Same-sex parenting: What does the research say about outcomes?

There is debate in Australia and elsewhere about same-sex marriage and civil rights and, as part of this, about the impact of same-sex parenting for example on children. What does the research say? Here, we have collected key recent overviews on this area. They are listed below, and the full text of each piece is available below.

Also see this list of further references on same-sex parenting:

  • American Psychological Association. (2004). APA Policy Statement on Sexual Orientation, Parents, and Children. Adopted July 2004.
  • American Psychological Association. (2005). Lesbian and gay parenting. Washington: American Psychological Association.
  • Dempsey, D. (2013). Same-sex parented families in Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies Melbourne.
  • Fitzgerald, Bridget. (1999). Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents: A review of the literature. Marriage & Family Review, 29(1).
  • McCann, Damian, and Howard Delmonte. (2005). Lesbian and gay parenting: babes in arms or babes in the woods? Sexual and Relationship Therapy, Volume 20 Number 3, August.
  • Manning, W. D., Fettro, M. N., & Lamidi, E. (2014). Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief. Population Research and Policy Review, 33(4), 485-502. doi:10.1007/s11113-014-9329-6
  • Millbank, Jenni. (2003). From here to maternity: A review of the research on lesbian and gay families. Australian Journal of Social Issues, v.38 no.4 Nov.: pp. 541-600.
  • Stacey, J., and T.J. Biblarz. (2001). (How) Does the Sexual Orientation of Parents Matter? American Sociological Review, 66(2), pp. 159-183.