As numerous studies have shown, modern social reality imposes multiple complex and contradictory demands upon both men and women. The first decade of the new century has seen the creation of new challenges that have an impact on gender relations. The range of possible models for masculinity has broadened; it has become more difficult to fulfil the traditional “male duties” of a protector and breadwinner. On the one hand, we are seeing indications pointing to a neo-patriarchy, a revival of a traditionalist, conservative ideology that emphasizes the dominant role of men both in society and within the family. On the other hand, there are whole groups of young women who are growing more active and independent; these women are ready to compete with men on the labour market and are seeking relationships based on equality in the private sphere, undermining the foundations of traditional masculinity.