Note: Also see references on violence, including child sexual assault, below. This list includes resources both for men and women.
Working with male victims and survivors in particular
Benedict, Helen. (1985). Men Get Raped Too!. In Recovery: How to Survive Sexual Assault, for Women, Men, Teenagers, Their Friends and Families. New York: Doubleday & Co.
Breer, William. (1992). Diagnosis and Treatment of the Young Male Victim of Sexual Abuse. Springfield, Illinois: Clark Thomas.
Bruckner, Debra, and Peter Johnson. (1987). Treatment for Adult Male Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 68(2), pp. 81-87.
Camino, Lisa. (1999). Treating Sexually Abused Boys: A Guide for Therapists & Counselors. Jossey-Bass.
Cheung, M., Leung, P., & Tsui, V. (2009). Asian male domestic violence victims: Services exclusive for men. Journal of family violence, 24(7), 447-462.
Dawson, Chris. (1998). Adult Male Survivor Groups. DVIRC Newsletter (Melbourne), Spring
Dawson, Chris. (1998). Dealing With Their Healing: Group Work With Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse. Community Quarterly, No. 46, June
Friedrich, William N. (1995). Psychotherapy With Sexually Abused Boys: An Integrated Approach, Rochester: Sage (Interpersonal Violence: The Practice Series, Volume 11).
Gartner, Richard B. (1999). Betrayed as Boys: Psychodynamic Treatment of Sexually Abused Men. New York: Guilford Press.
1. The Sexual Betrayal of Boys
2. Encoding Sexual Abuse as Sexual Initiation
3. Struggles about Masculinity
4. Same-Sex Abuse
5. The Familial and Cultural Context of Abuse
6. The Effect of Chronic Boundary Violations
7. Dissociation and Multiple Self-States
8. Intimate Relatedness
9. The Patient-Therapist Dyad
10. Gender and the Therapeutic Relationship / Shapiro, Sue A
11. Group Therapy
App. Cross-References to Personal Histories.
Gonsiorek, John C., Walter H. Bera, and Donald LeTourneau. (eds). (1994). Male Sexual Abuse: A Trilogy of Intervention Strategies. London: Sage.
Grubman-Black, Stephen D. (1990). Broken Boys/Healing Men: Recovery From Childhood Sexual Abuse. New York: Ivy Books.
Hepburn, J.M. (1994). Implications of Contemporary Feminist Theories of Development for the Treatment of Male Victims of Sexual Abuse. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, Volume 3 Issue 4, pp. 1-18.
Hunter, Mic. (ed.). (1990). The Sexually Abused Male, Vol. 1: Prevalence, Impact & Treatment. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Hunter, Mic. (ed.). (1990). The Sexually Abused Male, Vol. 2: Application of Treatment Strategies. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Kipnis, Aaron. (1999). Angry Young Men: How Parents, Teachers, and Counselors Can Help ‘Bad Boys’ Become Good Men. Jossey Bass Publishers.
Lew, Mike. (1993). Victims No Longer: A Guide for Men Recovering From Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse. London: Cedar, Mandarin Paperbacks (first Published 1988, Nevraumont Publ. Co.)
Lewer, Damien and Wildwood, Dez. (1992). A Group for Survivors. XY: Men, Sex, Politics, 2(2), Winter
Lisak, David and Luster, L. (1994). Educational, Occupational, and Relationship Histories of Men Who Were Sexually and/or Physically Abused as Children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, pp. 507-523.
Lisak, David. (1994). The Psychological Impact of Sexual Abuse: Content Analysis of Interviews With Male Survivors. Journal ofTraumatic Stress, 7, pp. 525-548.
Lisak, David. (1995). Integrating a Critique of Gender in the Treatment of Male Survivors of Childhood Abuse. Psychotherapy, 32, pp. 258-269.
Loewenstein, Richard and Putnam, Frank. (1990). The Clinical Phenomenology of Males With MPD: A Report of 21 cases. Dissociation, 3(3), pp. 135-143.
MacDonald, N. (2000). Understanding and working with young male survivors of sexual assault. Domestic Violence and Incest Resource Centre Newsletter, No. 2, Spring, pp. 3-12.
Maltz, Wendy and Holman, Beverly. (1987). Sexuality Concerns of Male Incest Survivors. In Incest and Sexuality: A Guide to Understanding and Healing. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
McMullen, Richie J. (1990). Male Rape: Breaking the Silence on the Last Taboo. London: Gay Men’s Press.
NRCDV. (2017). Serving Male-Identified Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence. National Resource Center on Domestic Violence.
Nice, Suzann, and Russell Forrest. (1990). Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Survivor’s Guide for Men. Hazelden.
O’Leary, Patrick. (1998). Liberation From Self-Blame: Working With Men Who Have Experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse. Dulwich Centre Journal, No. 4 (Also in Extending narrative therapy: a collection of practice-based papers. Adelaide, SA: Dulwich Centre Publications, 1999, p159-187).
O’Leary, Patrick. (2001). Working With Males Who Have Experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse. In Pease, Bob and Peter Camilleri. (eds). Working With Men in the Human Services. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Porter, Eugene. (1986). Treating the Young Male Victim of Sexual Assault: Issues and Intervention Strategies. Safer Society Press, Syracuse, NY.
Rogers, C.M., and T. Terry. (1984). Clinical Intervention With Boy Victims of Sexual Abuse. In Stuart, Irving R. and Green, Joanne G. (eds). Victims of Sexual Aggression: Treatment of Children, Women, and Men. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Respect. (2014). Respect briefing on working with male victims of domestic violence. London: London Violence Against Women and Girls Consortium. Respect UK. (2019). Respect Toolkit for Work with Male Victims of Domestic Abuse.
Respect UK. (2020). The Respect Male Victims’ Standard.
Russell, Wynne Russell, Alastair Hilton, and Michael Peel. (2010). Care and Support of Male Survivors of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence: Background Paper.
Sanders, Timothy. (1992). Male Survivors: A 12 Step Recovery Programme for Survivors of Childhood and Sexual Abuse. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press.
Satullo, Jane A.W., Roberto Russell, and Pat A. Bradway. (year?). It Happens to Boys Too. Rape Crisis Centre of Berkshire County, Pittsfield, Massachusetts.
Scarce, Michael. (1996). Same Sex Rape of Male College Students. Journal of American College Health, January.
Singer, Ken. (1989). Group Work With Men Who Experienced Incest in Childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, pp. 468-472.
Sonkin, Daniel Jay. (l992). Wounded Boys, Heroic Men: A Man’s Guide to Recovering From Child Abuse. Longmeadow Press.
Stott, Sarah. (2001). Out of the Shadows: Help for Men Who Have Been Sexually Assaulted. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
Stringer, Gayle M., and Deanna Rants-Rodriguez. (1989). So What’s It To Me? Sexual Assault Information for Guys. King County Sexual Assault Resource Centre.
Struve, Jim. (1989). Treatment of the Sexually Abused Male. Ridgeview Institute Insight (Atlanta, GA.), X(2), pp. 25-31.
Thomas, Tim. (1989). Men Surviving Incest: A Male Survivor Shares the Process of Recovery. Walnut Creek, CA: Launch Press.
Tower, Cynthia Crosson. (1988). Why do I Feel the Way I Do? A Man’s Perspective. In Secret Scars: A Guide for Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Richmond VIC: Penguin Books.
Wilson, Stephen. (1992). Boys Don’t Cry: Working With Sexually Abused Young Men. Victoria: Department of Health and Community Services, Supported Accomodation Assistance Program.
Working with victims and survivors
Agtuca, Jacqueline R. (1994). A Community Secret: For the Filipina in an Abusive Relationship. Seattle: Seal Press.
Alcoff, Linda, and Laura Gray. (1992). Survivor Discourse: Transgression or Recuperation?. Women’s Studies International Forum, 15(2).
Andrews, J. (1994). Beyond Closed Doors: Growing Beyond an Abused Childhood. Melbourne: David Lovell Publishing.
Armstrong, L. (1991). Surviving the Incest Industry. Trouble and Strife, 21.
Bass, Ellen, and Laura Davis. (1993). Beginning to Heal: The First Book for Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. New York: HarperCollins.
Bass, Ellen, and Laura Davis. (1993). The Courage to Heal: A Guide for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. (3rd edition) Sydney: Harper & Row.
Bear, E., and Peter Dimock. (1988). Adults Molested as Children: A Survivor’s Manual for Men and Women. Orwell, VT: Safer Society Press.
Bergen, Raquuel Kennedy. (1996). Wife Rape: Understanding the Response of Survivors and Service Providers. Sage.
Bowker, Lee. (1986). Ending the Violence: A Guidebook Based on the Experiences of One Thousand Battered Wives. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.
Braaf, Rochelle. (2008) Evaluating domestic and family violence programs and services. Australian Domestic and Family Violence Clearinghouse Newsletter, 31, February: 5-8.
Brady, Maureen. (1992). Beyond Survival: A Writing Journal for Healing Childhood Sexual Abuse. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Breckenridge, Jan, and Lesley Laing. (eds). (1999). Challenging Silence: Innovative Responses to Sexual and Domestic Violence. Sydney: Allen & Unwin
Burstow, Bonnie. (1992). Radical Feminist Therapy: Working in the Context of Violence. Sage.
Chaplin, Jocelyn. (1988). Feminist Counselling in Action. Sage.
Cruz, Francisco G., and Lana Essen. (1994). Adult Survivors of Childhood Emotional Physical and Sexual Abuse: Dynamic Treatment. Northvale, NJ: J. Aronson.
Davies, K. (1994). When Innocence Trembles: The Christian Brothers Orphanage Tragedy. Angust & Robertson.
Davis, Laura. (1990). The Courage to Heal Workbook for Women and Men Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. New York: Harper & Row.
Davis, Laura. (1991). Allies in Healing: When the Person You Love was Sexually Abused as a Child. New York: Harper Perennial.
Davis, Nancy. (1990). Therapeutic Stories to Heal Abused Children. Oxon Hill, MD: Psychological Associates of Oxon Hill.
Doyle, Celia. (1997). Working With Abused Children. Macmillan (2nd edition).
Draucker, Claire Burke. (1992). Counselling Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Durrant, M., and C. White. (eds). Ideas for Therapy With Sexual Abuse. Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Publications.
Edleson, Jeffrey L., and Zvi C. Eisikovits. (eds). (1996). Future Interventions With Battered Women and Their Families. Sage.
Fredrickson, Renee. (1992). Repressed Memories: A Journey to Recovery From Sexual Abuse. New York: S&S Trade.
Gil, Eliana. (1983). Outgrowing the Pain: A Book for and About Adults Abused as Children. San Francisco: Launch.
Gil, Eliana. (1992). Outgrowing the Pain Together: A Book for Spouses and Partners of Adults Abused as Children. New York: Dell.
Gondolf, Edward. (1980). Psychiatric Responses to Family Violence: Identifying and Confronting Neglected Danger. Lexington, MA: Lexington.
Gondolf, Edward. (1989). Man Against Woman: What Every Woman Should Know About Violent Men. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TAB/McGraw Hill.
Goodman, L. A., Cattaneo, L. B., Thomas, K., Woulfe, J., Chong, S. K., & Smyth, K. F. (2015). Advancing domestic violence program evaluation: Development and validation of the Measure of Victim Empowerment Related to Safety (MOVERS). Psychology of Violence, 5(4), 355.
Goodman, L. A., Thomas, K., Cattaneo, L. B., Heimel, D., Woulfe, J., & Chong, S. K. (2016). Survivor-defined practice in domestic violence work: Measure development and preliminary evidence of link to empowerment. Journal of interpersonal violence, 31(1), 163-185.
Goodman, Marilyn Shear, and Beth Creager Fallon. (1995). Pattern Changing for Abused Women: An Educational Program. Sage.
Hall, Liz, and Siobhan Lloyd. (1993). Surviving Child Sexual Abuse: A Handbook For Helping Women Challenge Their Past. (2nd edition) Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis.
Halpern, Judith. (1987). Family Therapy in Father-Son Incest: A Case Study. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 68(2), pp. 88-93.
Hansen, Marsali, and Michele Harway. (eds). (1993). Battering and Family Therapy: A Feminist Perspective. Sage.
Hennekens, Candace. (1991). Healing Your Life: Recovery From Domestic Violence. Pro Writing Services and Press.
Herman, Judith. (1992). Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence, From Domestic Abuse to Political Terror. New York: Basic Books.
Hunter, Mic. (ed.). (1995). Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Treatment Innovations. Sage.
Hunter, Mic. (ed.). (1995). Child Survivors and Perpetrators of Sexual Abuse: Treatment Innovations. Sage.
Johanek, Michael F. (1988). Treatment of Male Victims of Child Sexual Abuse in Military Service. In Sgroi, S.M. (ed.). Vulnerable Populations, Vol. 2, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, pp. 103-113.
Johnson, Kathryn M. (1985). If You Are Raped: What Every Women Needs to Know. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.
Jones, Ann, and Susan Schechter. (1992). When Love Goes Wrong: Strategies for Women With Controlling Partners. New York: Harper Collins.
Jones, Elsa. (1992). Working With Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.
Katz, Judy H. (1984). No Fairy Godmothers, No Magic Wands: The Healing Process After Rape. California: R & E.
Kelly, L. (1988). From Politics to Pathology: The Medicalisation of the Impact of Rape and Child Sexual Abuse. Radical Community Medicine, 36, pp. 14-18.
Kelly, Liz, Sheila Burton, and Linda Regan. (1996). Beyond Victim or Survivor: Sexual Violence, Identity and Feminist Theory and Practice. In Adkins, Lisa and Mercant, Vicki. (eds). Sexualizing the Social: Power and the Organization of Sexuality, Hampshire & London: Macmillan.
Kelly, Liz. (1988). Surviving Sexual Violence. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Kilgore, Nancy. (1992). Sourcebook for Working With Battered Women. Volcano, CA: Volcano Press.
Kirkwood, Cathy. (1993). Leaving Abusive Partners: From the Scars of Survival to the Wisdom for Change. Sage.
Kirschner, Sam et. al. (1993). Working With Adult Incest Survivors: The Healing Journey. New York: Brunner-Mazel.
Kitzinger, Jenny. (1993). Sexual Violence and Compulsory Heterosexuality. In Wilkinson, Sue and Kitzinger, Celia. (eds). Heterosexuality: A Feminism and Psychology Reader. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Koss, Mary P., et al. (1991). The Rape Victim: Clinical and Community Interventions. 2d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lee, Sharice A. (1995). The Survivor’s Guide: For Teenage Girls Surviving Sexual Abuse. Sage.
Macy, R. J., Ogbonnaya, I. N., & Martin, S. L. (2015). Providers’ perspectives about helpful information for evaluating domestic violence and sexual assault services: A practice note. Violence against women, 21(3), 416-429.
Maltz, Wendy. (1992). The Sexual Healing Journey: A Guide for Survivors of Sexual Abuse. New York: HarperCollins.
Maxwell, Judith. (1993). Full Circle: A Support Group Guidebook for Battered Women. Phase II Manual, Mt. Vernon, WA: Veda Vanguard Foundation.
Mayer, M. (2019). Coping with date rape and acquaintance rape. New York, NY: Rosen Publishing.
McEvoy, Alan W. and Brookings, Jeff B. (1984). If She is Raped: A Book for Husbands, Fathers and Male Friends. Kalamazoo, Mich: Learning Publications.
McOrmond-Plummer, Louise, Patricia Easteal, and Jennifer Levy-Peck (eds.) (2013) Intimate Partner Sexual Violence: A multidisciplinary guide to improving services and support for survivors of rape and abuse. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London.
Mejia, X.E. (2005). Gender matters: Working with adult male survivors of trauma. Journal Of Counseling And Development, 83(1): pp. 29-40, Winter.
Mendel, Matthew Parynik. (1994). The Male Survivor: The Impact of Sexual Abuse. London: Sage.
Mezey, Gillian C. and King, Michael B. (eds). (1992). Male Victims of Sexual Assault. Oxford/New York: OUP.
Milner, Judith and Blyth, Eric. (1989). Coping With Child Sexual Abuse: A Guide for Teachers. London: Longman.
Mollon, Phil. (1998). Remembering Trauma: A Psychotherapist’s Guide to Memory and Illusion. Jacaranda Wiley.
National Sexual Violence Resource Center. (2018). Serving teen survivors: A manual for advocates. Harrisburg, PA: Author.
NiCarthy, Ginny and Davidson, Sue. (1989). You Can Be Free: An Easy-To-Read Handbook for Abused Women. Seattle: Seal Press.
NiCarthy, Ginny. (1986). Getting Free: A Handbook for Women in Abusive Relationships. Seattle, WA: Seal Press.
NiCarthy, Ginny. (1987). The Ones Who Got Away: Women Who Left Abusive Partners. Seal Press.
Parrot, Andrea and Laurie Bechhofer. (eds.). (1991). Acquaintance Rape: The Hidden Crime. Rev. 1995. New York: Wiley.
Parrot, Andrea. (1993). Coping With Date Rape and Acquaintance Rape. Rev. edition. New York: Rosen Group.
Parrot, Andrea. (1999). Coping With Date Rape And Acquaintance Rape. Rev. ed. New York: Rosen Group.
Peled, Einat and Davis, Diane. (1995). Groupwork With Children of Battered Women: A Practitioner’s Manual. Sage.
Peled, Einat, Jaffe, Peter G. and Edleson, Jeffrey L. (eds). (1995). Ending the Cycle of Violence: Community Responses to Children of Battered Women. Sage.
Pendergrast, Mark. (1996). Victims of Memory: Sex Abuse Accusations and Shattered Lives. 2d ed. Hinesburg, VT: Upper Access, Inc.
Pierce-Baker, Charlotte. (1998). Surviving The Silence: Black Women’s Stories of Rape. New York: Norton.
Portwood, Pamela et. al. (1988). Rebirth of Power: Overcoming the Effects of Sexual Abuse Through the Experience of Others. Racine, WI: Mother Courage.
Purdy, J. He Will Never Remember: Caring for Victims of Child Abuse.
Putt, J., Holder, J., & O’Leary, C. (2017). Developing outcome measures for crisis support and intervention: A summary of lessons learnt by women’s specialist domestic and family violence services from a research project. Sydney, NSW: ANROWS.
Queer Press Collective. (eds). (1991). Loving in Fear: An Anthology of Lesbian and Gay Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse. Toronto: Queer Press.
Resick, Patricia A. and Schnicke, Monica K. (1993). Cognitive Processing Therapy for Rape Victims: A Treatment Manual. London: Sage.
Rivas C, Vigurs C, Cameron J, Yeo L. A realist review of which advocacy interventions work for which abused women under what circumstances. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD013135. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013135.pub2
Roberts, Albert R. (ed.). (1997). Helping Battered Women. Oxford University Press.
Robinson, L., & Spilsbury, K. (2008). Systematic review of the perceptions and experiences of accessing health services by adult victims of domestic violence. Health & social care in the community, 16(1), 16-30.
Roth, Susan and Batson, Ronald. (1997). Naming the Shadows: A New Approach to Individual and Group Psychotherapy for Adult Survivors of Childhood Incest. The Free Press.
Russell, Janice. (1993). Out of Bounds: Sexual Exploitation in Counselling and Therapy. Sage.
Ryan, Gail. (1989). Victim to Victimiser: Rethinking Victim Treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4(3), September.
Salter, Anna C. (1995). Transforming Trauma: A Guide to Understanding and Treating Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Sage.
Sanford, Linda T. (1991). Strong at the Broken Places: Overcoming the Trauma of Childhood Abuse. London: Virago.
Schave, Barbara. (1993). Forgotten Memories: A Journey Out of the Darkess of Sexual Abuse. Westport, Conneticut: Praeger.
Schmidt, K. Louise. (1996). Transforming Abuse: Nonviolent Resistance and Recovery. Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers.
Scott, Desley, Lyn Walker, and Kate Gilmore. (1990). Breaking the Silence: A Guide to Supporting Victims/Survivors of Sexual Assault. Carlton, VIC: CASA House.
Sexual Assault Referral Centre (WA). (1999). Surviving Sexual Assault, (film).
Sipe, Beth, and Evelyn J. Hall. (1996). I Am Not Your Victim: Anatomy of Domestic Violence. Sage.
Stuart, Irving R., and Joanne G. Green. (eds). (1984). Victims of Sexual Aggression: Treatment of Children, Women, and Men. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Sullivan, C. M. (2011). Evaluating domestic violence support service programs: Waste of time, necessary evil, or opportunity for growth?. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16(4), 354-360.
Sullivan, C. M., & Goodman, L. A. (2019). Advocacy With Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: What It Is, What It Isn’t, and Why It’s Critically Important. Violence Against Women, 25(16), 2007-2023. doi:10.1177/1077801219875826
Swenson, C. C., and M. Chaffin. (2006). Beyond psychotherapy: Treating abused children by changing their social ecology. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11(2): 120-137.
Sydney Rape Crisis Centre. (1990). Surviving Rape: A Handbook to Help Women Become Aware of the Reality of Rape. (2nd edition), Redfern Legal Centre Publishing.
Tayton, S., Kaspiew, R., Moore, S., and Campo, M. (2014). Groups and communities at risk of domestic violence and family violence: a review and evaluation of domestic and family prevention and early intervention services focusing on at-risk groups and communities. Australian Institute of Family Studies.
Thomas, Tim. (1990). Surviving With Serenity: Daily Meditations for Incest Survivors. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications.
Valentine, K., & Breckenridge, J. (2016). Responses to family and domestic violence: supporting women?. Griffith Law Review, 25(1), 30-44.
Wakefield, Hollida. (1994). Return of the Furies: An Investigation Into Recovered Memory Therapy. Chicago: Open Court.
Walker, Moira. (1992). Surviving Secrets: The Experience of Abuse for the Child, the Adult and the Helper. Buckingham, PA: Open University Press.
Wathen, C. N., Harris, R. M., Ford-Gilboe, M., & Hansen, M. (2015). What counts? A mixed-methods study to inform evaluation of shelters for abused women. Violence against women, 21(1), 125-146.
Wattam, Corinne et.al (year?). Child Sex Abuse: Listening, Hearing and Validating the Experiences of Children.
Westmarland, N., & Alderson, S. (2013). The Health, Mental Health, and Well-Being Benefits of Rape Crisis Counseling. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(17), 3265-3282.
Whalen, Mollie. (1996). Counselling to End Violence Against Women: A Subversive Model. Sage.
White, Michael. (1995). Naming Abuse and Breaking From its Effects. In Re-authoring Lives: Interviews & Essays. Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Publications.
Wiehe, Vernon R., and Ann L. Richards. (1995). Intimate Betrayal: Understanding and Responding to the Trauma of Acquaintance Rape. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Wilson, Melba. (1994). Crossing The Boundary: Black Women Survive Incest. Seattle: Seal Press.
Xie, M., & Lynch, J. P. (2017). The effects of arrest, reporting to the police, and victim services on intimate partner violence. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 54(3), 338-378.