What principles and approaches are most likely to generate change among men and boys? There is a wealth of guidance on dimensions of effective practice for violence prevention in general, and this typically emphasises that prevention efforts should be (1) informed; (2) comprehensive; (3) engaging; and (4) relevant. First, violence prevention interventions must be based on a sound understanding of both the problem – the workings and causes of violence – and how it can be changed, showing both an appropriate theoretical framework and a theory of change. Second, interventions should be comprehensive, using multiple strategies, in multiple settings, and at multiple levels (Casey & Lindhorst, 2009; Nation et al., 2003). Third, interventions should involve effective forms of delivery which engage participants, in terms of their content, implementation, and practitioners. Fourth, effective programs are relevant to the communities and contexts in which they are delivered. They are informed by knowledge of and collaboration with their target group or population and their local contexts (Nation et al., 2003).
Efforts to engage men and boys in particular should seek to live up to these criteria, but they must also be guided by further principles. There are various articulations of the principles that should guide violence prevention work with men and boys (Flood, 2019; Wells, Flood, Boutilier, Goulet, & Dozois, 2020), complemented by guides to engaging men and boys in general (American Psychological Association, 2018; Flood, Peacock, Stern, Barker, & Greig, 2010; Greig & Flood, 2020; ICRW, 2018; Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Promundo-US, & Sonke Gender Justice, 2015; VicHealth, 2019). Although there is diversity here, most accounts share three emphases: a concern with sexism and gender inequalities, a concern with men’s and boys’ own wellbeing, and attention to differences and inequalities among men and boys themselves. We can think of these therefore in terms of three principles: 1) feminist: intended to transform gender inequalities; 2) committed to enhancing boys’ and men’s lives; and 3) intersectional: addressing diversities and inequalities.
Feminist: intended to transform gender inequalities
Sexual violence prevention efforts among men and boys must be feminist. They should be grounded in principles of gender justice, recognise the systemic gender inequalities that structure society, and seek to transform oppressive gender structures, norms, and practices. A feminist approach should be foundational to the work’s aims and agendas, its content and processes, and its structures. There is a growing emphasis in the ‘engaging men’ field on the need for interventions to be ‘gender-transformative’ – to transform gender inequalities and generate more gender-equitable relations (Barker, Ricardo, & Nascimento, 2007; Casey, Carlson, Two Bulls, & Yager, 2016; Dworkin, Treves-Kagan, & Lippman, 2013; Wells et al., 2020). Although the term is used in varying ways, in general it seems synonymous with the term ‘feminist’ (Flood, 2021).
Effective violence prevention efforts among men and boys will have feminist content, addressing the gender-related factors known to drive sexual violence perpetration. Educational programs should include content on power and patriarchal gender inequalities. This is evident, for example, in the Manhood 2.0 curriculum among young men (Kato-Wallace et al., 2019) and among six male-based sexual violence prevention programs on U.S. college campuses (McGraw, 2013). However, prevention efforts aimed at general audiences frequently treat sexual consent as a gender-neutral issue and do not address the gendered aspects of sexual violence (Beres, 2018).
Prevention efforts among men and boys also require gender-transformative processes. They should involve boys and men in critical reflection on masculinities and gender and seek to foster their support for gender equality and non-violence (Flood, 2019, pp. 197-199, 324-332).
Finally, work with men and boys requires feminist structures: it must be done in partnership with, and be accountable to, women and women’s groups (Flood, 2019, pp. 92-96). Accountability is a key strategy to minimise the risks, first, in working with a group, men or boys, who are privileged or advantaged in certain ways, and the risks, second, in work by men. Accountability is intended to reduce the risks of reinforcing gender inequalities, colluding with violence, or taking away resources and legitimacy from women’s rights efforts. The principle of accountability is emphasised among men’s anti-violence advocates (Rosenberg, 2012) and in standards for this work (MenEngage, 2018; Pease, 2017; Wells et al., 2020).
Committed to enhancing boys’ and men’s lives
The second principle comprises a commitment to enhancing boys’ and men’s lives: to address men’s and boys’ distinct needs, recognise them as stakeholders and beneficiaries, and use strengths-based or positive approaches in engaging them.
While men and boys are the recipients of various forms of unearned privilege in the patriarchal gender order that characterises contemporary societies, they also pay important costs. Men and boys who conform to traditional constructions of masculinity may show poorer mental health, greater risk-taking, and lower help-seeking (The Men’s Project & Flood, 2018, pp. 49-50), and boys and men are subject to gendered and homophobic policing and abuse particularly by other males (Reigeluth & Addis, 2021). Prevention efforts among boys and men must be attentive to their distinct needs, including the challenges they may face in accessing and using support services (Pulerwitz, Gottert, Betron, & Shattuck, 2019).
Men and boys themselves have a stake in progress towards gender equality and non-violence. In violence prevention work with men, and in the wider ‘engaging men’ field, there is a consensus that men and boy will benefit, in terms of their own lives, their relations with women, children, and other men, and their workplaces and communities (Flood, 2019, pp. 88-89). There are also caveats: with progress towards a society free of violence against women, men who can no longer perpetrate such violence lose the perceived benefits associated with this, and men in general will lose unfair privileges (Flood, 2019, pp. 105-108).
Strengths-based or positive approaches are widely seen as more effective in prevention work with men and boys. Efforts should acknowledge and build on men’s and boys’ existing commitments to and involvements in non-violence and equality, in particular to minimise the likelihood of defensive or hostile responses (Flood, 2019, pp. 157-162).
Intersectional: addressing diversities and inequalities
The third principle is to be intersectional: to acknowledge and respond to diversities and inequalities among men and boys (MenEngage Alliance, 2019; Pulerwitz et al., 2019; Wells et al., 2020). An intersectional feminist approach recognises that gender intersects with other forms of social difference and inequality, and hence that men in different social locations have differential access to social resources and status. Focusing on sexual violence, an intersectional approach highlights that men’s attitudes towards violence, men’s use of violence, and how male perpetrators are viewed and treated all are structured by multiple relations of disadvantage and privilege tied to ethnicity, class, sexuality, and nation.
This has four implications for work with men and boys. First, with any population of men or boys, we must engage with their specific cultural and material conditions, including both local cultures of gender and sexuality and material and structural inequalities. In contexts particularly of disadvantage, efforts should seek to improve the social and economic conditions of men and communities. Second, we must address culturally specific risk and protective factors, including challenging cultural supports for sexual violence, and building on local resources, texts, and norms in promoting non-violence and gender equality. Third, prevention work should be developed in collaboration with the communities in which it is being delivered, to help ensure that it as relevant for participants as possible (Burrell, 2018; Zounlome, Wong, Klann, & David, 2019).
More generally, sexual violence prevention among men and boys must acknowledge intersectional disadvantages and privileges. Initiatives among men and boys from ethnic minority and indigenous backgrounds should highlight the links between racism, sexism, and sexist violence and address common racist myths about violence. However, an intersectional approach is relevant for any group of men or boys and not just those who are different from the dominant norm.
Summary: Three principles for violence prevention work with men and boys
- Feminist: intended to transform gender inequalities
- Aimed at addressing the gendered drivers of violence against women
- Oriented towards transforming gender roles, relations, and structures
- Feminist content
- Curricula on gender, gender roles, and gender inequalities
- Explicit attention to privilege and power
- Feminist processes
- Involve men in critical reflection on masculinities and gender
- Foster men’s support for gender equality and non-violence
- Feminist structures
- Done in partnership with, and be accountable to, women and women’s groups
- Accountability: personal, interpersonal, institutional
- Feminist content
- Committed to enhancing boys’ and men’s lives
- Address men’s and boys’ distinct needs
- Recognise men and boys as stakeholders and beneficiaries
- Use strengths-based or positive approaches in engaging them
- Intersectional: addressing diversities and inequalities
- With any population of men or boys, engage with their specific cultural and material conditions
- Address culturally specific risk and protective factors
- Develop the work in collaboration with the communities in which it is being delivered
- Acknowledge intersectional disadvantages and privileges. With any group of men or boys
Flood, M., and Burrell, S. (forthcoming) Engaging Men and Boys in the Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence. In Rape: Challenging Contemporary Thinking, Eds. Miranda Horvath and Jennifer Brown. Routledge.
American Psychological Association. (2018). APA guidelines for psychological practice with boys and men. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Barker, G., Ricardo, C., & Nascimento, M. (2007). Engaging Men and Boys in Changing Gender-based Inequity in Health: Evidence from Programme Interventions. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Beres, M. A. (2018). The proliferation of consent-focused rape prevention social marketing materials. In C. Dale & R. Overell (Eds.), Orienting Feminism: Media, Activism and Cultural Representation (pp. 181-196): Palgrave Macmillan.
Burrell, S. R. (2018). The contradictory possibilities of engaging men and boys in the prevention of men's violence against women in the UK. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, 2(3), 447-464. doi:10.1332/239868018X15375304850617
Casey, E. A., Carlson, J., Two Bulls, S., & Yager, A. (2016). Gender Transformative Approaches to Engaging Men in Gender-Based Violence Prevention: A Review and Conceptual Model. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 19(2), 231-246. doi:10.1177/1524838016650191
Casey, E. A., & Lindhorst, T. P. (2009). Toward a Multi-Level, Ecological Approach to the Primary Prevention of Sexual Assault: Prevention in Peer and Community Contexts. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 10(2), 91-114. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838009334129
Dworkin, S. L., Treves-Kagan, S., & Lippman, S. A. (2013). Gender-transformative interventions to reduce HIV risks and violence with heterosexually-active men: a review of the global evidence. AIDS and Behavior, 17(9), 2845-2863. doi:10.1007/s10461-013-0565-2
Flood, M. (2019). Engaging Men and Boys in Violence Prevention. Palgrave Macmillan.
Flood, M. (2021). Sexual Violence Prevention with Men and Boys as a Social Justice Issue. In L. M. Orchowski & A. Berkowitz (Eds.), Engaging Boys and Men in Sexual Assault Prevention: Theory, Research and Practice: Elsevier.
Flood, M., Peacock, D., Stern, O., Barker, G., & Greig, A. (2010). World Health Organization Men and Gender Policy Brief: Policy approaches to involving men and boys in achieving gender equality and health equity. Johannesburg: Sonke Gender Justice Network.
Greig, A., & Flood, M. (2020). Work with Men and Boys for Gender Equality: A Review of Field Formation, Evidence Base and Future Directions. New York: UN Women.
ICRW. (2018). Gender Equity and Male Engagement: It Only Works When Everyone Plays. Washington DC: International Center for Research on Women.
Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Promundo-US, & Sonke Gender Justice. (2015). Lessons in good practice from work with men and boys for gender equality. Brighton, UK: EMERGE (Engendering Men – Evidence on Routes to Gender Equality).
Kato-Wallace, J., Barker, G., Garg, A., Feliz, N., Levack, A., Ports, K., & Miller, E. (2019). Adapting a Global Gender-Transformative Violence Prevention Program for the U.S. Community-Based Setting for Work with Young Men. Global Social Welfare, 6(2), 121-130. doi:10.1007/s40609-018-00135-y
McGraw, L. K. (2013). Challenging masculinities: A program analysis of male-based university sexual violence prevention programs. (Masters). Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.
MenEngage. (2018). The MenEngage Accountability Standards and Guidelines (2nd edition). Washington, D.C.: MenEngage.
MenEngage Alliance. (2019). Transforming Masculinities: Towards a Shared Vision. Washington, DC: MenEngage Alliance.
Nation, M., Crusto, C., Wandersman, A., Kumpfer, K. L., Seybolt, D., Morrissey-Kane, E., & Davino, K. (2003). What works in prevention: Principles of effective prevention programs. American Psychologist, 58(6-7), 449-456.
Pease, B. (2017). Men as Allies in Preventing Violence against Women: Principles and Practices for Promoting Accountability. Sydney: White Ribbon Australia.
Pulerwitz, J., Gottert, A., Betron, M., & Shattuck, D. (2019). Do’s and don’ts for engaging men & boys: Male Engagement Task Force, USAID Interagency Gender Working Group (IGWG).
Reigeluth, C. S., & Addis, M. E. (2021). Policing of Masculinity Scale (POMS) and pressures boys experience to prove and defend their “manhood”. Psychology of Men & Masculinities. doi:https://doi.org/10.1037/men0000318
Rosenberg, I. (2012). “A Lifetime of Activism”: doing feminist men’s work from a social justice paradigm. (Masters). University of British Columbia,
The Men’s Project, & Flood, M. (2018). The Man Box: A Study on Being a Young Man in Australia. Melbourne: Jesuit Social Services.
VicHealth. (2019). Healthier Masculinities Framework for Gender Equality: A framework to guide health promotion action when working with men and boys. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth).
Wells, L., Flood, M., Boutilier, S., Goulet, S., & Dozois, E. (2020). Supporting Best Practices: Guidelines For Funding Programs that Engage and Mobilize Men and Boys in Violence Prevention. Alberta, Canada: Shift: The Project to End Domestic Violence and Alberta Council of Women’s Shelters.
Zounlome, N. O. O., Wong, Y. J., Klann, E. M., & David, J. L. (2019). “I’m Already Seen as a Sexual Predator From Saying Hello”: Black Men’s Perception of Sexual Violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence(Epub ahead of print 24 September 2019). doi:10.1177/0886260519877942