & Sanjurjo, P. (2020). Intimate partner violence and witness intervention: what are the deciding factors? European Institute for Gender Equality.

Hoxmeier, J. C., & Casey, E. A. (2022). Engaging boys and men as allies in prevention: The efficacy of bystander program approaches for boys and men. In Orchowski, Lindsay M., and Alan Berkowitz (eds.), Engaging Boys and Men in Sexual Assault Prevention (pp. 285-309). Academic Press.

Jouriles, E. N., Krauss, A., Vu, N. L., Banyard, V. L., & McDonald, R. (2018). Bystander Programs Addressing Sexual Violence on College Campuses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Program Outcomes and Delivery Methods. Journal of American College Health, 66(6): 457-466.

Katz, J. (2018). Bystander training as leadership training: Notes on the origins, philosophy, and pedagogy of the mentors in violence prevention model. Violence against women, 24(15), 1755-1776.

Katz, J., & Moore, J. (2013). Bystander Education Training for Campus Sexual Assault Prevention: An Initial Meta-Analysis. Perspectives on College Sexual Assault: Perpetrator, Victim, and Bystander (pp. 183-196).

Katz, J., & Moore, J. (2013). Bystander education training for campus sexual assault prevention: An initial meta-analysis. Violence and Victims, 28(6): 1054-1067.

Kettrey, Heather Hensman, Robert A. Marx, and Emily E. Tanner-Smith. (2019). Effects of Bystander Programs on the Prevention of Sexual Assault Among Adolescents and College Students: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 15(1-2): e1013

Kettrey, H. H., & Marx, R. A. (2019). The Effects of Bystander Programs on the Prevention of Sexual Assault across the College Years: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(2), 212-227. doi:10.1007/s10964-018-0927-1

Kettrey, H. H., & Marx, R. A. (2020). Effects of bystander sexual assault prevention programs on promoting intervention skills and combatting the bystander effect: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1-25.

Krauss, A., McDonald, R., Cascardi, M., Grych, J. H., Banyard, V. L., Rosenfield, D., & Jouriles, E. N. (2023). Quantifying College Students’ Bystander Behavior to Prevent Sexual Assault and Intimate Partner Violence: Can We Make Improvements? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0(0), 08862605231173939. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605231173939

Mujal, G. N., Taylor, M. E., Fry, J. L., Gochez-Kerr, T. H., & Weaver, N. L. (2021). A systematic review of bystander interventions for the prevention of sexual violence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 22(2), 381-396. 

Powell, A. (2011). Review of Bystander Approaches in Support of Preventing Violence Against Women. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth).

Powell, A. (2014). Shifting upstream: bystander intervention against sexism and discrimination against women. In Preventing Sexual Violence: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Overcoming a Rape Culture, eds N. Henry and A. Powell, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp. 189-207.

Roberts, N., & Marsh, H. (2022). A qualitative evaluation of bystander training: What works? The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice, n/a(n/a). doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/hojo.12487

Rudnicki, K., Vandebosch, H., Voué, P., & Poels, K. (2022). Systematic review of determinants and consequences of bystander interventions in online hate and cyberbullying among adults. Behaviour & Information Technology, 1-18. 

Storer, H. L., Casey, E., & Herrenkohl, T. (2016). Efficacy of Bystander Programs to Prevent Dating Abuse Among Youth and Young Adults: A Review of the Literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 17(3), 256-269. doi:10.1177/1524838015584361

Tabachnick, J. (2009). Engaging Bystanders in Sexual Violence Prevention. National Sexual Violence Resource Center: Pennsylvannia. http://www.nsvrc.org/cms/fileUpload/Projects/EngagingBystanders.pdf.


Further works

Alegría-Flores, K., Raker, K., Pleasants, R. K., Weaver, M. A., & Weinberger, M. (2017). Preventing interpersonal violence on college campuses: The effect of one act training on bystander intervention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32(7), 1103-1126.

Amar, A. F., Sutherland, M., & Laughon, K. (2014). Gender differences in attitudes and beliefs associated with bystander behavior and sexual assault. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 10(2), 84

Ann, L. C. (2018). Commentary on Katz’s Bystander Training as Leadership Training. Violence Against Women, 1077801217753320.

Baillie, G., Fileborn, B., & Wadds, P. (2022). Gendered responses to gendered harms: Sexual violence and bystander intervention at Australian music festivals. Violence against women, 28(3-4), 711-739.

Bang, A., Kerrick, A., & Wuthrich, C. K. (2016). Examining bystander intervention in the wake of #BlackLivesMatter and# TransLivesMatter. In S. C. Wooten & R. W. Mitchell (Eds.), Preventing sexual violence on campus: Challenging traditional approaches through program innovation (pp. 65-80).

Bannon, R. S., Brosi, M. W., & Foubert, J. D. (2013). Sorority women’s and fraternity men’s rape myth acceptance and bystander intervention attitudes. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 50(1), 72-87.

Banyard, V. L., Edwards, K. M., Rizzo, A. J., Rothman, E. F., Greenberg, P., & Kearns, M. C. (2020). Improving social norms and actions to prevent sexual and intimate partner violence: a pilot study of the impact of Green Dot community on youth. Journal of Prevention and Health Promotion, 1(2), 183-211.

Banyard, V. L., Moynihan, M. M., & Crossman, M. T. (2009). Reducing sexual violence on campus: The role of student leaders as empowered bystanders. Journal of College Student Development, 50(4), 446-457. 

Banyard, V., A. Waterman, E., M. Edwards, K., & Valente, T. W. (2021). Adolescent peers and prevention: network patterns of sexual violence attitudes and bystander actions. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260521997448.

Banyard, V., Greenberg, P., Edwards, K., Mitchell, K. J., & Jones, L. (2021). Describing youth as actionists for peer sexual violence prevention: correlates of opportunity to act. Journal of Gender-Based Violence.

Banyard, V.L., Moynihan, M.M. Cares, A.C., and Warner, R. (2014). How do we know if it works? Measuring outcomes in bystander-focused abuse prevention on campuses. American Psychological Association, 4(1), 101-115. 

Banyard, Victoria L. (2008). Measurement and correlates of pro-social bystander behavior: The case of interpersonal violence. Violence and Victims, 23, 85-99.

Banyard, Victoria L., and Mary M. Moynihan (2011). Variation in Bystander Behavior Related to Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence Prevention: Correlates in a Sample of College Students. Psychology of Violence, Vol 1 No 4.

Banyard, Victoria L., Mary M. Moynihan, and Elizabethe G. Plante. (2007). Sexual violence prevention through bystander education: An experimental evaluation. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(4): 463-481.

Bennett, S., Banyard, V.L., and Garnhart, L. (2014). To act or not to act, that is the question? Barriers and facilitators of bystander intervention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(3), 476-496.

Blayney, J. A., Jenzer, T., Read, J. P., Livingston, J. A., & Testa, M. (2018). Enlisting Friends to Reduce Sexual Victimization Risk: There’s an App for That… but Nobody Uses It. Journal of American College Health, 1-22.

Bloom, T. L., Perrin, N., Brown, M. L., Campbell, J., Clough, A., Grace, K. T., Laughon, K., Messing, J., Eden, K. B., Turner, R., & Glass, N. (2023). Concerned friends of intimate partner violence survivors: results from the myPlan randomized controlled trial on college campuses. BMC Public Health, 23(1), 1033. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-023-15918-y

Bovill, H., Waller, R., & McCartan, K. (2020). Discussing Atypical Sexual Harassment as a Controversial Issue in Bystander Programmes: One UK Campus Study. Sexuality & Culture, 24(5), 1252-1270.

Bowers, J., & Cunningham, C. M. (2020). Online Rape Culture and Bystander Intervention. RAPE CULTURE 101: Programming Change.

Brinkman, B. G., Dean, A. M., Simpson, C. K., McGinley, M., & Rosén, L. A. (2015). Bystander Intervention During College Women’s Experiences of Gender Prejudice. Sex Roles, 72(11-12), 485-498.

Brown, A. L. and T. L. Messman-Moore (2010). Personal and Perceived Peer Attitudes Supporting Sexual Aggression as Predictors of Male College Students’ Willingness to Intervene Against Sexual Aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 25(3): 503-517.

Brown, S. E. V. (2019). The Impact of Different vs. Same Sex Sexual Harassment on Bystander Intervention. 

Bruno, L., Joelsson, T., Franzén, A. G., & Gottzén, L. (2020). Heroes and others: tensions and challenges in implementing Mentors in Violence Prevention in Swedish schools. Journal of Gender-Based Violence.

Brush, L. D., & Miller, E. (2022). Re-Envisioning Bystander Programs for Campus Sexual Violence Prevention. Journal of Family Violence. doi:10.1007/s10896-022-00458-7

Burn, S.M. (2009). A Situational Model of Sexual Assault Prevention through Bystander Intervention. Sex Roles, 60(11-12): 779-792.

Bush, H. M., Bell, S. C., & Coker, A. L. (2019). Measurement of Bystander Actions in Violence Intervention Evaluation: Opportunities and Challenges. Current Epidemiology Reports, 6(2), 208-214. 

Cadaret, M. C., Johnson, N. L., Devencenzi, M. L., & Morgan, E. M. (2021). A quasiexperimental study of the bystander plus program for changing rape culture beliefs. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(19-20), NP10156-NP10177. 

Cares, A. C., Banyard, V. L., Moynihan, M. M., Williams, L. M., Potter, S. J., & Stapleton, J. G. (2015). Changing attitudes about being a bystander to violence: Translating an in- person sexual violence prevention program to a new campus. Violence Against Women, 21(2), 165-187. doi:10.1177/1077801214564681

Carlson, M. (2008). I’d rather go along and be considered a man: masculinity and bystander intervention. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 16(1): 3(15).

Casey, E. A., and T. P. Lindhorst. (2009). Toward a multi-level, ecological approach to the primary prevention of sexual assault: Prevention in peer and community contexts. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 10(2), 91-114.

Casey, E. A., Lindhorst, T., & Storer, H. L. (2017). The Situational-Cognitive Model of Adolescent Bystander Behavior: Modeling Bystander Decision-Making in the Context of Bullying and Teen Dating Violence. Psychology of Violence, 7(1), 33.

Casey, E., and K. Ohler. (2012). Being a positive bystander: Male anti-violence allies’ experiences of ‘stepping up’. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 62-83.

Chaudoir, S. R., & Quinn, D. M. (2010). Bystander sexism in the intergroup context: The impact of cat-calls on women’s reactions towards men. Sex Roles, 62(9), 623-634.

Chen, H., Huang, Q., & Jiang, M. (2020). Empowering chinese college students to prevent sexual assault in post-MeToo era: an empirical study of the bystander intervention approach. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0886260520917515. 

Christensen, M. C., & Harris, R. J. (2019). Correlates of bystander readiness to help among a diverse college student population: An intersectional perspective. Research in Higher Education, 60(8), 1195-1226.

Christy, C. A., and H. Voigt. (1994), Bystander Responses to Public Episodes of Child Abuse. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24: 824-847.

Cismaru, M., Jensen, G., & Lavack, A. M. (2014). Using mass media domestic violence campaigns to encourage bystander intervention. Advertising and violence: Concepts and perspectives, 197-214.

Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Brancato, C. J., Huang, Z., Clear, E. R., & Follingstad, D. R. (2020). Longer Term Impact of Bystander Training to Reduce Violence Acceptance and Sexism. Journal of School Violence, 1-14. doi:10.1080/15388220.2020.1760108

Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Clear, E. R., Brancato, C. J., & McCauley, H. L. (2020). Bystander Program Effectiveness to Reduce Violence and Violence Acceptance Within Sexual Minority Male and Female High School Students Using a Cluster RCT. Prevention Science, 21(3), 434-444.

Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Cook-Craig, P. G., DeGue, S. A., Clear, E. R., Brancato, C. J., . . . Recktenwald, E. A. (2017). RCT Testing Bystander Effectiveness to Reduce Violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52(5), 566-578.

Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Fisher, B. S., Swan, S. C., Williams, C. M., Clear, E. R., & DeGue, S. (2016). Multi-college bystander intervention evaluation for violence prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50(3), 295-302. 

Coker, A. L., Cook-Craig, P. G., Williams, C. M., Fisher, B. S., Clear, E. R., Garcia, L. S., & Hegge, L. M. (2011). Evaluation of Green Dot: An active bystander intervention to reduce sexual violence on college campuses. Violence Against Women, 17(6), 777-796. 

Coker, Ann L., Patricia G. Cook-Craig, Corrine M. Williams, Bonnie S. Fisher, Emily R. Clear, Lisandra S. Garcia, and Lea M. Hegge. (2011). Evaluation of Green Dot: An Active Bystander Intervention to Reduce Sexual Violence on College Campuses. Violence Against Women, 17: 777-796.

Collins, J. C., Zhang, P., & Sisco, S. (2021). Everyone is Invited: Leveraging Bystander Intervention and Ally Development to Cultivate Social Justice in the Workplace. Human Resource Development Review, 15344843211040734. 

Cook-Craig, P. G., Coker, A. L., Clear, E. R., Garcia, L. S., Bush, H. M., Brancato, C. J., ... & Fisher, B. S. (2014). Challenge and opportunity in evaluating a diffusion-based active bystanding prevention program: Green Dot in high schools. Violence Against Women, 20(10), 1179-1202.

Cook-Craig, P. G., Millspaugh, P. H., Recktenwald, E. A., Kelly, N. C., Hegge, L. M., Coker, A. L., & Pletcher, T. S. (2014). From Empower to Green Dot: Successful strategies and lessons learned in developing comprehensive sexual violence primary prevention programming. Violence against women, 20(10), 1162-1178.

Corboz, J., Flood, M., & Dyson, S. (2016). Challenges of bystander intervention in male-dominated professional sport: lessons from the Australian Football League. Violence Against Women: an international and interdisciplinary journal, 22(33), 324-343. doi:10.1177/1077801215602343

Cowie, H., and N. Hutson. (2005). Peer support: A strategy to help bystanders challenge school bullying. Pastoral Care in Education, 23(2): 40–44. 

Crowley, J. E. (2023). Bystander Behavior and Sexual Harassment: The Case of the Fashion Industry. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 10778012231182409. doi:10.1177/10778012231182409

Denny, S., Peterson, E. R., Stuart, J., Utter, J., Bullen, P., Fleming, T., . . . Milfont, T. (2015). Bystander Intervention, Bullying, and Victimization: A Multilevel Analysis of New Zealand High Schools. Journal of School Violence, 14(3), 245-272.

Domestic Violence Task Force of San Luis Obispo County. (year?). Beat the Punch Tool Kit! Domestic Violence Task Force of San Luis Obispo County.

Dougherty, D. S., & Sorg, T. A. (2020). Sexual Harassment, Communication, and the Bystander: Setting an Applied Agenda. The Handbook of Applied Communication Research, 653-673. 

Eagly, A. H. (2009). The his and hers of prosocial behavior: An examination of the social psychology of gender. American Psychologist, 64(8): 644–658. 

Ebers, A., & Thomsen, S. L. (2021). Benefit–Cost Analysis of Social Media Facilitated Bystander Programs. Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, 12(2), 367-393. 

Edwards, K. M., Sessarego, S. N., Mitchell, K. J., Chang, H., Waterman, E. A., & Banyard, V. L. (2020). Preventing teen relationship abuse and sexual assault through bystander training: Intervention outcomes for school personnel. American Journal of Community Psychology, 65(1-2), 160-172. 

Elliman, T. D., Shannahoff, M. E., Metzler, J. N., & Toblin, R. L. (2018). Prevalence of bystander intervention opportunities and behaviors among US Army Soldiers. Health Education & Behavior, 45(5), 741-747. 

Emery, C. R., Jordan, L. P., & Chui, C. (2019). Friends in need: Bystander intervention for intimate partner violence in Beijing and Seoul. Sex Roles. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-019-01087-z 

Epstein, J. (2002). Breaking the code of silence: Bystanders to campus violence and the law of college and university safety. Stetson L. Rev., 32. 

Ermer, A. E., Roach, A. L., Coleman, M., & Ganong, L. (2021). Deconstructing attitudes about intimate partner violence and bystander intervention: The roles of perpetrator gender and severity of aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(1-2), NP896-NP919. 

Exner-Cortens, D., & Cummings, N. (2017). Bystander-Based Sexual Violence Prevention with College Athletes: A Pilot Randomized Trial. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260517733279.

Exner, D. and N. Cummings (2011). Implications for sexual assault prevention: college students as prosocial bystanders. Journal of American College Health 59(7): 655-657.

Fenton, R. A., & Mott, H. L. (2015a). The intervention initiative: Student feedback February 2015. Bristol: University of the West of England. Retrieved from https://public.uwe.ac.uk/faculties/BBS/BUS/law/Law%20docs/bystander/Par… dent_Feedback_report.pdf

Fenton, R. A., & Mott, H. L. (2017). The bystander approach to violence prevention: Considerations for implementation in Europe. Psychology of Violence, 7(3), 450-458. doi:10.1037/vio0000104

Fenton, R. A., Mott, H. L., McCartan, K., & Rumney, P. N. S. (2016). A review of evidence for bystander intervention to prevent sexual and domestic violence in universities. (No. 2016011). London, UK: Public Health England. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/fi…

Fenton, R.A., & Mott, H.L. (2016) Evaluation of The Intervention Initiative, a Bystander Intervention Program to Prevent Violence Against Women in Universities (under review)

Fileborn, B. (2017). Bystander Intervention from the Victims’ Perspective: Experiences, Impacts and Justice Needs of Street Harassment Victims. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, 1(2), 187-204.

Fischer, Peter; Krueger, Joachim I.; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Vogrincic, Claudia; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Frey, Dieter; Heene, Moritz; Wicher, Magdalena; Kainbacher, Martina. (2011). The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 137(4), Jul 2011, 517-537.

Fold, S. L., and D. T. Robinson. (1998). Secondary bystander effects on intimate violence: when norms of restraint reduce deterrence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, (15)2: 277-285.

Foubert, J.D., J. Langhinrichsen-Rohling, H. Brasfield, and B. Hill. (2010). Effects of a rape awareness program on college women: increasing bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(7): 813-827.

Franklin, C. A., Brady, P. Q., & Ashworth, L. M. (2020). Bystander behaviors following an accusation of rape: the effect of relational distance and participant sex on victim-centered intervention. Journal of school violence, 19(3), 292-308.

Franklin, C. A., Brady, P. Q., & Jurek, A. L. (2017). Responding to gendered violence among college students: the impact of participant characteristics on direct bystander intervention behavior. Journal of school violence, 16(2), 189-206. 

Galdi, S., Maass, A., & Cadinu, M. (2017). Defending the victim of sexual harassment: The influence of civil courage and media exposure. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 41(3), 338-351. 

Gentile, K. (2020). When the cat guards the canary: Using bystander intervention towards community-based response. In Social Aspects of Sexual Boundary Trouble in Psychoanalysis (pp. 77-99). Routledge.

Gidycz, C. A., L. M. Orchowski, and A. D. Berkowitz. (2011). Preventing Sexual Aggression Among College Men: An Evaluation of a Social Norms and Bystander Approach Intervention Program. Violence Against Women, 17(6): 720-42.

Goodwin, R., Graham, J., & Diekmann, K. A. (2020). Good intentions aren’t good enough: Moral courage in opposing sexual harassment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 86, 103894.

Gracia, E., García, F. et al. (2009). Public Responses to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: The Influence of Perceived Severity and Personal Responsibility. The Spanish Journal of Psychology12(2): 648–656. 

Graham, K., LaChance, A., & Wormwood, J. B. (2022). Bystander Intervention in Intimate Partner Violence: An Audio Vignette Study of Heterosexual, Gay, and Lesbian Dating Partners. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0(0), 08862605221111412. doi:10.1177/08862605221111412

Gramazio, S., Cadinu, M., Pagliaro, S., & Pacilli, M. G. (2021). Sexualization of sexual harassment victims reduces bystanders’ help: The mediating role of attribution of immorality and blame. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(13-14), 6073-6097.

Griffith, J. A., & Medeiros, K. E. (2020). Expanding the footprint of sexual harassment prevention training: A power, credit, and leadership perspective. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 13(2), 137-141.

Grigoriou, S., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., & Theodorakis, Y. (2013). Preliminary exploration of bystander intention to stand up for a female-peer targeted in sexual harassment in Greek academia. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 14(1), 184. 

Haikalis, M. (2019). Engaging Male Bystanders to Reduce Sexual Aggression: The Effects of Online Training and Bystander Alcohol Intoxication (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln).

Hamby, S., Weber, M. C., Grych, J., & Banyard, V. (2016). What difference do bystanders make? The association of bystander involvement with victim outcomes in a community sample. Psychology of Violence, 6(1), 91-102. doi:10.1037/a0039073

Hammock, A. C., Majumdar Das, S., Mathew, A., & Johnson, S. (2020). An exploratory qualitative study of undergraduate men’s perspectives on sexual violence bystander education. Journal of American College Health, 1-8. doi:10.1080/07448481.2020.1790572

Harlow, A. F., Willis, S. K., Smith, M. L., & Rothman, E. F. (2021). Bystander prevention for sexual violence:# HowIWillChange and gaps in Twitter discourse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(11-12), NP5753-NP5771. 

Hart, C. G. (2019). The penalties for self-reporting sexual harassment. Gender & Society, 33(4), 534-559.

Hart, T. C., and T. D. Miethe. (2008). Exploring Bystander Presence and Intervention in Nonfatal Violent Victimization: When Does Helping Really Help? Violence and Victims, 23(5): 637–651.

Hayes, B. E. (2019). Bystander intervention to abusive behavior on social networking websites. Violence against women, 25(4), 463-484.

Haynes-Baratz, M. C., Bond, M. A., Allen, C. T., Li, Y. L., & Metinyurt, T. (2021). Challenging gendered microaggressions in the academy: A social–ecological analysis of bystander action among faculty. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education.

Hennelly, S. E., Hussain, S., Hale, T., Cadle, M., Brooke, J., & Davies, E. (2019). University student attitudes to prosocial bystander behaviours. Health Education.

Henson, B., Fisher, B. S., & Reyns, B. W. (2020). There is virtually no excuse: The frequency and predictors of college students’ bystander intervention behaviors directed at online victimization. Violence against women, 26(5), 505-527.

Heretick, D. M., & Learn, I. (2020). Severity of coercive sexual harassment in professor–student interaction and peer bystander responses. Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, 14(1), 7.

Hitlan, R. T., Schneider, K. T. et al. (2006). Upsetting behavior: Reactions to personal and bystander sexual harassment experiences. Sex Roles, 55(3): 187–195. 

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