(iii) Male clients of female sex workers / prostitutes

Note: References above on sex work or prostitution also include material on male clients.

 

Agnich, L. E. (2007). Masculinities and Sexual Violence among a Sample of Clients of Street Prostitutes. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.  

Bailey, Jacquelynne. (2002). Conversations in a Brothel: Men Tell Why They Do It. Sydney: Hodder.

Barrington, C., C. Latkin, M.D. Sweat, L. Moreno, J. Ellen, and D. Kerrigan. (2009). Talking the talk, walking the walk: social network norms, communication patterns, and condom use among the male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. Social Science & Medicine 68 (11): 2037-2044.

Beckham, Kelly and Ariane Prohaska. (2012). Cybersex and Men who Kill: An Analysis of Deviant Men, Prostitution, and the Internet. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, 7(2). Published online at http: //www.sascv.org/ijcjs/.

Belza, M. J., de la Fuente, L., Suárez, M., Vallejo, F., García, M., López, M., . . . Group, S. B. S. (2008). Men who pay for sex in Spain and condom use: prevalence and correlates in a representative sample of the general population. Sexually transmitted infections, 84(3), 207-211.

Bender, Kimberly, and Rich Furman. (2004). The Implications of Sex Tourism on Men’s Social, Psychological, and Physical Health. The Qualitative Report, Volume 9 Number 2, June, pp. 176-191.

Bernstein, E. (2001) The Meaning of the Purchase: Desire, Demand and the Commerce of Sex. Ethnography, 2: 389–420.

Bernstein, E. (2007). Temporarily Yours: Intimacy, Authenticity and the Commerce of Sex. Chicago University Press.

Birch, Phillip. (2015). Why Men Buy Sex: Examining sex worker clients. Routledge.

Bishop, S., & Limmer, M. (2018). Performance, Power and Condom Use: Reconceptualised Masculinities Amongst Western Male Sex Tourists to Thailand. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 20(3), 276-288.

Bohrer-Padavos, V. E. (2015). An examination of the support services needed for clients to reduce prostitute solicitation. California State University, Stanislaus.

Brennan, D. (2004). Women Work, Men Sponge, and Everyone Gossips: Macho Men and Stigmatized/ing Women in a Sex Tourist Town. Anthropological Quarterly, 77(4): 705.

Brewer, D. D., Potterat, J. J., Muth, S. Q., Roberts, J. M. (2006) A Large Specific Deterrent Effect of Arrest for Patronizing a Prostitute. PLoS ONE1(1): e60. Doi: 10. 1371/journal/pone. 0000060.

Brewster, Zachary W. (2003). Behavioral and Interactional Patterns of Strip Club Patrons: Tipping Techniques and Club Attendance. Deviant Behavior, 24, 3, May-June, 221-243.

Brooks-Gordon, Belinda. (2005). Clients and Commercial Sex: Reflections on Paying the Price: A Consultation Paper on Prostitution. Criminal Law Review: 425-443.

Brooks-Gordon, Belinda. (2006). Understanding sexual ‘demand’. Chapter 4 in The Price of Sex: Prostitution, Policy, and Society. Portland, Oregon: Willan Publishing.

Burque, Allison Dunn. (year?). Engaging Young Men in Ending Commercial Sexual Exploitation: A Report, Curriculum, and Recommended Resources. Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation (CAASE).

Busch, N. B., Bell, H., Hotaling, N., and Monto, M. A. (2002) Male Customers of Prostituted Women: Exploring Perceptions of Entitlement to power and Control and Implications for Violent Behavior toward Women. Violence Against Women, 8(9): 1093–1112.

Campbell, R. (1998). Invisible Men: Making Visible Male Clients of Female Prostitutes in Merseyside. In J. Elias, V. Bullough, V. Elias and G. Brewer (eds) Prostitution. On Whores, Hustlers and Johns, New York: Prometheus Books. pp. 155-171.

Campbell, R., and M. Storr. (2001). Challenging the Kerb Crawler Rehabilitation Programme. Feminist Review 67(Spring): 94-108.

Carael, M., Slaymaker, E., Lyerla, R., & Sarkar, S. (2006). Clients of Sex Workers in Different Regions of the World: Hard to Count. Sexually transmitted infections, 82(suppl 3), iii26-iii33.

Carmona, Victoria, Ana Grahovac, and Jennifer Martin. (year?). Engaging Men in Ending Gender-Based Violence. Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation (CAASE).

Carpenter, Belinda. (1998). The Prostitute and the Client: Challenging the Dualisms. Women’s Studies International Forum, 21(4), July-August.

Church, S., Henderson, M., Barnard, M., & Hart, G. (2001). Violence by Clients toward Female Prostitutes in Different Work Settings: Questionnaire Survey. Br Med J, 322. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7285.524

Claude, Kajsa, and the Swedish Institute. (2010). Targeting the Sex Buyer. The Swedish Example: Stopping Prostitution and Trafficking Where it All Begins.

Coalition Against Trafficking in Women - Asia Pacific (CATW-AP). (2006). Rethinking Masculinity: Educating Young Men to Reduce the Demand Side of Trafficking.

Coughlan, E., A. Mindel, and C. Estcourt. (2001). Male Clients of Female Commercial Sex Workers: HIV, STDs and risk behaviour. International Journal of STD and AIDS, 12, pp. 665-669.

Coy, M., Horvath, M.A.H. & Kelly, L. (2012). Troubling notions of male entitlement: Men consuming, boasting and confessing about paying for sex. In M.Coy (ed). Prostitution, harm and gender inequality: Theory, Research and policy. Surrey, Ashgate.

Coy, Maddy, Miranda Horvath, and Liz Kelly. (2007). ‘It’s just like going to the supermarket’: Men buying sex in East London. Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit, London Metropolitan University.

Daniels, A. J. (2012). Men who buy sex and their attitudes toward women in prostitution: “Prostitutes don’t have feelings”. Palo Alto University.

Della Giusta, M., Di Tommaso, M. L., & Jewell, S. L. (2017). Stigma and Risky Behaviors among Male Clients of Sex Workers in the UK. Feminist Economics, 23(3), 23-48. doi:10.1080/13545701.2016.1203453

Della Giusta, M., Di Tommaso, M. L., Shima, I., & Strøm, S. (2009). What money buys: clients of street sex workers in the US. Applied Economics, 41(18), 2261-2277.

Durchslag, Rachel, and Samir Goswami. (year?). Deconstructing the Demand for Prostitution. Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation (CAASE).

Earle, S., & Sharpe, K. (2008). Intimacy, pleasure and the men who pay for sex: Willan.

Earle, Sarah, and Keith Sharp. (2007). Sex in Cyberspace: Men Who Pay for Sex. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing.

Egan, Danielle. (2006). Dancing for Dollars and Paying for Love: The Relationships between Exotic Dancers and Their Regulars. Palgrave Macmillan.
Contents;
Introduction: Dancing for Dollars and Paying for Love.
Ending Up In A Place Like This: Mapping the Social Cartographies of the Clubs.
Inside and Outside the Exotic Dance Club: Subjective Modalities and Their Slippage.
“I am a Dancer and a Feminist:” Liminal Experiences and Feminist Empowerment.
Desiring Subjects and Fantasy Objects: Exploring Lack and Power.
Looking for Love in All the Wrong Places: Regulars, Love and Masochism.
Conclusion: What We Can Learn from Exotic Dancers.
Appendix: Methodology.

Ekberg, Gunilla. (2004). The Swedish Law That Prohibits the Purchase of Sexual Services. Violence Against Women, 10(10), October.

Farley, M. (2007) “Renting an Organ for 10 minutes;”What Tricks Tell us about Prostitution, Pornography, and Trafficking. Pornography: Driving the Demand for International Sex Trafficking. Los Angeles: Captive Daughters Media.

Farley, M., Becker, T., Cotton, A., Sawyer, S, Fitzgerald, L. Jensen, R. (1998) Attitudes toward prostitution scale: College students’ responses compared to responses of arrested johns. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the International Society of Traumatic Stress Studies, Washington, D.C., USA.

Fleming, P.J., Barrington, C., Gottert, A., Perez, M., Donastorg, Y., Moya, M., Gonzalez, N., Kerrigan, D. (July 20-25, 2014). “Masculine gender role strain and HIV-related behaviors among male steady partners of female sex workers living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.” Poster presentation at the XX International AIDS Conference, Melbourne, Australia.

Ford, K., D.N. Wirawan, and P. Muliawan. (2002). Social influence, AIDS/STD knowledge, and condom use among male clients of female sex worker in Bali. AIDS Education & Prevention, 14(6): 496-504.

Frank, Katherine. (2002). G-Strings and Sympathy: Strip club regulars and male desire. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Frank, Katherine. (2003). “Just Trying to Relax”: Masculinity, masculinizing practices, and strip club regulars. Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), February, pp. 61-75.

Frank, Katherine. (2005). Exploring the motivations and fantasies of strip club customers in relation to legal regulations. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34(5): 487-504.

George, Carrie. (year?). Deconstructing The Demand for Prostitution Further Insights: A Comparison of Men Who Purchase Sex Indoors Versus Outdoors. Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation (CAASE).

Gillings, Alison, and Michelle Willoughby. (year?). John School Evaluation. Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation (CAASE).

Groom, T. M., and R. Nandwani. (2006) Characteristics of men who pay for sex: a UK sexual health clinic survey. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 82: 364–367.

Grov, C., Wolff, M., Smith, M. D., Koken, J., & Parsons, J. T. (2014). Male clients of male escorts: satisfaction, sexual behavior, and demographic characteristics. The Journal of Sex Research, 51(7), 827-837.

Holt, T. J. and K. R. Blevins (2007). Examining Sex Work from the Client’s Perspective: Assessing Johns Using on-line Data. Deviant Behavior, 28(4): 333 - 354.

Holzman, Harold, and Sharon Pines. (1982). Buying Sex: The Phenomenology of Being a John. Deviant Behavior 4:89-116.

Horn, Ashley, Carina Homan, and Veronica Farley. (year?). Men Working to End Violence against Women. Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation (CAASE).

Hsieh, C.-S., Kovářík, J., & Logan, T. (2014). How central are clients in sexual networks created by commercial sex? Scientific reports, 4.

Hughes, D.M. (2004). Best Practices to Address the Demand Side of Sex Trafficking. University of Rhode Island, Unpublished.

Huynh, A., Khan, S., Nair, S., Chevrier, C., Roger, K., Isac, S., . . . Lorway, R. (2018). Intervening in Masculinity: Work, Relationships and Violence among the Intimate Partners of Female Sex Workers in South India. Critical Public Health, 1-12.

Huysamen, M. (2016). Constructing the ‘Respectable’client and the ‘Good’ researcher: The Complex Dynamics of Cross-Gender Interviews with Men Who Pay for Sex. NORMA, 11(1), 19-33.

Huysamen, M. (2018). A Critical Analysis of Men’s Constructions of Paying for Sex: Doing Gender, Doing Race in the Interview Context. University of Cape Town.  

Huysamen, M., & Boonzaier, F. (2015). Men’s constructions of masculinity and male sexuality through talk of buying sex. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 17(5), 541-554.

Jones, Z. K. (2013). “Emotional Landscapes” and the Value of Sex: Exploring the Lived Experiences of Sex Workers’ Clients.

Jordan, Jan. (1997). User Pays: Why Men Buy Sex. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 30(1): 55-71.

Jovanovski, N., & Tyler, M. “Bitch, You Got What You Deserved!”: Violation and Violence in Sex Buyer Reviews of Legal Brothels. Violence Against Women, 0(0), 1077801218757375.

Karandikar, S., & Prospero, M. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence Against Female Sex Workers. J Interpers Violence, 25(2), 257-273. doi:10.1177/0886260509334393

Katsulis, Y. (2010). “Living Like a King”: Conspicuous Consumption, Virtual Communities, and the Social Construction of Paid Sexual Encounters by US Sex Tourists. Men and Masculinities, 13(2), 210-230.

Kingston, S. (2009). Community perceptions of men who buy sex from women.

Kinnell, H. (2006). Clients of Female Sex Workers: Men or Monsters? In R. Campbell and M. O’Neill (eds) Sex Work Now, Cullumpton:Willan. pp. 212-262.

Klein, C., M.A. Kennedy, and B.B. Gorzalka. (2009). Rape Myth Acceptance in Men Who Completed the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 53(3): 305-315.

Klein, Carolin, M. Alexis Kennedy, and Boris B. Gorzalka. (2009). Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 53(3): 305-315.

Kulick, Don. (2003). Sex in the New Europe. Anthropological Theory, Vol. 3, No. 2, 199-218.

Kulick, Don. (2005). Four Hundred Thousand Swedish Perverts. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 11(2).

Louie, R., N. Crofts, P. Pyett, and J. Snow (1998). Project Client Call: Men Who Pay For Sex in Victoria. Mc Farlane Burnet Centre for Medical Research.

Lowman, J., and C. Atchison. (2006). Men Who Buy Sex: A Survey in the Greater Vancouver Regional District. Canadian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 43(3): 281-296.

Macleod, Jan, Melissa Farley, Lynn Anderson, and Jacqueline Golding. (2008). Challenging Men’s Demand for Prostitution in Scotland: A research report based on interviews with 110 men who bought women in prostitution in Scotland. Women’s Support Project, Prostitution Research & Education.

Malarek, Victor. (2009). The Johns: Sex for Sale and the Men Who Buy It. KeyPorter Books.

Mansson, S. A. (2004) Men’s Practices in Prostitution and Their Implications for Social Work. In S. A. Mansson and C. Proveyer (editors) Social Work in Cuba and Sweden: Achievements and Prospects.

Mansson, S. A. (2006) Men’s Practices in Prostitution: The Case of Sweden. In Bob Pease and Keith Pringle (eds. ) A Man’s World? Changing Men’s Practices in a Globalized World. London: Zed Books.

Marttila, Anne-Maria. (2003). Consuming Sex: Finnish male clients and Baltic prostitution. Paper to Gender and Power in the New Europe: 5th European Feminist Research Conference, Lund University, Sweden, August 20-24.

Marttila, Anne-Maria. (2008). Desiring the ‘Other’: Prostitution Clients on a Transnational Red-Light District in the Border Area of Finland, Estonia and Russia. Gender Technology and Development, 12(1): 31-51.

Matthews, R. (2018). Regulating the Demand for Commercialized Sexual Services. Women’s Studies International Forum, 69, 1-8.

McKeganey, Neil, and Marina Barnard. (1996). Sex Work on the Streets: Prostitutes and Their Clients. Open University Press.

McKeganey, Neil. (1994) Why do men buy sex and what are their assessments of the HIV-related risks when they do? AIDS Care, Vol 6 (5): 289–301.

Milrod, C., & Monto, M. (2017). Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in the United States. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(6), 1867-1876. doi:10.1007/s10508-016-0733-3

Minichiello V, Marino R, Browne J, Jamieson M, Peterson K, Reuter B, Robinson K. (1999). A Profile of the Clients of Male Sex Workers in Three Australian Cities. Aust N Z J Public Health, Oct; 23(5): 511-8

Monto, M. A., & Milrod, C. (2014). Ordinary or peculiar men? Comparing the customers of prostitutes with a nationally representative sample of men. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, 58(7), 802-820.

 

Monto, Martin A. (1998). Holding Men Accountable for Prostitution. Violence Against Women 4:4:505-517.

Monto, Martin A. (2000). Why Men Seek Out Prostitutes. In R.Weitzer, ed. Sex for Sale. Prostitution, Pornography and the Sex Industry. New York: Routledge. Pp. 67-83.

Monto, Martin A., and N. Hotaling (2001). Predictors of Rape Myth Acceptance Among Male Clients of Female Street Prostitutes. Violence Against Women, 7(3), 275-293.

Monto, Martin A., and N. McRee. (2005) A Comparison of the Male Customers of Female Street Prostitutes With National Samples of Men. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 49: 505–529.

Monto, Martin A., and Steve Garcia. (2001). Recidivism Among the Customers of Female Street Prostitutes: Do Intervention Programs Help? Western Criminology Review, 3(2). [Online]. Available: http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v3n2/monto.html.

Moore, Susan. (1999). Characteristics, Attitudes and Risk Behaviours of Australian Men Who Visit Female Sex Workers. Venereology, 12(1).

Munro, V., and M.D. Giusta. (eds.). (2008). Demanding Sex: Critical reflections on the regulation of prostitution. Ashgate.
Editors’ introduction: the regulation of prostitution: contemporary contexts
and comparative perspectives, Vanessa E. Munro and Marina Della Giusta.
Legal incursions into supply/demand: criminalising and responsibilising the buyers and sellers of sex in the UK, Jane Scoular and Maggie O’Neill.
Be helped or else! Economic exploitation, male violence and prostitution policy in the UK, Jo Phoenix.
Wolfenden 50: revisiting state policy and the politics of sex work in the UK, Sophie Day.
The construction of prostitutes and clients in French policy debates, Gill Allwood.
Exploring exploitation: trafficking in sex, work and sex work, Vanessa E. Munro.
Putting trafficking on the map: the geography of feminist complicity, Sharron A. Fitzgerald.
Simulating the impact of regulation changes on the market for prostitution services, Marina Della Giusta.
Client participation and the regulatory environment, Alan Collins and Guy Judge.
Criminalising the use of trafficked prostitutes: some philosophical issues, David Archard.
Why hate men who pay for sex? Exploring the shift to ‘tackling demand’ in the UK, Teela Sanders and Rosie Campbell.
The consumer, the consumed and the commodity: women and sex buyers talk about objectification in prostitution, Madeleine Coy.

Ngugi, E., Benoit, C., Hallgrimsdottir, H., Jansson, M., & Roth, E. A. (2011). Partners and clients of female sex workers in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 14(1), 17-30. doi:10.1080/13691058.2011.608436

O’Connell Davidson, J. (2003). ‘Sleeping with the Enemy’? Some Problems with Feminist Abolitionist Calls to Penalise Those Who Buy Commercial Sex. Social Policy and Society 2(1): 55-64.

O’Neill, Maggie. (2001). The City, Masculinity and the Social Organization of Desire: Pimps and Punters. In Prostitution and Feminism: Towards a politics of feeling. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press;; Malden, MA: Blackwell (pp. 154-182).

Ompad, D. C., Bell, D. L., Amesty, S., Nyitray, A. G., Papenfuss, M., Lazcano-Ponce, E., . . . Giuliano, A. R. (2013). Men who purchase sex, who are they? An interurban comparison. Journal of Urban Health, 90(6), 1166-1180.

Perkins, Roberta. (1999). ‘How Much Are You Love?’ The Customer in the Australian Sex Industry. Social Alternatives, 18(3): 38-47.

Pitpitan, E. V., Chavarin, C. V., Semple, S. J., Magis-Rodriguez, C., Strathdee, S. A., & Patterson, T. L. (2014). Hombre Seguro (Safe Men): a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of female sex workers. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 475.

Pitts, Marian K., Anthony M.A. Smith, Jeffrey Grierson, Mary O’Brien, and Sebastian Misson. (2004). Who Pays for Sex and Why? An Analysis of Social and Motivational Factors Associated with Male Clients of Sex Workers. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Volume 33, Issue 4, Aug 2004, Pages 353-358.

Plumridge, E. W., Chetwynd, S. J., Reed, A. (1997a) Control and condoms in commercial sex: client perspectives. Sociology of Health & Illness, 19 (2): 228–243.

Plumridge, E.W., Chetwynd, S.J., Reed, A, & Gifford, S.J. (1997b). Discourses of Emotionality in Commercial Sex: The Missing Client Voice. Feminism & Psychology, 7(2), 165-181.

Plumridge, E.W., S.J. Chetwynd, A. Reed, and S.M. Gifford (1997). Patrons of the Sex Industry: Perceptions of Risk. AIDS Care, 8(4), 405-416.

Pruitt, M. V., & Krull, A. C. (2010). Escort advertisements and male patronage of prostitutes. Deviant Behavior, 32(1), 38-63.

Rachel Durchslag, A.M., and Samir Goswami. (2008). Deconstructing the Demand for Prostitution: Preliminary Insights from Interviews with Chicago Men Who Purchase Sex. Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation, Chicago, Illinois, May.

Regushevskaya, E., Haavio-Mannila, E., & Hemminki, E. (2013). Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes of men buying sex in Finland. Scandinavian journal of public health, 41(7), 729-736.

Richters, J., de Visser, R. O., Badcock, P. B., Smith, A. M., Rissel, C., Simpson, J. M., & Grulich, A. E. (2014). Masturbation, Paying for Sex, and Other Sexual Activities: The Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships. Sexual Health, 11(5), 461-471.

Rissel, Chris E., Juliet Richters, Andrew E. Grulich, Richard O. de Visser, and Anthony M.A. Smith. (2003). Experiences of commercial sex in a representative sample of adults. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. (2003). Special issue: The Australian Study of Health and Relationships. 27(2), April, (pp. 191-197).

Roberts, J. M. and D. D. Brewer (2006). Estimating the prevalence of male clients of prostitute women in Vancouver with a simple capture-recapture method. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 169(4): 745-756.

Sanders, T. (2008). Male Sexual Scripts: Intimacy, Sexuality and Pleasure in the Purchase of Commercial Sex. Sociology, 42(3): 400-417.

Sanders, Teela. (2008). Paying for Pleasure: Men who buy sex. Willan.

Sawyer, Steven, B.R. Simon Rosser, and Audrey Schroeder. (1998). A Brief Psychoeducational Program for Men Who Patronize Prostitutes. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 26:3/4: 111-125.

Sawyer, Steven, Michael E. Metz, Jeffrey D. Hinds, and Robert A. Brucker Jr. (2001-2002). Attitudes towards prostitution among males: A “consumers’ report”. Current Psychology, Vol. 20 Iss. 4.

Scott, J., Callander, D., & Minichiello, V. (2014). Clients of male sex workers. Male sex work and society, 151-177.

Scoular, J. (2004). Criminalising ‘Punters’: Evaluating the Swedish Position on Prostitution. Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law 26(2): 195-210.

Seib, C., Dunne, M. P., Fischer, J., & Najman, J. M. (2010). Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(4), 979-989.

Shaw, Ronnie. (2001). Fantasy Voyages: An exploration of white males’ participation in the Costa Rican sex tourism industry. Berkeley McNair Research Journal, Winter, Vol. 9.

Simmons, C. A., P. Lehmann, and S. Collier-Tenison (2008). Linking Male Use of the Sex Industry to Controlling Behaviors in Violent Relationships: An Exploratory Analysis. Violence Against Women, 14(4): 406-417.

Simpson, M., and T. Schill. (1977) Patrons of Massage Parlors: Some Facts and Figures. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6(6): 521–525.

Sycamore, Matt Bernstein. (ed). (2000). Tricks and Treats: Sex Workers Write About Their Clients. Haworth Press.

Tiantian, Z. (2006). Cool Masculinity: male clients’ sex consumption and business alliance in urban China’s sex industry. Journal of Contemporary China, 15(46): 161.

Van Brunschot, E. G. (2003). Community Policing and “John Schools”. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 40(2): 215-232.

Ward, H., Mercer, C., Wellings, K., et al. (2005) Who pays for sex? An analysis of the increasing prevalence of female commercial sex contacts among men in Britain. Sexually Transmitted Infection, 81: 467–71.

Ward, H., Mercer, C., Wellings, K., Fenton, K., Erens, B., Copas, A., & Johnson, A. (2005). Who Pays for Sex? An Analysis of the Increasing Prevalence of Female Commercial Sex Contacts among Men in Britain. Sexually transmitted infections, 81(6), 467-471.

Watson, R., & Vidal, M. (2011). “Do you see other men who do this?” Reflections upon working with men who visit commercial sex workers in a National Health Service sexual health clinic. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 26(1), 61-71.

Weitzer, Ronald. (ed.). (2000). Sex for Sale: Prostitution, Pornography, and the Sex Industry. New York: Routledge (Chapters 5, 6).

Wepener, I., Learmonth, D., McLeod, K. L., & Chikte, Z. (2013). Beyond the Tease: Exploring Men’s Constructions of Paying for Sex in South Africa. Psychology Research, 3(12), 749.

Williams, S., L. T. Lyons, and M. T. Ford. (2008). It’s about bang for your buck, bro: Singaporean men’s online conversations about sex in Batam, Indonesia. Asian Studies Review, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 77-97.

Willoughby, Michelle. (2008). Demand Deterrence Strategies: International Initiatives to Eliminate Demand for the Sex Trade. Chicago: Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation (CASE).

Wilson, D., A. Manual, and S. Lavelle. (1992). Personality characteristics of Zimbabwean men who visit prostitutes: implications for AIDS prevention programmes. Personality and Individual Difference, 13(3): 275–279.

Xantidis, L., and M. McCabe. (2001). Personality characteristics of male clients of female commercial sex workers in Australia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, April, 29(2): 165-176.

Yokota, F. (2006). Sex behaviour of male Japanese tourists in Bangkok, Thailand. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 8(2): 115-131.

Zheng, T. (2006). Cool masculinity: Male clients’ sex consumption and business alliance in urban China’s sex industry. Journal of Contemporary China, 15(46), 161-182.