(x) Communications and social marketing strategies


Castelino, T., Colla, M. & Boulet, J. (2014). Social Marketing for Preventing Violence Against Women: Making every action matter - Literature Review for the Challenge Family Violence Project. Melbourne: Borderlands Cooperative.

Donovan, Robert J., and Rodney Vlais. (2005). VicHealth Review of Communication Components of Social Marketing / Public Education Campaigns Focused on Violence Against Women. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.

Fulu, E., A. Kerr-Wilson, and J. Lang (2014). What works to prevent violence against women and girls? Evidence Review of interventions to prevent violence against women and girls. Pretoria, South Africa: Medical Research Council, 51 pp.

Haskell, L. (2011). Key best practices for effective sexual violence public education campaigns: A summary. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.

Henley, N. (2004). Social marketing: “Selling” injury prevention. In R. McClure, M. Stevenson, & S. McEvoy (Eds.), The scientific basis of injury prevention and control (pp. 318–333). Melbourne, Australia: IP Communications.

Henley, N., Donovan, R. & Francas, M. (2007) Developing and implementing communication messages In Droll, S. et al, eds. Handbook of injury and violence prevention. New York: Springer.

Paluck, Elizabeth Levy, and Laurie Ball. (2010). Social norms marketing aimed at gender based violence: A literature review and critical assessment. New York: International Rescue Committee.


Note: For evaluations of social marketing, see here.

Further references 

Beres, M. A. (2018). The Proliferation of Consent-Focused Rape Prevention Social Marketing Materials. Orienting Feminism (pp. 181-196): Springer.

Blakeslee, K. M., Patel, D. M., & Simon, M. A. (eds.). (2012). Communications and Technology for Violence Prevention:: Workshop Summary. National Academies Press.

Boyko, J. A., Wathen, C. N., & Kothari, A. (2017). Effectively engaging stakeholders and the public in developing violence prevention messages. BMC Womens Health, 17(1), 35. doi:10.1186/s12905-017-0390-2

Cantor, J., & Wilson, B. J. (2003). Media and violence: Intervention strategies for reducing aggression. Media Psychology, 5(4), 363-403.

Cismaru M, and Lavack, A. (2011). Campaigns Targeting Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 12(4): 183-197.

Darnell, D. A., & Cook, S. L. (2009). Investigating the utility of the film War Zone in the prevention of street harassment. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33(3), 266-274.

Donovan, R.J., D. Paterson, and M. Francas. (1999). Targeting male perpetrators of intimate partner violence: Western Australia’s Freedom From Fear Campaign. Social Marketing Quarterly, 5: 127-144.

Donovan, R.J., M. Francas, D. Paterson, and R. Zapelli. (2000). Formative research for mass media-based campaigns: Western Australia’s Freedom From Fear Campaign targeting male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 10: 78-83.

Donovan, Robert J., Geoffrey Jalleh, Lynda Fielder, and Robyn Ouschan. (2008). When confrontational images may be counter productive: reinforcing the case for pre-testing communications in sensitive areas. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 19: 132-136.

Emily Joy Haas, Marifran Mattson, and Kathlyn Wilkinson. (2011). “Flirting is Not Consent. Ask Everyone, Every Time”: Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Health Communication Campaign to Prevent Sexual Violence. Cases in Public Health Communication and Marketing, 5(1): 47-54.

Flood, Michael. (2018). Educating Men Through Media. Chapter 7 in Engaging Men and Boys in Violence Prevention. Palgrave Macmillan. URL: https://xyonline.net/content/new-book-engaging-men-and-boys-violence-prevention.

Frisby, Cynthia M. (2009). M.A.N.L.Y MEN: Changing adolescent perceptions of masculinity and emotional expression: A market profile of the adolescent male market. Technical Report, Missouri School of Journalism.

Gabler, Ł. (2016). Men against Violence: Analysis of Social Awareness Campaigns in Poland. (Masters), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Gadd, D., Corr, M-L., Fox, C.L., and Butler, I. (2014). This is Abuse or Is it? Domestic abuse perpetrators’ responses to anti-domestic violence publicity. Crime, Media, Culture 10, no. 1: 3-32.

Gibbons, L. & Paterson, D. (2000) Freedom from fear campaign against domestic violence: an innovative approach to reducing crime. Paper to Reducing Criminality: Partnerships and Best Practice, Perth: Australian Institute of Criminology in association with the Western Australian Ministry of Justice, the Department of Local Government, the Western Australian Police Service and Safer WA, July 31 – August 1.

Goldrick-Jones, Amanda. (2004). The Ribbon and the Rose: Visual Rhetorics Against Violence to Women. Ethnologies, 26(1): 95-123.

Henley, N., Donovan, R. & Francas, M. (2007). Developing and implementing communication messages. In In L. S. Doll, S. Bonzo, J. Mercy, and D. Sleet (eds.), Handbook of Injury and Violence Prevention. New York: Springer.

Horsfall, Briony, Leah Bromfield, and Myfanwy McDonald. (2010). Are social marketing campaigns effective in preventing child abuse and neglect? NCPC Issues (National Child Protection Clearinghouse), No. 32.

Hudson, K. (2018). Preventing Child Sexual Abuse through Education: The Work of Stop It Now! Wales. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 24(1), 99-113.

Jansson, M., and M. Wendt, ‘“Heja Uffe!”. Så legitimeras mäns överordning’ [‘“Go, Uffe!”. How Men’s Domination is Legitimised’, my translation], Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift, vol. 4, 2006, p. 15.

Kantar Public and Our Watch. (2018). Tracking change: Snapshot evaluation findings for The Line campaign 2015 to 2017. Melbourne, VIC: Our Watch.

Kantar TNS. (2017). Tracking change: Midterm snapshot evaluation findings for The Line campaign. Melbourne: Our Watch.

Katz, J., Olin, R., Herman, C., & DuBois, M. (2013). Spotting the Signs: firstyear college students’ responses to bystanderthemed rape prevention posters. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(4), 523-529.

Keller, S. N., Wilkinson, T., & Otjen, A. J. (2010). Unintended effects of a domestic violence campaign. Journal of Advertising, 39(4), 53-68.

Keller, S.N., & Honea, J.C. (2015). Navigating the gender minefield: An IPV prevention campaign sheds light on the gender gap. Global Public Health: an International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice, [ahead-of-print]. DOI: 10.1080/17441692.2015.1036765.

Kemshall, H., & Moulden, H. M. (2017). Communicating About Child Sexual Abuse with the Public: Learning the Lessons from Public Awareness Campaigns. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 23(2), 124-138.

Kim, Allegra N. and Mina L. White. (2008). Evaluation of California’s MyStrength Campaign and MOST Clubs: Summary of Preliminary Findings on Attitudes and School Climate. California Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Prevention for Injury Control Branch.

Lacayo, V, Obregón, R & Singhal, A. (2008). Approaching social change as a complex problem in a world that treats it as a complicated one: The case of Puntos de Encuentro, Nicaragua. Investigación y Desarrollo, 16(2).

Lapsansky, C., & Chatterjee, J. S. (2013). Masculinity matters: using entertainment education to engage men in ending violence against women in India. Critical Arts, 27(1), 36-55.

Magaraggia, S., & Cherubini, D. (2017). Beyond bruised faces and invisible men? Changes in social advertising on male violence against women in Italy. Feminist Media Studies, 17(3), 440-456. doi:10.1080/14680777.2016.1234500

Mbilinyi, L.F., Zegree, J., Roffman, R.A., Walker, D., Neighbors, C., & Edleson, J. (2008). Development of a marketing campaign to recruit non-adjudicated and untreated abusive men for a brief telephone intervention. Journal of Family Violence, 23(5), 343-351. doi: 10.1007/s10896-008-9157-8

McCaughey, M., and N. King. (1995). Rape Education Videos: Presenting Mean Women Instead of Dangerous Men. Teaching Sociology, 23, 374-388.

Morton, C. R., & Elias, T. (2018). Next steps in campaign strategies to reduce teen dating violence: Examining media campaigns through the lens of “boy culture”. Cogent Social Sciences, 4(1), 1501877.

Noar, S. M. (2006). A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: Where do we go from here? Journal of Health Communication, 11(1): 21–42.

Ollis, D. (2017). The power of feminist pedagogy in Australia: vagina shorts and the primary prevention of violence against women. Gender and Education, 29(4), 461-475. doi:10.1080/09540253.2017.1321737

Point Research Ltd. (2010). An innovative approach to changing social attitudes around family violence in New Zealand: key ideas, insights and lessons learnt: The Campaign for Action on Family Violence. Point Research Ltd, New Zealand.

Potter, S. J. (2012). Using a multimedia social marketing campaign to increase active bystanders on the college campus. Journal of American College Health, 60(4), 282-295.

Potter, S. J., Moynihan, M. M., & Stapleton, J. G. (2011). Using social self-identification in social marketing materials aimed at reducing violence against women on campus. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(5), 971-990.

Potter, S.J., and J.G. Stapleton. (2011). Bringing in the target audience in bystander social marketing materials for communities: suggestions for practitioners. Violence Against Women, 17(6), 797-812.

Potter, S.J., and J.G. Stapleton. (2012). Translating sexual assault prevention from a college campus to a United States military installation: piloting the know-your-power bystander social marketing campaign. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(8): 1593-621.

Powell, A. (2011). Review of Bystander Approaches in Support of Preventing Violence Against Women. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth).

Randolph W, Viswanath K. (2004). Lessons learned from public health mass media campaigns: marketing health in a crowded media world. Annu Rev Public Health, 25: 419–437.

Rothman, E. F., Decker, M. R., & Silverman, J. G. (2006). Evaluation of a teen dating violence social marketing campaign: Lessons learned when the null hypothesis was accepted. New Directions for Evaluation, 2006(110), 33-44.

Solórzano I., Abaunza H., and C. Molina. (2000). Evaluación de impacto de la campaña contra las mujeres un desastre que los hombres si podemos evitar [Impact evaluation of the campaign “violence against women: a disaster we can prevent as men”]. Managua, CANTERA.

Sonenshein, S. (2012). Being a positive social change agent through issue selling. In: K. Golden-Biddle & J. Dutton (Eds.), Exploring positive social change in organization: building a theoretical and research foundation, (pp. 49-67). Routledge.

Stanley, N., Fell, B., Miller, P., Thomson, G., & Watson, J. (2012). Men’s talk: men’s understanding of violence against women and motivations for change. Violence against Women, 18, 1300–1318. doi:10.1177/1077801212470547

Swaim, R. C. and K. Kelly (2008). Efficacy of a Randomized Trial of a Community and School-based Anti-violence Media Intervention Among Small-town Middle School Youth. Prevention Science 9(3): 202-202-214.

Tellis, Gerard J. (2004). Effective advertising: Understanding when, how and why advertising works. Sage Publications, University of South Carolina.

Thomson, G., Stanley, N., & Miller, P. (2013). Give me ‘strength to change’: Insights into a social marketing campaign in the North of England. Primary Health Care Research and Development, 14, 350–359. doi:10.1017/S1463423612000473

Wallack, Laurence. (2000). The role of mass media in creating social capital: A new direction for public health. In B. D. Smedley & S. L. Syme (Eds.), Promoting health: Intervention strategies from social and behavioral research (pp. 337-365). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Wallack, Laurence. (2002). Public health, social change, and media advocacy. Social Marketing Quarterly, 8(2): 25-31.

Winkel, F. W., & De Kleuver, E. (1997). Communication Aimed at Changing Cognitions About Sexual Intimidation: Comparing the Impact of a Perpetrator-Focused Versus a Victim-Focused Persuasive Strategy. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12(4), 513-529.

Wood, Lisa, and Justine Leavy. (2006). Review of the Western Australian Freedom From Fear Campaign. Perth: Family and Domestic Violence Unit, Department for Community Development, WA.


Social norms campaigns

Berkowitz, Alan. (2005). An Overview of the Social Norms Approach. Chapter 13 in Lederman, LC & Stewart, LP (eds), Changing the Culture of College Drinking: A Socially Situated Health Communication Campaign. Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ.

Bruce, S. (2002). The “A Man” Campaign: Marketing Social Norms to Men to Prevent Sexual Assault. The Report on Social Norms. Working Paper #5, Little Falls, NJ: PaperClip Communications.

Fabiano, Patricia, H. Wesley Perkins, Alan Berkowitz, Jeffrey Linkenbach, and Christopher Stark. (2004). Engaging men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence Against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach. Journal of American College Health, 52(3), pp. 105-112.

Gidycz, C. A., L. M. Orchowski, and A. D. Berkowitz. (2011). Preventing Sexual Aggression Among College Men: An Evaluation of a Social Norms and Bystander Approach Intervention Program. Violence Against Women, 17(6): 720-42.

Hillenbrand-Gunn, T. L., Heppner, M. J., Mauch, P. A., & Park, H. J. (2010). Men as allies: The efficacy of a high school rape prevention intervention. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88(1), 43-51.

Kilmartin, C., T. Smith, A. Green, H. Heinzen, M. Kuchler, and D. Kolar (2008). A Real Time Social Norms Intervention to Reduce Male Sexism. Sex Roles, 59(3): 264-273.

Paluck, Elizabeth Levy, and Laurie Ball. (2010). Social norms marketing aimed at gender based violence: A literature review and critical assessment. New York: International Rescue Committee.

World Health Organization. (2009). Violence Prevention: The evidence. Geneva: World Health Organization. Briefing 3: Challenging norms.