Measures or scales of masculinity


Chu, J. Y., M. V. Porche, and D. L. Tolman. (2005). The Adolescent Masculinity Ideology in Relationships Scale: Development and Validation of a New Measure for Boys. Men and Masculinities, 8(1): 93-115.

Doss, Brian D., and J. Roy Hopkins. (1998). The multicultural masculinity ideology scale: Validation from three cultural perspectives. Sex Roles, May, Vol. 38, Iss. 9/10.

Levant, R. F., and K. Richmond. (2007). A Review of Research on Masculinity Ideologies Using the Male Role Norms Inventory. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15(2).

Thompson, E.H., J.H. Pleck, and D.L. Ferrera. (1993). Men and Masculinities: Scales for Masculinity Ideology and Masculinity-Related Constructs. Sex Roles, 27(11/12), pp. 573-607.

Smiler, Andrew P. (2004). Thirty Years After the Discovery of Gender: Psychological Concepts and Measures of Masculinity. Sex Roles, 50 (1-2), pp. 15-26, January.


Further works

Brannon, R. (1985). A scale for measuring attitudes about masculinity. In A.G. Sargent (Ed.), Beyond Sex Roles (pp. 110-116). St. Paul, MN: West.

Choi, N., and D. R. Fuqua. (2003). The Structure of the Bem Sex Role Inventory: A Summary Report of 23 Validation Studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(5): 872-887.

Fassinger, Ruth E. (1994). Development and Testing of the Attitudes Toward Feminism And The Women’s Movement (FWM) Scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18(3): 389-402.

Fischer, Ann R., David M. Tokar, Glenn E. Good, and Andrea F. Snell. (1998). More on the Structure of Male Role Norms. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22(2): 135-155.

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1999). The Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23(3), 519-536.

Griffith, D. M., Gunter, K., & Watkins, D. C. (2012). Measuring masculinity in research on men of color: findings and future directions. American Journal of Public Health, 102(S2), S187-S194.

Harrison, A., L. O’Sullivan, S. Hoffman, C. Dolezal and R. Morrell. (2006). Gender Role and Relationship Norms among Young Adults in South Africa: Measuring the Context of Masculinity and HIV Risk. Journal of Urban Health, 83(4): 709-722.

Janey, Bradley A., Natalia V. Janey, Natasha Goncherova, and Vladimir Savchenk(2006). Masculinity Ideology in Russian Society: Factor Structure and Validity of the Multicultural Masculinity Ideology Scale. Journal of Men’s Studies, Vol. 14 Issue 1.

Levant, R. F., and K. Richmond. (2007). A Review of Research on Masculinity Ideologies Using the Male Role Norms Inventory. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15(2): 130.

Luyt, R. (2005). The Male Attitude Norms Inventory-II: A Measure of Masculinity Ideology in South Africa. Men and Masculinities, 8(2): 208-229.

Mahalik, J. R., Locke, B., Ludlow, L., Diemer, M., Scott, R. P. J., Gottfried, M., & Freitas, G. (2003). Development of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4, 3–25.

Mosher, D. L., and M. Sirkin. (1984). Measuring a macho personality constellation. Journal of Research in Personality, 18, 150-163.

Mosher, D. L., and R.D. Anderson. (1986). Macho personality, sexual aggression, and reactions to guided imagery of realistic rape. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 77-94.

Mosher, D. L., and S.S. Tomkins. (1988). Scripting the macho man: Hypermasculine socialization and enculturation. Journal of Sex Research, 25: 60-84.

Oransky, M., and C. Fisher. (2009). The development and validation of the meanings of adolescent masculinity scale. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 10(1): 57-72.

Pleck, J. H., F. L. Sonenstein, and L. C. Ku. (1994) Attitudes toward male roles among adolescent males: A discriminant validity analysis. Sex Roles, 30 (7/8): 481-501.

Pulerwitz, J., and G. Barker. (2008). Measuring Attitudes toward Gender Norms among Young Men in Brazil: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the GEM Scale. Men and Masculinities, 10(3): 322-338.

Smiler, A. (2006). Conforming to Masculine Norms: Evidence for Validity among Adult Men and Women. Sex Roles, 54(11): 767-775.

Smiler, A. (2006). Living the Image: A Quantitative Approach to Delineating Masculinities. Sex Roles, 55(9): 621-632.

Snell, W. E., Jr, Belk, S., & Hawkins, R., II. (1986). The stereotypes about male sexuality scale (SAMSS): Components, correlates, antecedents, consequences and counselor bias. Social and Behavioural Sciences Documents, 16(10).

Snell, W. E., Jr. (1998). The stereotypes about male sexuality scale. In C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, R. Bauserman, G. Schreer & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality related measures. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.

Thompson, E., H., and J. H. Pleck. (1986). The structure of male role norms. American Behavioral Scientist, 29, 531-543.

Vera, Wildredo, and Martin S. Fiebert. (1987). Validity of an Instrument Measuring Male Attitudes: The Traditional-Liberated Content Scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 65, pp. 437-38.