Measures or scales of gender

Note: This section concentrates on measures of gender. For works focused on what such measures show, see e.g. the section on attitudes to gender and gender identity, and other sections focused on dimensions of gender other than attitudes.


Bardhan, Kalpana and Steven Klasen (1999). On UNDP’s Revisions to the Gender Related Development Index.

Berkel, L. (2004). A Psychometric Evaluation of the Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale with African Americans. Sex Roles, 50(9): 737-742.

Bigler, R. S. (1997). Conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of children’s sex typing. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(1): 53-69.

Blancas Peral, F. J., M. n. Domínguez Serrano, et al. (2008). An alternative approach to measuring gender inequality. Journal of Gender Studies, 17(4): 369-374.

Blazina, C., S. Pisecco, and J. M. O’neil. (2005). An Adaptation of the Gender Role Conflict Scale for Adolescents: Psychometric Issues and Correlates With Psychological Distress. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 6(1), 39–45.

Braun, M. (2008). Using Egalitarian Items to Measure Men’s and Women’s Family Roles. Sex Roles, 59(9): 644-656.

Hausmann, Ricardo, Laura D. Tyson, and Saadia Zahidi (2007). The Global Gender Gap Report. Geneva: World Economic Forum.

Hill, D., and B. Willoughby. (2005). The Development and Validation of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale. Sex Roles. 53: 531-544.

McGhee, M. R., N. Johnson and J. Liverpool (2001). Assessing Psychometric Properties of the Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale (SRES) with African Americans. Sex Roles, 45(11): 859-866.

McHugh, M. C. and I. H. Frieze (1997). The Measurement of Gender-Role Attitudes: A Review and Commentary. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(1): 1-16.

Moradi, B., J. Yoder and L. Berendsen (2004). An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Womanist Identity Attitudes Scale. Sex Roles, 50(3): 253-266.

Moser, Annalisa. (2007). Gender and Indicators Overview Report. Brighton: BRIDGE.

Nelson, M. C. (1988). Reliability, validity, and cross-cultural comparisons for the simplified attitudes toward women scale. Sex Roles, 18(5): 289-296.

Parpart, Jane L. M. Patricia Connelly, and V. Eudine Barriteau Eds. (2000). Theoretical Perspectives on Women and Development. Ottawa: IDRC.

Simoni, J. M., N. M. Henley and C. S. Christie (1999). A Lesbian Feminist Subscale for the Feminist Perspectives Scale. Sex Roles, 41(11): 833-850.

Swim, J. K. and L. L. Cohen (1997). Overt, covert, and subtle sexism: A comparison between the Attitudes Toward Women and Modern Sexism Scales. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(1): 103-118.

Swim, J. K., R. Mallett, Y. Russo-Devosa and C. Stangor (2005). Judgments Of Sexism: A Comparison Of The Subtlety Of Sexism Measures And Sources Of Variability In Judgments Of Sexism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29(4): 406-411.

Tolman, D. L. and M. V. Porche (2000). The Adolescent Femininity Ideology Scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24(4): 365-376.

UNDP (1995). Measuring Gender Inequality. Human Development Report 1995. New York: UNDP.

Vickberg, S., and K. Deaux. (2005). Measuring the Dimensions of Women’s Sexuality: The Women’s Sexual Self-Concept Scale. Sex Roles. 53: 361-369.