Short introductions to scholarship on men and masculinities and the terms ‘masculinity’ and ‘masculinities’

Note: Also see the texts above on debates regarding the terms ‘masculinity’ and ‘hegemonic masculinity’.


Beynon, John. (2002). What is Masculinity? Chapter 1 in Masculinities and Culture. Buckingham; Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Connell, R. W. (1995).  The social organization of masculinity.  Chapter 3 in Connell’s Masculinities (pp. 67-86, 249-250).  Berkeley: University of California Press.

Connell, R.W. (2000). New directions in theory and research. Chapter 2 in The Men and the Boys  (pp. 15-36).  Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

Gardiner, Judith Kegan. (2002). Introduction. In Judith Gardiner, (ed.) Masculinity Studies and Feminist Theory: New Directions. Columbia University Press.

Kimmel, Michael. (2004). Masculinities. In Michael Kimmel and Amy Aronson (Eds.). Men & Masculinities: A social, cultural, and historical encyclopedia, Vol. II (pp. 503-507). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC Clio.

Hearn, Jeff. (2007) Masculinity/Masculinities. In The International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities. Ed. M. Flood, J.K. Gardiner, B. Pease, and K. Pringle. Taylor & Francis.

Kimmel, Michael S., and Michael Messner. (1998). Introduction. In Michael S. Kimmel and Michael Messner, (eds). Men’s Lives. New York/Toronto: Macmillan/Maxwell (4th edition).

Whitehead, Stephen M., and Frank J. Barrett. (2001). The Sociology of Masculinity. In Stephen M. Whitehead and Frank J. Barrett, (eds). The Masculinities Reader (pp. 1-26). Cambridge: Polity Press.