This paper examines young heterosexual men’s participation in unsafe sex. A qualitative study of young heterosexual Australian men’s understandings and practices of safe and unsafe sex, involving in-depth interviews conducted with 17 men aged between 18 and 26, found that five principal themes recur in young men’s accounts for the non-use of condoms.

While program experimentation targeting men has mushroomed in many parts of the world, operations research that examines the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of genderbased approaches has been limited. In response to this gap, the Horizons Program, together with partner organizations, is undertaking important programmatic research among young men in three countries. The research seeks to better understand the linkages between gender norms and HIV risk behaviors, and to determine whether the interventions that are developed using this information make a difference in the lives of young men and their partners. This issue of the Horizons Report describes emerging findings from studies in Brazil, Tanzania (page 7), and India (page 10).

AVSC International and the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region were the co-sponsors of the Symposium on Male Participation in Sexual and Reproductive Health: New Paradigms. Both organizations agreed that it would be useful for participants to have a summary of studies and published research about gender equity and male participation in sexual and reproductive health in Latin America, with an annotated bibliography, as a preparatory document for the symposium. This study reflects the co-sponsors’ commitment to compiling and sharing current knowledge about men and their participation in the relatively new and constantly expanding field of sexual and reproductive health.

Men’s reproductive responsibilities received global attention at the International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo 1994) and at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing 1995). It was during these two meetings that men and women throughout the world agreed to work to achieve the objective of sustainable development. They reaffirmed the connection between population and development and the understanding that gender equality, together with men’s participation in reproduction and paternity, are essential components for sustainable development.

This Implementation Guide illustrates examples of how to develop, implement, and evaluate reproductive health (RH) programs that involve men with a gender-sensitive perspective – that is, in ways that promote gender equity and improve health outcomes for men and women. These program examples were presented at the conference, Reaching Men to Improve Reproductive Health for All, held in Dulles, Virginia in September 2003.

EngenderHealth’s Men As Partners (MAP) program is a global initiative designed to work with men on reproductive health issues within a gender framework. This manual is designed to be used by PPASA MAP educators to lead workshops with groups of men and mixed-gender groups. The manual is intended for MAP master trainers: skilled individuals who would use it to train and supervise selected life skills educators to implement MAP activities with the public.
This 150-page toolkit (a joint UNFPA and Promundo publication) serves to reinforce the benefits of working with young men and provides conceptual and practical information on how to design, implement and evaluate HIV/AIDS prevention activities which incorporate a gender perspective and engage young men and relevant stakeholders.

Boys in the Picture (2000) is an advocacy document that stresses the importance of including boys in programming for adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This 32-page overview is in four languages. As it concludes, "Making a case for increasing attention to the health, development and wellbeing of adolescent boys and young men is necessary and timely. Increasing the attention to boys is a matter of gender equity and benefits accrue not only to adolescent boys and young men, but also to adolescent girls, women, children, men and communities."

The seven countries of the EC/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia (RHI) have a combined population of more than 424 million. Whilst approximately half of the population is male, their influence in families, relationships and communities is dis-proportionally high. Certain traditions dictate that women are subjected to the decisions of men, pervading almost all areas of their lives. The realisation of this dominance – followed by an appropriate translation into RH programmes – is of vital importance in view of women’s control over their sexuality and reproductive health.

This publication is a companion to Instituto Promundo's Young Men and HIV Prevention: A toolkit for action. It offers a series of tools adapted from various research for young men's reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention needs, from exploring gender identities in workshops to checklists for clinics.

This literature review on men, gender and HIV and AIDS has been carried out in conjunction with a number of policy initiatives that Sonke Gender Justice Network has been involved in over the last 18 months. A growing body of evidence also suggests that men are far less likely than women to access HIV services including testing, treatment and other care and support services. Men’s under-utilisation of HIV services significantly undermines prevention and